Cultural Production: Barriers and Incentives To Sharing


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  • Cultural Production: Barriers and Incentives To Sharing

    1. 1. Cultural Production In The Digital Age: Barriers and Incentives To Sharing <ul><li>COM302/CHID370 </li></ul><ul><li>12 November 2008 Kathy E. Gill </li></ul>
    2. 2. Framing Web 2.0 Technologies
    3. 5. <ul><li>These technologies change how we interact with cultural objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamental Premise: We are no longer merely a consumer ; we can also be a producer. </li></ul>
    4. 6. This is a major shift from the late 20th century model:
    5. 8. In Today’s Digital World, It Is Easier to Borrow, Copy, Manipulate
    6. 9. This means it is technically easier to express ourselves in new, creative ways.
    7. 10. Traditional Model <ul><li>Mediated Communication was a one-way Mass Communication Model </li></ul>
    8. 11. New Model <ul><ul><li>Mediated communication is transitioning to a circular (Osgood & Schramm) interpersonal model </li></ul></ul>
    9. 12. What are the cultural industries? <ul><li>News media </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising industry </li></ul><ul><li>Television & movies </li></ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul><ul><li>Fashion </li></ul><ul><li>What else? </li></ul>
    10. 13. Quotable <ul><li>“ [N]on-commercial cultural production and unconstrained expression within the Internet undermines capitalism’s production of meaning.” p135 - from Michael Strangelove, The Empire of Mind (University of Toronto Press, 2005) </li></ul>
    11. 14. The Clash <ul><li>Culture as a freely flowing current of ideas and practices runs head first into culture as intellectual property </li></ul>
    12. 16. Ask permission each time Ask permission each use
    13. 17. The Barrier <ul><li>Copyright originated in a time when the view of authors was romantic: &quot;originality was elevated to being located in and belonging to the self of the author&quot; ... words created by these authors were considered &quot;original&quot; and thus distinguishable from mass-produced commodities. (Lessig, presentation, Copyright, Cultural Production and Open Content Licensing) </li></ul>
    14. 18. The Enforcer <ul><li>Digital Rights Management Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tend to think of this with movies and songs, but also can be pay-to-view sections of any website like the WSJ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RIAA “cease and desist” letters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Losing on two levels </li></ul></ul>
    15. 19. Why P2P Got A Bad Name <ul><li>Hint: It wasn’t because of “production” </li></ul>
    16. 20. What Is P2P? <ul><li>The sharing of computer resources and services by direct exchange between two systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: SEIT @ Home, Skype, ICQ, and, of course, Napster </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A “peer” gives some resources and also receives some </li></ul>
    17. 21. Watch EFF Slide Show
    18. 22. Law Suits Backfiring <ul><li>[With Capitol v Thomas] looking to head to a mistrial, making the $222,000 judgment null and void, the two largest decisions in the RIAA’s ‘war on downloading’ have been against them. In both cases the RIAA admitted it was wrong and [was] ordered to pay the fees. </li></ul><ul><li>Source </li></ul>
    19. 23. Controversy <ul><li>Copyright purpose is to “ promote the progress of science and the useful arts ” … and the duration for exclusivity is to be “ limited ” … - US Constitution </li></ul>
    20. 24. Infringement <ul><li>&quot;Copyright infringement&quot; means exercising one of the copyright holder's exclusive rights without permission. </li></ul><ul><li>Should a copyright holder sue on grounds of infringement, the defendent may argue that the use was &quot;fair use&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The fair use doctrine allows copyrighted works to be used in some circumstances, such as commentary, criticism, news reporting or educational use. </li></ul></ul>
    21. 25. Is This Infringement?
    22. 26. What About The Content YOU Produce?
    23. 28. Digital technologies enable a &quot;Tinkering culture&quot; -- a &quot;read write rip burn culture&quot;
    24. 29. Sources <ul><li>Copyright, Fair Use & The Evolution of Creative Commons: </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright and Options for Creative Practitioners: </li></ul><ul><li>Image: Consume. Be silent. Die. (unknown) </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 Image (1): </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 Image (2): html </li></ul><ul><li>Fine Print : </li></ul>
    25. 30. <ul><li>Kathy E. Gill </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>http ://faculty.washington. edu </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Some Rights Reserved: </li></ul>