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Week 3 Lecture - 16 Oct 2007



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Week 3 Lecture - 16 Oct 2007 Week 3 Lecture - 16 Oct 2007 Presentation Transcript

  • COM546 Communication & Society Week 3 - 16 October 2007
  • Questions • How is Christensen's model of adoption affected by decisions at the business enterprise level -- iow, customers (employees) are required to use technologies purchased by the business? Think about appliances in rental units or spec homes. :) • Why haven't all authoritarian regimes rigorously controlled how their property is delivered on YouTube? • How has your mobile phone affected (+/-) your personal and professional relationships? Why do you own a mobile phone? How old is it? • How do values or biases impede our ability to fail to see opportunities in emerging technologies? • How does the current software development cycle (add more features with each iteration) fit into Christensen's theories?
  • Tonight … • Recap: Communications Theories • Move to: Why Adopt A Technology?
  • Why postulate the orie s? Scientific Humanistic Why: Discover the Create meaning “truth” Values: Objectivity “Emancipation” Purpose: Determine Provide rules for universal laws interpretation
  • Communication the orie s • Linear or Transmission (Shannon- Weaver, 1948; Lasswell, 1960) • Circular (Osgood and Schramm, 1954) • Medium Theory (McLuhan et al - later this term)
  • Transmission v Ritual Transmission Ritual Metaphor: Transportation Ceremony Meaning: Sent & Rec’d Created & Recreated Success: Receiver “gets Shared experience, it” sense of community Influence: Across Space Across Time
  • Use s and Gratifications • Originated in the 70s as rebellion against Shannon et al • Why people choose various media • Assumes audience control • Assumes “satisfaction”
  • Inte ractive Communication • Interaction between o senders and receivers o humans and machines o a message and its consumers
  • Communication Today • Evolved as technologies enabling mediated communication evolved
  • T chnology e • Knowledge used to solve problems and extend human potential. • Technology is about enabling change and amplifying its direction. • Technology does not set the sail.
  • Technologies Facilitate • Dominance of any technology is a function of many things (later!) • The ones we care about have an impact on communication
  • Issues, Questions (1/5) • Adoption • What factors affect acceptance (or rejection) of new devices? • How do we judge probability of acceptance? • Crystal Ball • What is the next big thing? • How will DM change traditional media?
  • Issues, Questions (2/5) • Profitability • How do we get there? • How do changing costs impact all parts of an industry sector? • Standards • Role in adoption, such as HDTV or wireless
  • Issues, Questions (3/5) • Societal Impacts • Digital Divide …. by age, by access • What can we learn from prior technological shifts? • A biggie: DRM
  • Issues, Questions (4/5) • Technology Use • How much is too much? • How do we make it usable? • What are the impacts on traditional storytelling? • Time Shifting • eVoting
  • Issues, Questions (5/5) • Did I miss any?
  • The Net’s Wealth Of Content Appeals To Younger, More Tenured Consumers (1/2) September 2006, Trends “More Consumers Look To The Net For Content”
  • The Net’s Wealth Of Content Appeals To Younger, More Tenured Consumers (2/2) September 2006, Trends “More Consumers Look To The Net For Content”
  • So, what is new? • Socially? • Technologically? • Three things: o Scarcity o Distance o Time
  • Concept of Scarcity • Gone! • Bits can be easily shared; atoms cannot o Implications for intellectual property (content owners now use digital rights management) o Implications for business models (Skype) • Potentially devastating for an economic system built upon scarcity
  • Distance • With global networks: • Work becomes independent of geography • Call centers o Consumption becomes independent of geography • The South China Post • Al-Jazerra.net o Social groups become independent of geography • Facebook • Wikipedia o Anything else?
