Gc 2009 07 09 Alm16 Hoogland Complete

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Lecture at conference Adults Learning Mathematics, London UK

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Gc 2009 07 09 Alm16 Hoogland Complete

  1. 1. Beyond Word Problems or is it: Beyond WP4.2 problems? © Kees Hoogland [email_address]
  2. 2. How many chicken are there in the shed?
  3. 3. © Kees Hoogland [email_address]
  4. 4. What is the biggest problem in numeracy education? Word problems
  5. 6. Research base: - my own research - existing literature © Kees Hoogland [email_address]
  6. 7. Numeracy and Mathematical literacy <ul><li>(…) one thing everyone more or less has come to agree on is that mathematical literacy cannot be defined in terms of mathematical knowledge. Mathematical literacy is in fact mainly about the functional aspect of mathematical knowledge. It is about individual competencies to use mathematical knowledge in a practical, functional way; mathematical literacy in order to …. or mathematical literacy for … (…) (Jablonka, 2003) </li></ul>
  7. 8. School Mathematics versus Numeracy <ul><li>Avoid the typical school mathematics in adult mathematics / numeracy education. </li></ul><ul><li>(FitzSimons, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>(and many others) </li></ul><ul><li>Design pre-vocational education, where you treat the students as adults. With real life assignments and real life responsibilities. (Koops, 2000) </li></ul>
  8. 9. Complexity and depth <ul><li>Find the complexity not in abstraction of the mathematics used, but in the richness of the situations. (Lynn Arthur Steen e.a., 1995) </li></ul><ul><li>Do not hide the toolkit “mathematics” in a blur of thematic assignments or thematic approaches. (Hoogland, 2009, ALM) </li></ul>
  9. 10. Results from earlier research <ul><li>Real life assignments </li></ul><ul><li>Observations, pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulated recall </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing the video’s </li></ul>© Kees Hoogland [email_address]
  10. 11. Analyses of the video’s <ul><li>Matching numbers with the sizes of the product of parts of the products. </li></ul><ul><li>Interpreting numbers a symbol for a kind of screw, drill or other things. </li></ul><ul><li>Using the numbers as a measure instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Using the numbers to make a list of needed parts, counting </li></ul><ul><li>Hardly any operations with numbers showed up. In cases where addition had to be made, they all use a calculator or even Excel in a very natural way. </li></ul><ul><li>Matching complex plans and schemes with the real product </li></ul><ul><li>Hardly any mathematical language to express their numerical or spatial competences. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of gestures to support the expressions of numerical competences. </li></ul>© Kees Hoogland [email_address]
  11. 12. Conclusions <ul><li>Students have competences in a large number of areas that we can categorize as numerical or spatial competences and if-then reasoning. </li></ul><ul><li>Students can reason well if they are working in the situation or if they literally have the product in hand. </li></ul><ul><li>Gestures and physical visualizations are important components in the students’ numeracy repertoire. </li></ul>© Kees Hoogland [email_address]
  12. 16. Goals of Mathematics Education <ul><li>Introduction to a deductive and abstract system </li></ul><ul><li>System of tools, applications, models </li></ul><ul><li>Coping autonomously and adequately with the quantitative side of the world around us. </li></ul>
  13. 17. Types of problems <ul><li>Mathematical problems </li></ul><ul><li>“ Hidden Mathematics” problems </li></ul><ul><li>Contextual problems </li></ul><ul><li>Numeracy problems </li></ul>
  14. 18. 2 Source: CEVO (1991), VMBO examen [Dutch Final Examination, grade 10]
  15. 19. Source: SingaporeMath (2007), placement test ,
  16. 20. Question 4. Traffic jam Between Breukelen and Abcoude in the direction of Abcoude, there is a traffic jam of 5 km. The road has three lanes in each direction. 19. Estimate the number of cars in the traffic jam. Write down how you arrive at your answer. Source: CEVO (1997), VMBO examen [Dutch Final Examination, grade 10]
  17. 21. Source: Moderne Wiskunde (1998) MW 2 HV
  18. 22. I work in a butcher’s shop from Monday to Thursday. One of my jobs is to check the temperature of the fridge twice a day. At the right hand side you see a thermometer. What is the temperature? A +15° C B -15° C C + 15° F D - 15° F
  19. 23. Source: Cito (2009). Referentietoetsen 1F/2F
  20. 24. Source: PISA Samples 2004
  21. 26. The computer activity sample item from Authentic World®
  22. 27. Criteria Numeracy problems <ul><li>It is N umeracy when you have … </li></ul><ul><li>… . I maginable questions … </li></ul><ul><li>… C onnected with the real world, … </li></ul><ul><li>… with a M inimum of language and … </li></ul><ul><li>… a maximum use of R eal I mages . </li></ul>© Kees Hoogland [email_address]
  23. 28. <ul><li>From </li></ul><ul><li>contextual problems </li></ul><ul><li>to </li></ul><ul><li>numeracy problems </li></ul><ul><li>in 4 or 5 steps </li></ul>© Kees Hoogland [email_address]
  24. 29. I work in a butcher’s shop from Monday to Thursday. One of my jobs is to check the temperature of the fridge twice a day. At the right hand side you see a thermometer. What is the temperature? A +15° C B -15° C C + 15° F D - 15° F
  25. 30. I work in a butcher’s shop from Monday to Thursday. One of my jobs is to check the temperature of the fridge twice a day. At the right hand side you see a thermometer. What is the temperature? A B C D
  26. 31. What is the temperature? A B C D
  27. 32. What is the temperature? Fridge thermometers …… …… ……
  28. 33. Source: Cito (2009). Referentietoetsen 1F/2F
  29. 34. What is the discount?
  30. 35. Discount … .. %
  31. 36. Discount … .. %
  32. 37. Discount … .. %
  33. 38. Source: PISA Samples 2004
  34. 39. Calculate
  35. 40. Source: PISA Samples 2004 16 years after the ice disappears. What is the diameter?
  36. 41. Global warming The ice melts 12 years later Lichen starts to grow. D = 7 * SQRT ( t ) D is diameter in mm T is age of Lichen in years In the picture D = 20 centimeter How old is the lichen? How long ago the ice melted? D
  37. 42. How many chicken are there in the shed? No one knows, probably more than 6
  38. 43. How many chicken are there in the picture? Is more coirrect, but who wants to know?
  39. 44. How many chicken are there in the picture?
  40. 45. Examples from a numeracy toolkit for weak (young) adult learners. See the demo on www.gecijferd.nl
  41. 46. Interested ? <ul><li>To obtain the files from the hand outs , please send an e-mail to </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Or visit the websites </li></ul><ul><li>www.gecijferdheid.nl </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>www.gecijferd.nl </li></ul>

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