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Japanese Students @ UW

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Lecture for Japanese students visiting Seattle

Lecture for Japanese students visiting Seattle

Published in: Education, Economy & Finance

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  • Transcript

    • 1. Kathy E. Gill 25 August 2008
    • 2.
      • A 10-minute explanation of US copyright … using words from one of the largest copyright owners in the world
    • 3.
      • What Is An Info Economy?
      • Economics 101
      • Impact on Systems: Copyright
    • 4.
      • “ An economy based on the exchange of knowledge information and services rather than physical goods and services.” Australian Gov’t , Dept. Finance and Administration, 2001.
    • 5.
      • 1963: Tadeo Umesao, Kyoto University, forecast an information industry
      • 1973: Daniel Bell, Harvard, described a knowledge-based post-industrial economy
      • 1981: Frederick Williams, UT Austin, said the communication revolution had arrived and expounded on the “knowledge worker” The Information Society, A Retrospective View. Dordick and Wang. 1993.
    • 6.
      • Post-industrial society will be “organized around knowledge for the purpose of social control and the directing of innovation and change”
      • The transformation is industrial to service
      • Anticipated tension between high-tech, intellectual work and nonprofessionals
    • 7.
      • 1997: Bill Gates traced the computer from mainframe to personal to network. “[W]e have the most powerful communications medium of all time… And the information age is changing business in a fundamental way… [as well as] the way we entertain … and … [educate] ourselves.” Information Technology, Corporate Productivity and the New Economy, p 4
    • 8.
      • Info Economy, Post-Industrial Economy, “New” Economy?
      • One definition: the new economy is an integration of free-market economies, globalization and information technology Information Technology, Corporate Productivity and the New Economy, p 9
    • 9.
      • Anything that can be converted to bits, ie, digitized, is an information good
        • Entertainment
        • News
        • Business Info
        • Software
    • 10.
      • Telecommunications, computers, software
        • Communication: E-mail, IM, TheWeb
        • Networks: Extranet, Intranet, Internet, LAN, WAN
        • Software: Expert systems, Enterprise Resource Planning, Query and Reporting, Data Mining
        • Networks: T1, T3, Wireless
        • Protocols: HTTP, FTP, VoIP
    • 11.
      • Collapse of space and time
      • Reduction of scarcity
    • 12.
      • Technology optimists
        • A new society without pollution; time for creative work; participatory democracy; perfect markets…
      • Technology pessimists
        • No new society but an increase in the divide between rich and poor; greater control over individuals; erosion of privacy…
      • Technology + economics +society
    • 13.
      • Use whatever label you wish … the makeup of our economy has changed.
      • Information technologies and information as a good have replaced goods made of atoms and technologies resting on muscle.
    • 14.
      • Supply & Demand
      • Market Structure
      • Types of Goods
      • Network Effects
      • Examples/Discussion
    • 15.
      • Economics is the study of how people (and institutions) act in a society with limited resources (scarcity)
        • The choices are more diverse than simply $$ - it’s also time, work, savings
        • Driving principle: that people optimize the “utility” (satisfaction) of goods and services consumed - that we are rational
    • 16.
      • Found that two brain areas known to be part of emotional processing (the limbic system) can help predict financial choices Kuhnen & Knutson (2005)
    • 17.
      • Costly to produce
      • Inexpensive to re-produce
      • Economist-speak:
        • High fixed costs, low marginal costs
      30 June 2008 COM597 - Gill
    • 18. 30 June 2008 COM597 - Gill Rival Non-Rival Excludable
      • Most consumer goods
      • Private land
      • Services
      • Single license software
      • Trade secrets
      • Multi-license software
      • Patents
      • Subscription web sites