  • Time Time Shifting facilitates asynchronous communication • Podcasts • Tivo, ReplayTV • E-mail, voice mail (not IM) • Directly impacts the advertising model for TV, radio • For work • Distributed teams • 24x7 work flow • Anything else? •
  • New Channels WWW, e-mail • Videoconferencing • Podcasts, blogs (RSS-distribution) • Mobile telephony (tension between • push and pull) • Social sites for networking, news • MySpace, Facebook,Tribe.net • Slashdot, Newsvine, NowPublic, Gather
  • The Keystone Technology • Hypertext is “new” o New is a relative term! • Presents information as linked nodes • Coined by Ted Nelson; conceptualized by Vannevar Bush in 1945 o History o Hypertext Fiction
  • One new technology Source: http://www.mala.bc.ca/~soules/CMC290/290wk5.htm
  • Why use a technology? Cognitive Needs – Desire (demand) for information, • knowledge, understanding Affective Needs – Aesthetic, pleasurable, and • emotional experiences Personal Integrative Needs – Inner-directed, deal with • credibility, confidence, stability, and status Social Integrative Needs – Outer-directed, • strengthening relationships with family, friends, the world Escapist Needs – Desire for tension release or • diversion - Katz, Gurevitch, and Haas. On the use of the media for important things. American Sociological Review, 38, p. 164-181.
  • Why use a technology? (2/ 2) Availability • Cost • Network effects • Buzz/coolness factor • Makes something easier to do • ?? •
  • Why … • Do we adopt one technology and not another? o VHS v Beta o Apple’s Newton v Palm o +R or –R DVD media
  • Supervening Social Necessity • Winston’s main contention! • More than “build a better mousetrap” : VoIP from last week: “phones work fine” – what need is being met with the new technology • Advertising: One goal is to build this “need” • FUD (fear, uncertainty, doubt)
  • Rogers - Diffusion Theory • Identified four main elements of an innovation-diffusion process Innovation • Social system • Time • Communications channels •
  • Linear innovation-diffusion theory innovation is • The process by which an communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system.  Rogers, 1995, page 5
  • Innovation • An idea, practice, or object that is perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption
  • Communication • A process in which participants create and share information with one another in order to reach mutual understanding
  • Time • The adoption model follows an “s” shape curve over time
  • Forecast: US Household Technology Adoption, 2005-2010 Forrester Reports. July 2005, Data Overview “The State Of Consumers And Technology: Benchmark 2005”
  • Social System • A set of interrelated units that are engaged in joint problem-solving to accomplish a common goal. • Members or units of a social system may be individuals, informal groups, organizations, and/or subsystems.
  • Innovation-Decision Process • The mental process through which an individual passes : from knowledge to forming an attitude toward the innovation (adopt, reject)
  • Rogers: Five steps of adoption Knowledge • Persuasion • Decision (adopt or reject) • Implementation • Confirmation •
  • Critical mass (1/ 2) • Rogers (1995) : quot;the critical mass occurs at the point at which enough individuals have adopted an innovation so that the innovation's further rate of adoption becomes self-sustaining.”
  • Critical mass (2/ 2) The critical mass theory is a social system • perspective, while the dominant design theory is a technology perspective. The irreversible phase may take place when not • only the critical mass point is overcome but also the dominant design is brought about at least in terms of the technological innovation. o Examples?
  • Adopter categories Innovators • Early adopters • Early majority • Late majority • Laggards •
  • Technological Innovations • Hardware - the tool that embodies the technology as a material or physical object. • Software - the knowledge base for the tool
  • For additional thought … • Increasing capacity w/out adding wires (telegraph). Parallels today? • Grey v Bell …. Jobs v Gates? • Price models: Bell’s renting the phone, IBM’s renting the mainframe, software constant upgrades …
  • Recap • Communication theories are an important component of adoption theory • Sift through the theories in readings, class - pick what works for you! • Remember: theories help us explain the world around us and anticipate what that world might someday look like
  • Feedback • On 3x5 card (anonymous unless you want feedback from me) • How will you apply what you have learned tonight in your project? • What theory or idea presented the greatest challenge to your current worldview and why?