Historical Perspective: Photography

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A brief history of photography

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  • Travel- exploration
  • To improve the lithographic process Niepce combined the camera obscura with photosensitive paper and named the process Heliography
    Public learned about it after his death
    Process was not practical
  • Daguerre built on Niepce work
    The inventor, Louis Jacques-Mandé Daguerre, had formed a business partnership with Nicéphore Niépce who died of a stroke (apoplexy of the brain), after which his son took his father's place in the partnership. Awarded state pension by French government for publication of methods and the rights by other French citizens to use the Daguerreotype process
  • , daguerreotyping a brightly sunlit subject typically required about ten minutes of exposure in the camera, so the earliest daguerreotypes were of still lifes and landscapes. The oldest well-documented daguerreotype featuring human subjects is Daguerre's own 1838 view of the Boulevard du Temple, a busy street in Paris.
  • , daguerreotyping a brightly sunlit subject typically required about ten minutes of exposure in the camera, so the earliest daguerreotypes were of still lifes and landscapes. The oldest well-documented daguerreotype featuring human subjects is Daguerre's own 1838 view of the Boulevard du Temple, a busy street in Paris.
  • , Henry Fox Talbot created permanent (negative) images using paper soaked in silver chloride and fixed with a salt solution.
    Positive images by contact printing onto another sheet of paper - patented the process in 1841 under the name Calotype.
    Not as clear as Daguerreotypes but was first time "positive" and "negative" were used.
  • Autochrome is an additive color[3] "mosaic screen plate" process. The medium consists of a glass plate coated on one side with a random mosaic of microscopic grains of potato starch[4] dyed red-orange, green, and blue-violet (an unusual but functional variant of the standard red, green, and blue additive colors) which act as color filters. Lampblack fills the spaces between grains, and a black-and-white panchromatic silver halide emulsion is coated on top of the filter layer. Unlike ordinary black-and-white plates, the Autochrome was loaded into the camera with the bare glass side facing the lens, so that the light passed through the mosaic filter layer before reaching the emulsion. The use of an additional special orange-yellow filter in the camera was required, to block ultraviolet light and restrain the effects of violet and blue light, parts of the spectrum to which the emulsion was overly sensitive. Because of the light loss due to all the filtering, Autochrome plates required much longer exposures than black-and-white plates and films, which meant that a tripod or other stand had to be used and that it was not practical to photograph moving subjects.[5] The plate was reversal-processed into a positive transparency — that is, the plate was first developed into a negative image but not "fixed", then the silver forming the negative image was chemically removed, then the remaining silver halide was exposed to light and developed, producing a positive image. Each starch grain remained in alignment with the corresponding microscopic area of emulsion coated over it. When the finished image was viewed by transmitted light, each bit of the silver image acted as a valve, allowing more or less light to pass through the corresponding colored starch grain, recreating the original proportions of the three colors. At normal viewing distances, the light coming through the individual grains blended together in the eye, reconstructing the color of the light photographed through the filter grains.
  • Collodion process invented in 1851 by Frederick Scott Archer required only two to three seconds of light exposure to produce an image, but plates had to be sensitized at the time of exposure, exposed while the emulsion was still wet, and processed immediately after exposure in the camera.
    When he noticed that his health was being affected by the 'wet' collodion's ether vapor, Maddox began looking for a substitute. He suggested in the 8 September 1871 British Journal of Photography article An Experiment with Gelatino-Bromide that sensitizing chemicals cadmium bromide and silver nitrate should be coated on a glass plate in gelatin, a transparent substance used for making candies. Eventually Charles Bennett made the first gelatin dry plates for sale; before long the emulsion could be coated on celluloid roll film.
  • Born in England In early years Muybridge was a landscape photographer in the US- became known for his motion study photgraphs
  • Received Nobel Prize for invention of Holography
    He experimented with a heavily filtered mercury arc light source.However, the earliest hologram was only realised in 1964 following the 1960 invention of the laser, the first coherent light source. After this, holography became commercially available.
  • Later instant
    Sony Electronic still video camera- Mavica-and digital photography -25 colour images recorded on a disc and played back on computer
    Photographers sometimes used instant camera before real photo. Ansel Adams Polaroid
    Artistic versions of polaroid
  • Historical Perspective: Photography