      Non-Excludable
      • Public land
      • Most roads
      • Water - rivers, lakes
      • “ Public Goods”
      • Basic research
      • Defense, police, firemen
      • Lighthouse
      • “ Open” websites
      • TV (not cable!)
    • 19.
      • The theory, courtesy the World Bank : Assume someone produces a valuable theorem, but it cannot be kept secret -- it must be made immediately available. Because anyone can immediately use it, there is no way for an individual to profit from creating it. So they won’t.
    • 20.
      • Trade Secrets (Coca Cola)
      • Patents (Amazon One-Click)
      • Copyright
        • Will people create knowledge if they can’t charge for it?
        • WB says No.
        • Open source movement says Yes.
      30 June 2008 COM597 - Gill
    • 21.
      • DRM
        • iTunes
      • Subscriptions
        • RealNetworks and Napster, The Economist and the Wall Street Journal
      • Lawsuits
      30 June 2008 COM597 - Gill
    • 22.
      • Global economy is increasingly reliant on information technologies and information
      • Firms in this sector have a different cost structure than traditional goods/sectors like agriculture or manufacturing
      30 June 2008 COM597 - Gill
    • 23.
      • The products in this sector have characteristics of a public good -- the antithesis of a scarce, excludable good
      • Thus information technology is disruptive, economically and socially
      30 June 2008 COM597 - Gill
    • 24.  
    • 25.
      • These technologies change how we interact with (digital) cultural objects.
    • 26.
      • We are no longer merely a consumer.
      • We can also be a producer.
    • 27.  
    • 28.  
    • 29.  
    • 30. This means it is technically easier to express ourselves in new, creative ways.
    • 31.
      • SuperBowl Commercials
      • YouTube Democratic Presidential Debate
      • An Introduction To Sumo
      • Free Science Videos and Lectures
      • s
      30 June 2008 COM597 - Gill
    • 32.
      • Culture as a freely flowing current of ideas and practices runs head first into culture as intellectual property
    • 33.
      • A Long Time!
        • In 1709, copyright lasted 14 years
        • Prior to 1923, content is public domain (probably)
        • After 1978, the life of the author + 70 years OR work-for-hire, 95 years from publication or 125 years from creation
        • Between 1923 and 1978 ??? … talk to a lawyer!
    • 34.  
    • 35.  
    • 36.
      • "Copyright infringement" means exercising one of the copyright holder's exclusive rights without permission.
    • 37.  
    • 38.
      • Copyright purpose is to “ promote the progress of science and the useful arts ” … and the duration for exclusivity is to be “ limited ” … - US Constitution
      30 June 2008 COM597 - Gill
    • 39.
      • Digital technologies enable a "Tinkering culture" -- a "read write rip burn culture”
      • This culture is butting heads with institutions that own “IP” – it’s an economic and cultural clash
    • 40.
      • The Inkjet Printer, from The Economist. (2002) http://emlab.berkeley.edu/users/bhhall/e124inkjetprinter.html
      • The Invention of Email, from Pretext Magazine (1998) http://emlab.berkeley.edu/users/bhhall/e124emailinvention.pdf
      • Science and Engineering Indicators (2002) National Science Board. http://www.nsf.gov/sbe/srs/seind02/start.htm
      30 June 2008 COM597 - Gill
    • 41.
      • Timothy F. Bresnahan. “The Economics of the Microsoft Case.” http://www.stanford.edu/~tbres/Microsoft/The_Economics_of_The_Microsoft_Case.pdf
      • Cory Doctorow. “How Copyright Turned Us Into IP Serfs.” Speech, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. 22 February 2007. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NkBX-981_es
      • Nicholas Economides. “The Economics of Networks,” International Journal of Industrial Organization, October (1996) http://www.stern.nyu.edu/networks/top.html
      • Tore Nilssen and Lars Sørgard. “TV Advertising, Programming Investments, and Product-Market Oligopoly” http://www.nhh.no/sam/res-publ/2000/dp06.pdf
      • Frank Zappa on Crossfire, 1986. http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v =8ISil7IHzxc
      30 June 2008 COM597 - Gill

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