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M4M 2 the Rescue of M2M - Eclipse DemoCamps Fall 2013

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M4M or Measure 4 Measure, ever since Shakespeare's play with the same name we know, people can be mistaken for one another. A Duke (like the beloved Java mascot) claims to be a monk, the head of a …

M4M or Measure 4 Measure, ever since Shakespeare's play with the same name we know, people can be mistaken for one another. A Duke (like the beloved Java mascot) claims to be a monk, the head of a dead pirate is presented to be that of the young hero. So can important information like Units of Measurement be misinterpreted. While humans reading 10°C, 10 C or 10 Degree Celsius, each of those could be interpreted and understood well enough. For M2M communication, unless a program is provided with a large glossary of alternate terms, only ONE of these would be acceptable.

This is where the Unified Code for Units of Measurement (UCUM) among similar approaches like UnitsML, SensorML or a few others are vital for error-free M2M transactions, not just between sensors or measurement devices, but also and especially vehicles or distributed devices.

OSGi Measurement has been around for some time (R3) but never gained as much momentum, as many other bundles of OSGi did. Except for very few use cases in the Embedded or Automotive sector it is practically unused and based on statements by its contributors in the OSGi Alliance to be considered legacy with no plans continue development.

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  • Enabling new access to and uses of data
  • Transcript

