Outline • Introduction• Parents role in gender stereotyping affects student performance • Media role in gender stereotyping affects student performance • Textbooks and literature book role in gender stereotyping affects student performance. • Gender stereotypes in mathematics and language arts affects student performance • Teachers role in gender stereotyping affects student performance • Conclusion
Introduction• Key Concepts – Why is gender stereotyping an important issue in education? • pressure to conform • limit full educational developmentLiterature Review: Each piece of literature will show that gender stereotypes influence academic performances. • Question to be addressed • What sources influence gender stereotypes and how? • parents, media, books, teachers
Do parents provide differential socialization for boys and girls? rArticle: Observations of Parent Reaction to sex-stereotyped Behaviors: Age and Sex EffectsParticipants: 92 22-month-old children, 82 18-month- oId children, and 172 5-year-old childrenVariables: Dependent variables were the conditional probabilities of each of the three parent reactions given that a particular child behavior had occurred.Measurement Technique: Observation of Parent Reactions, ANOVADesign: The Oregon Toddler Project and The Oregon Father ProjectProcedures: observe child, observe parents, examine behaviorResults: Fathers engage in positive interaction with child.
ParentsArticle: Accessibility of Gender Which gender stenotypes come fromStereotype Domains: Developmental childrens description of girls andand Gender Differences in Children boys? Participants: 256 children ages 3-10 years old. Variables: 1st responses Measurement technique: GAM Materials: Opened ended Questions Design: examine which gender stereotypes Procedures Children gave description of girls and boys Results children began to demonstrate gender stereotypes by the age of 3
Media• How does media affect gender roles?• Televisions• Article: Shake It Baby, Shake It: Media Preferences, Sexual Attitudes and Gender Stereotypes among Adolescents – Study and results• Discussion: How can teachers help?
Textbooks and Literature BooksDo Literature Books effect the memory process?• Literature Books • Discussion: avoid stereotypes • Article: Once Upon A Time there was a Math Contest: Gender Stereotyping and Memory • Study and results
Textbooks and Literature Books• Textbooks • Article: The Effects of Gender Stereotypic and Counter- Stereotypic Textbooks Images on Science Performance. • Study and results: Stereotypic Conditions vs. Counter-Stereotypic conditions• Discussion: How can teachers avoid gender stereotypes in literature books and textbooks? http://www
Math vs. Language Arts• Masculine Subjects vs. Feminine Subjects• Article: Student Gender Stereotypes: Contrasting the Perceived Maleness and Femaleness of Mathematics and Language. – Study and ResultsDiscussion: What canteachers prevent stereotypesin Math and Language Arts – Motivation – Differentiated instructions
Math vs. Language Arts• Article: Changes in Children’s Self- • Discussion: How to Competences and boost competence Values: Gender and levels in math. Domain Differences across Grades one • Integrating through twelve Technology – Study and results of math competences and language arts competences
Teachers• Article: Study on English Teacher’s Bias Toward Students of different gender.• Teachers pay more attention to boys• Joel Spring Text• Girls vs. boys in the classroom• Discussion: How can teachers close the gender gap?
Conclusion• gender stereotyping effects the learning process • What addition research is recommended? – Does gender stereotypes cause bullying? – Are certain gender stereotypes accepted in rural and urban areas?
ResourcesBerk, L. (2009). Child Development (8 ed.). Boston: Pearson.Bogers, S., Bogt, T., Engels, R., & Kloosterman, M. (2010). Shake It Baby, Shake It:Media Preferences, Sexual Attitudes and Gender Stereotypes Among Adolescents. Academic Journal, 63(11), 844-859.Eccles, J., Jacobs, J., Lanza, S., Osgood, W., & Wigfield, A. (2002). Changes in Childrens Self Competence and Values: Gender and Domain Differences across Grades One through Twelve. Child Development, 73(2), 509-527.Ganske, K., & Hebl, M. (2001). Once Upon a Time There was a Math Contest: Gender Stereotyping and Memory. Teaching of Psychology, 28(4), 266-268.Good, J., Wingfield, L., & Woodzicka, J. (2010). The Effects of Gender Stereotypic and Counter-Stereotypic Textbook Images on Science Performance. The Journal of Social Psychology, 150(2), 132-147.Miller, C., Lurye, L., Ruble, D., & Zosuls, K. (2009). Accessibility of Gender Stereotype Domains: Developmental and Gender Differences in Children. Sex Roles, 60(11), 870- 881.Spring, J. (2012). American Education (15 ed.). New York: McGraw HIll.