    1. 1. Frisius Gemma's illustration of a camera obscura, 1544. Science and Society Museum/ Universal Images Group Camera Obscura Aristotle wrote about light that allows an upside down view of the world through a pin hole in one wall of a dark chamber, 1000 years before the camera
    2. 2. 3 Device is a room or box with a hole in one side. Light from an external scene passes through the hole and strikes a surface inside, where it is reproduced, upside- down; color and perspective are preserved. Can be projected onto paper, and then traced to produce an accurate representation Painters used it to trace sketches of scenes on paper to be filled in later with paint Camera Obscura
    3. 3. Joseph Niepce 1826 - Heliography 4 The One and Only Heliograph: View from the Window at Le Gras –An 8-Hour Exposure First permanent photograph that can still be viewed Niepce combined the camera obscura with photosensitive paper and named the process Heliography
    4. 4. Louis Daguerre 1839: Daguerreotype 5 Daguerre built on work of Niepce – First practical photographic process using the Camera Obscura Images on silver-plated copper, coated with silver iodide and "developed" with warmed mercury 1839 Daguerreotype: First Image of a Person A Daguerreotype of Louis Daguerre
    5. 5. 6 Daguerreotype set up
    6. 6. 7 Daguerreotype: Are We Done Yet? Subjects Looked miserable because it wasn’t fun to be photographed sitting still in the same pose for a long period of time
    7. 7. Henry Fox Talbot 1839: Calotype Introduced Negative/Positive Images images using paper soaked in silver chloride and fixed with salt solution. Positive images by contact printing onto another sheet of paper Patented the process in 1841 under the name Calotype. Not as clear as Daguerreotypes but was first use of "positive" and "negative”. 8Calotype by Henry Fox Talbot
    8. 8. Frederick Archer 1851: Wet Collodion 9 Archer improved photographic resolution with Wet Collodion photography Less Expensive than daguerreotypes Negative/positive process permitted unlimited reproductions Process was published but not patented so he didn’t profitMathew Brady used the Wet-Collodion Process
    9. 9. 10 Wet-Collodion, Frederick Archer, 1851 Before and After Battle Scenes Shutter Speeds Were Still Too Long to Capture ActionCivil War Photographs Used the Wet Collodian Process
    10. 10. Photography: Halftone Printing 11 Canadian Illustrated News published in Montreal 1869 – 1883 was notable for its innovative use of half-tone photographs Right is first halftone reproduction photo by William Notman of Queen Victoria's son, Prince Arthur. Before halftone, pictures prepared by artists and engraved on plates (like line-art – see the picturesque scenes around the News's masthead above Prince Arthur's photo.
    11. 11. William Augustus Leggo 12 Halftone printing process The halftone printing process developed by William Augustus Leggo, a Quebec engraver, who used a screen to produce what he called a "granulated photograph”. Image broken into dots of varying size that, at a distance, come together with all shades from white to grey to black.
    12. 12. James Clerk Maxwell, 1861: Colour Photography 13 Maxwell demonstrated colour photography with 3 black and white photographs, each taken through a red, green, or blue filter. Photos were turned into lantern slides and projected in registration with the same color filters. The first colour slide. This is the "colour separation" method The first permanent colour photograph, by James Clerk Maxwell in 1861
    13. 13. 14 “Young Lady with an Umbrella,” 1907 by Louis Lumière Colour Materials Lumiere Brothers Autochrome, 1903 Autochrome Lumière an early colour photography process. Principal colour photography process in use before the invention of subtractive color film in the mid-1930s.
    14. 14. 15 English doctor, proposed the use of an emulsion of gelatin and silver bromide on a glass plate; the "dry plate" process sparked invention of motion picture film Process made amateur photography possible when George Eastman invented cameras with gelatin dry plate films in rolls Gelatin-Bromide - Richard Maddox, 1871
    15. 15. 16 Motion Studies by Eadweard Muybridge, 1878
    16. 16. 17 George Eastman, 1888 Gelatin-Bromide Eastman introduced $25 (about $500 today) Kodak camera. His jingle "You press the button and we do the rest" 100 pictures included, When photos taken, camera mailed for developing and reloading. By 1900 cameras were $1 (about $20 today )
    17. 17. 18 George Eastman 1888 First Kodak Camera. Left- so easy even a “girl” can use it. A pretty girl will sell your product and its lifestyle
    18. 18. Holography came from an attempt to improve the electron microscope. In 1964 after invention of laser holography became commercially available CNN election coverage Nov 08 included holographic reporters 19 First Mass Produced Hologram 1984 on National Geographic 1988 National Geographic. The whole cover is a hologram Holography: Dennis Gabor, 1947
    19. 19. 20 Early Polaroid Camera Instant Photography: Edwin Land 1948 60 second instant photography Co-founder of Polaroid Later Sony Mavica, 1984
    20. 20. See more on Digital Cameras at: The 30 Most Important Digital Cameras of All Time http://www.popphoto .com/gear/2013/10/3 0-most-important- digital-cameras First Digital Camera 1975 Created by Steven Sasson at Eastman Kodak

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