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  • 1. New Media Technologies: Communication Theories COM 300 Kathy E. Gill 14 Jan 2008
  • 2. Agenda
    • Communication Theories
      • More “New Media” Discussion
      • Multi-Media: phones
  • 3. New media (recapped)
    • Some definitions focus on computer technology, others focus on interactivity
    • Differences:
      • Audiences not heterogeneous
      • Control shifts from communicator to audience
  • 4. Communication
    • A process in which participants create and share information with one another in order to reach mutual understanding (Rogers, 1995).
  • 5. Mediated communication
    • What is it?
      • d. mediated . (adj) acting or brought about through an intervening agent; (v) to be in the middle
    • Why would we study it?
      • We live in an ever-increasingly mediated world
  • 6. Part one : medium
    • A go-between/intermediary in the communication binding the sender and receive
      • Considers symbolic and cognitive theories of the psychology of representation
      • Considers theories of meaning in signs and symbols (semiotics)
  • 7. Part two : mass media (1/2)
    • Mass communication characteristics:
      • Directed towards a large, heterogeneous audience
      • Messages are transmitted publicly, are transient in nature, and are timed to reach all simultaneously
      • Communicator works for an organization
      • Charles Wright, 1959, from Communication Theories: Origins, Methods and Uses in the Mass Media, 1988, p7
  • 8. Part two : mass media (2/2)
    • Mass media communication traditionally encompasses these channels
      • Newspapers, magazines (print technologies)
      • TV, radio (electronic technologies)
    • Note: “news” v “ads”
  • 9. Channel
    • The physical/technical transmission as well as any device needed for encoding/decoding
    • May encompass advertising channels (direct mail) or news (TV)
    • One-to-many, one-way channel is typical
  • 10. So, what is new?
    • Technologically?
    • Socially?
          • Your thoughts, based on readings?
    • Three BIG things:
  • 11. Concept of scarcity
    • Gone!
    • Bits can be shared; atoms cannot
    • Implications?
      • How does this relate to Bush’s musings about Memex?
      • Does it make it easier or harder to “remediate”? Why?
  • 12. Constraint of time
    • Gone!
    • Time-shifting (Tivo, podcasting, 24x7 tech support via the web … what else?)
      • How do you think that the speed in which we now communicate (e-mail, mobile phones, etc.) has affected our communication?
  • 13. Constraint of space
    • Geographical barriers: Gone!
    • Internet technology lets us “space shift” like we “time shift” – (almost) seamlessly
      • There are environmental benefits from the advancement of technology, specifically from computers. If in the future, all of academia (from grade school & beyond) required only computer-based work, what would your response be to the change? Why?
  • 14. New channels
    • WWW
    • E-mail
    • Videoconferencing
    • MP3
    • Electronic publishing
    • Mobile telephony
    • What do they have in common?
  • 15. Your Daily DM Use (1/3)
    • N=21
    • Cellphones
      • Five mentioned talking
      • Nine mentioned texting
      • One mentioned music
      • Other: alarm clock, Facebook, email, read NYT
      • Types: iPhone (2), Blackberry (2), smartphone (1)
  • 16. Your Daily DM Use (2/3)
    • MP3 Player
      • Mentioned by five
      • Podcasts mentioned by two
      • iPod mentioned by seven
    • Laptop
      • Mentioned by five
    • TV
      • Mentioned by six
  • 17. Your Daily DM Use (3/3)
    • Web
      • email – 14 mentions
      • Social sites – MySpace (7), Facebook (5), Friendster (1), Yahoo!Groups (1), message boards (1)
      • News – 9 (plus 1 iPhone mention)
      • Blogs – 6 mentions
      • IM – 5 mentions
      • Commerce – 5 mentions (Craigslist, iTunes store, banking)
      • Digital pix – 2 mentions (Flickr, YouTube)
  • 18. Computer Mediated Communication (1/2)
    • Desktop computers used as tools to influence human cognition and convey messages among people (focuses on the technology, older definition)
    • Any form of communication between two or more individuals who interact and/or influence each other using social software on separate computers linked by a network (focuses on the people)
  • 19. CMC (2/2)
    • CMC software has two categories: asynchronous and synchronous (Smith, 1994).
      • http:// www.edb.utexas.edu/csclstudent/kim/text/ASCmC.html
  • 20. Synchronous
    • Two or more group members have real-time (simultaneous) communication
    • Instant Messenging can be synchronous
    • Face-to-face meetings; video conference; other?
  • 21. Asynchronous
    • Allows group members to work individually and “alone”
    • Provides time/space flexibility
    • E-mail, BBs
    • Example: virtual teams
  • 22. Virtual Teams
    • Types
      • Temporary (no common history or future)
      • Permanent (common history and future)
    • Forms of Interaction
      • Face-to-face (meetings, formal or informal)
      • Electronically-mediated (phone, CMC, videoconference)
    • Context
      • Culture and geography may be similar or different
  • 23. CMC/Web Characteristics (1/2)
    • Hardware independent
    • Software independent
      • IM Not Here Yet, But Close (Google)
    • Open standards
    • Information sharing
    • “Give back” (contribute) to the community
  • 24. CMC/Web Characteristics (2/2)
    • A blend of characteristics from “old” media
      • Print
      • Radio
      • Film
      • TV
  • 25. Print Characteristics
    • Abstract
    • Captive audience
    • Fixed
    • Linear
    • Primarily verbal
    • Reader controls pace
  • 26. Radio Characteristics
    • Auditory
    • Creator controls pace
    • Dynamic
    • Linear
    • “Live” — happening in real time
    • Transient audience
  • 27. TV Characteristics
    • Animated
    • Creator controls pace
    • Dynamic
    • Linear
    • “Live” — may be happening now
    • Primarily visual
    • Transient audience
  • 28. Film Characteristics
    • Animated
    • Captive audience
    • Creator controls pace
    • Fixed
    • Linear
    • Primarily visual
  • 29. Web Characteristics
    • Dynamic
    • “Live” (maybe)
    • Multi-media (visual, auditory)
    • Transient audience
    • Typically nonlinear
    • User controls pace and direction
  • 30. Mass audience no longer
    • From broadcast to narrowcast
    • Time-shifting
    • Accelerates a move foreshadowed by niche publishing
  • 31. Summary
    • Mediated Communication is …
    • Two types are …
    • Three characteristics of new media and their impacts …
  • 32. Resources
    • Effects of Four CMC Channels on Trust
    • Glossary of Internet Terms
    • JCMC
  • 33. Reading Discussion
    • Break into your discussion groups
    • There are four questions (seven groups)
    • Discussion – reach as much consensus as possible
    • “Report out” and group discussion