    • 1. M4M 2 the Rescue of M2M Standards for The Internet of Things Werner Keil Eclipse DemoCamp Stuttgart 6th December 2013
    • 2. Overview • Introduction • Sensors and Measurement • Historic IT Errors and Bugs • UOMo, Unit-API, UCUM • Demo • M2M • Sensor Web, SensorML • Use Cases, Framework, Protocols, Tools • Embedded Standards • Embedded Java Standards, Other Trends • Q&A 2 © 2007-2013 Creative Arts & Technologies
    • 3. Who am I? Werner Keil Twitter @wernerkeil • Consultant – Coach • Creative Cosmopolitan • Open Source Evangelist • Software Architect • Java Godfather • UOMo Project Lead • ETCS Guy … Email werner@catmedia.us 3 © 2007-2013 Creative Arts & Technologies
    • 4. Let the Games begin 4 © 2007-2013 Creative Arts & Technologies Images © Copyright 2007 Cyberslayer
    • 5. Measure for Measure Mistaking a Pirate… 5 © 2007-2013 Creative Arts & Technologies Images © Copyright 2011 Getty Images
    • 6. Measure for Measure For a hero of the story... 6 © 2007-2013 Creative Arts & Technologies Images © Copyright 2012 The Old Globe, San Diego CA
    • 7. Measure for Measure Mistaking a Duke… 7 © 2007-2013 Creative Arts & Technologies
    • 8. Measure for Measure For a friar... 8 © 2007-2013 Creative Arts & Technologies Images based on poster created for the Oregon Shakespeare Festival © 2011 by Jeff Rauch
    • 9. Type-Safety • Java does not have strongly typed base types (like e.g. Ada or Smalltalk). • This could change around Java 10 or 11 (based on Oracle Road Map and statements) • For performance reasons most developer prefer primitive types over objects in their interface. • Primitive type arguments can more easily lead to name clashes (methods with the same signature) or other problems (“Auto-Boxing”,…) 9 © 2007-2013 Creative Arts & Technologies
    • 10. What do these disasters have in common? • Patriot Missile The cause was an inaccurate calculation of the time since boot due to a computer arithmetic error. • Ariane 5 Explosion Floating point number which a value was converted from had a value greater than what would be represented by a 16 bit signed integer. • Gimli Glider (near disaster) Fuel loading was miscalculated through misunderstanding of the recently adopted Metric System, replacing the Imperial System in Canada 10 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
    • 11. What do these disasters have in common? • Mars Orbiter Preliminary findings indicate that one team used US/English units (e.g. inches, feet and pounds) while the other used metric units for a key spacecraft operation. • NASA lost a $125 million Mars orbiter because a Lockheed Martin engineering team used English units of measurement while the agency's team used the more conventional metric system for a key spacecraft operation • A credible source disclosed, there was a manual step with an outsourced person to convert these calculations between the different teams, and NASA budget cuts caused them to fire him and have the wrong, unpatched data transmitted!!! • This also underlines the added risk when 3rd party contractors are involved or projects are developed Offshore 11 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
    • 12. NASA “Star Wars” Initiative, 1983 23rd March 1983. Ronald Reagan announces SDI (or “Star Wars”): groundbased and space-based systems to protect the US from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. 12 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
    • 13. 1985 Mirror on underside of shuttle Big mountain in Hawaii 13 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies SDI Experiment: The Plan
    • 14. 1985 SDI Experiment: What really happened 14 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
    • 15. 1985: Why it happened? 15 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
    • 16. Unit Tests wouldn„t find these… Despite their name • All previous examples illustrate three categories of errors difficult to find through Unit Testing: • Interface Errors (e.g. millisecond/second, radian/degree, meters/feet). • Arithmetic Errors (e.g. overflow). • Conversion Errors. 16 © 2007-2013 Creative Arts & Technologies Images © Copyright, American Shakespeare Center
    • 17. Causes of Conversion Errors • Ambiguity on the unit • Gallon Dry / Gallon Liquid - Gallon US / Gallon UK • Day Sidereal / Day Calendar • Foot in various regions, at least historically, see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_obsolete_units_of_measurement#Fu.C3. 9F_.28foot.29 • Degree Celsius / Degree Fahrenheit • Did you know that Gabriel Fahrenheit was born in Gdansk (Danzig) in northern Poland? • … • Wrong conversion factors: static final double PIXEL_TO_INCH = 1 / 72; double pixels = inches * PIXEL_TO_INCH 17 © 2007-2013 Creative Arts & Technologies
    • 18. What else do they have in common? ALL OF THEM HAPPENED IN MOBILE, REAL TIME OR EMBEDDED SYSTEMS! 18 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
    • 19. OSGi Measurement Package • Namespace: org.osgi.util.measurement • SI only Unit API “in the closet” • Unit Essentially an SI singleton holding relevant unit constants, too. • Measurement Represents a value with an error, a unit and a time-stamp. • State Groups a state name, value and timestamp. • Some usage, e.g. by Automotive ► no further development by OSGi 19 © 2007-2013 Creative Arts & Technologies
    • 20. JSR-256 Mobile Sensor API • Namespace: javax.microediton.sensor* • Focusing on Sensors, but it got a minimalistic Unit API “in the closet” • Unit Essentially an SI singleton holding relevant unit constants, too. JavaDoc: http://pandora.la/java/javadocs/sensor/javax/microedition/sensor/Unit.html • ChannelInfo Holding name, accuracy, data type,measurement ranges, scale and unit • MeasurementRange Range of possible values from minimum to maximum ► Dead Meat (few actual handsets and no vendors except Nokia still use it, nor does Java ME Embedded) 20 © 2007-2013 Creative Arts & Technologies
    • 21. JSR-275 Units Specification • Namespace: javax.measure.* • Only one interface and one abstract class • public interface Measurable<Q extends Quantity> • public abstract class Measure<V, Q extends Quantity> • Three sub-packages • quantity (holds dimensions mass, length) • unit (holds the SI and NonSI units) • converter (holds unit converters) 21 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
    • 22. JSR-275 Users and popular Downstream Projects • JScience • Groovy/Grails • DSLs e.g. for Healthcare • GeoAPI (OGC standard) and implementations, e.g. • uDig (see slide 32) • Parfait • Java Monitoring, part of Performance Co-Pilot (PCP) •… 22 © 2007-2013 Creative Arts & Technologies
    • 23. The King is Dead… Walking Units of Measurement API • Namespace: org.unitsofmeasurement.* • Only interfaces (and exception classes) • public interface Quantity<Q extends Quantity<Q>> • public interface Unit<Q extends Quantity<Q>> • Three sub-packages • quantity (holds dimensions mass, length,...) • unit (holds units) • service (holds services) 23 © 2007-2013 Creative Arts & Technologies
    • 24. Eclipse UOMo One Small Step…
    • 25. Eclipse UOMo One Unit Framework to Measure them All • Namespace: org.eclipse.uomo.* • Two main areas • Static Type Safe Units of Measure Support • Based on Units of Measurement API • On top of ICU4J, the Globalization standard at Eclipse and others (Android, GWT, Google Financial, etc.) • Prime UCUM Implementation • Successor to Eclipse OHF UCUM Bundle 25 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
    • 26. UOMo UCUM Unified Code for Units of Measure The Unified Code for Units of Measure is inspired by and heavily based on • ISO 2955-1983 • ANSI X3.50-1986 • HL7's extensions called ISO+ 26 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
    • 27. UOMo Business JSR 354 Implementation “Sisu” equivalent for 354 if you want • ICU4J based implementation of types like • CurrencyUnit • MonetaryAmount • CurrencyConverter • ExchangeRate • … • Bridge to Unit-API where possible for cross-quantity arithmetic (e.g. “$ per gram CO² per mile”) 27 © 2007-2013 Creative Arts & Technologies
    • 28. UOMo Examples DEMO
    • 29. Sensor Web | What is it? “A coordinated observation infrastructure composed of a distributed collection of resources that can collectively behave as a single, autonomous, task-able, dynamically adaptive and reconfigurable observing system that provides raw and processed data, along with associated meta-data, via a set of standards-based service-oriented interfaces.” (Glenn, 2007) 29 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
    • 30. Sensor Web | OpenGIS Standards • SW Enablement working group at OGC have developed a number of standards governing different aspects of Sensor Web OGC O&M Approved SensorML Sensor Model Language Approved TransducerML Transducer Model Language Approved OGC SOS Sensor Observations Service Approved OGC SPS Sensor Planning Service Approved OGC SAS Sensor Alert Service In progress OGC WNS 30 Observations & Measurements Web Notification Services In progress © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
    • 31. Sensor Web | LocationTech • uDig is a desktop application framework, built with Eclipse Rich Client (RCP) • Internet: supporting standards (WMS, WFS, WCS, KML) … • GIS: framework for spatial data exploration and analysis • Based on JSR-275 http://locationtech.org/projects/technology.udig 31 © 2006-2013 Creative Arts & Technologies , Eclipse Foundation, Inc. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
    • 32. Sensor Web | Mozambique floods • The task under study is floods in different parts of the world • Particular test case was flooding of Mozambique 32 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
    • 33. SensorML • Sensor modeling language is the cornerstone of all SW services • It provides comprehensive description of sensor parameters and capabilities • It can be used for describing different kind of sensors: – Stationary or dynamic – Remote or in-situ – Physical measurements or simulations 33 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
    • 34. SensorML | Example .............. <inputs> <InputList> <input name="ambiantTemperature"> <swe:Quantity definition= "urn:ogc:def:phenomenon:temperature"/> </input> <input name="atmosphericPressure"> <swe:Quantity definition= "urn:ogc:def:phenomenon:pressure"/> </input> <input name="windSpeed"> <swe:Quantity definition= "urn:ogc:def:phenomenon:windSpeed"/> </input> </InputList> </inputs> .............. 34 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies ............. <outputs> <OutputList> <output name="weatherMeasurements"> <swe:DataGroup> <swe:component name="time"> <swe:Time definition="urn:ogc:def:phenomenon:time“ uom="urn:ogc:def:unit:iso8601"/> </swe:component> <swe:component name="temperature"> <swe:Quantity definition="urn:ogc:def:phenomenon:temperature uom="urn:ogc:def:unit:celsius"/> </swe:component> <swe:component name="barometricPressure"> <swe:Quantity definition="urn:ogc:def:phenomenon:pressure“ uom="urn:ogc:def:unit:bar" scale="1e-3"/> </swe:component> <swe:component name="windSpeed"> <swe:Quantity definition="urn:ogc:def:phenomenon:windSpeed“ uom="urn:ogc:def:unit:meterPerSecond"/> </swe:component> </swe:DataGroup> </output> </OutputList> </outputs> .............
    • 35. M2M | Integrated Processes Public/Private Cloud Deployment Infrastructures Logistics Transportation & Logistics Security & Surveillance Internet of Things Communication Medical & Infrastructure Healthcare 35 © 2007-2013 Creative Arts & Technologies Eclipse Foundation, Inc. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0, Industrial & Energy
    • 36. M2M | Smart Container RFID e-Seal Example • Barrier-type bolt seal • RFID: ID-number + integrity • Bar code • Battery 1 year transmitting • 50 cycles • Range up to 50 meters • 915 MHz + 2.4 GHz • Data transmission rate 500 kbps • Storage 64 bytes 36 © 2005-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies, Prof. Jens Froese – TU Hamburg-Harburg
    • 37. M2M | MQTT Publish Subscribe Messaging A Publish Subscribe messaging protocol allowing a message to be published once and multiple consumers (applications / devices) to receive the message providing decoupling between the producer and consumer(s) A producer sends (publishes) a message (publication) on a topic (subject) A consumer subscribes (makes a subscription) for messages on a topic (subject) A message server / broker matches publications to subscriptions • If no matches the message is discarded • If one or more matches the message is delivered to each matching subscriber/consumer 37 © 2007-2013 Creative Arts & Technologies, Eclipse Foundation, Inc. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
    • 38. Embedded Standards | JSR-360, 361 • 2 new JSRs for Mobile and Embedded • JSR-360: CLDC 8 • CLDC 8 is an evolutionary update to CLDC 1.1.1 to bring the VM, Java Language, and libraries up to date with Java SE 8. • More: http://java.net/projects/jsr360/pages/Home • JSR-361: Java ME Embedded Profile • • 38 Update IMP(-NG) to align with state-of-the-art features and current embedded device market requirements. More: http://java.net/projects/jsr361/pages/Home © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
    • 39. Embedded Standards | Gemalto M2M 39 © 2007-2013 Creative Arts & Technologies, Gemalto
    • 40. Other Trends for Sensors | Measurement • Xively • Language bindings for Java/Android, Python or Ruby contain support for Units of Measurement Website: http://www.xively.com • OpenXC • Feels quite a bit like a modernized OSGi Measurement bundle. Offering only SI units by default, but a more sophisticated Unit and Quantity concept somewhat similar and clearly inspired by Unit-API / JSR-275 • Website: http://openxcplatform.com/ • ► Without proper security, Connected Car hacks like that on Tesla pose a great risk to this and all other critical sectors (Health, Avionics,...) • CSS 3 • Mostly UI/rendering, but promises almost UCUM-like arithmetic and quantitychecking See: http://www.w3.org/TR/css3-values/ 40 © 2007-2013 Creative Arts & Technologies
    • 41. Q&A
    • 42. Links Eclipse – Project UOMo http://www.eclipse.org/uomo/ Units of Measurement API http://www.unitsofmeasurement.org UCUM http://www.unitsofmeasure.org
    • 43. Links (2) Eclipse – M2M IWG http://m2m.eclipse.org Open Geospatial Consortium http://www.opengeospatial.org Java Community Process http://www.jcp.org
    • 44. Contact werner@catmedia.us or uomo@catmedia.us Twitter: @wernerkeil Hashtag #EclipseUOMo

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