SERVICE QUALITY GAPPRESENTED BY :BLESSY MARIAMMA PHILIPS2 MBAAVISHKAR
SERVICE QUALITY GAP• Service quality is a comparison of expectations withperformance.Improved service quality may increase economiccompetitiveness. This may be achieved by understandingand improving operational processes; identifying problemsquickly and systematically; establishing valid and reliableservice performance measures and measuring customersatisfaction and other performance outcomes.• A customers expectation of a particular service isdetermined by factors such as recommendations, personalneeds and past experiences. The expected service and theperceived service sometimes may not be equal, thusleaving a gap.
Determinants of service quality gaps• Competence is the possession of the required skills and knowledge to perform theservice.• Courtesy is the consideration for the customers property and a clean and neatappearance of contact personnel, manifesting as politeness, respect, andfriendliness.• Credibility is the factors such as trustworthiness, belief and honesty. It involveshaving the customers best interests at prime position.• Security is the customer feeling free from danger, risk or doubt including physicalsafety, financial security and confidentiality.• Access is approachability and ease of contact.
• Communication means both informing customers in a language they areable to understand and also listening to customers.• Knowing the customer means making an effort to understand thecustomers individual needs, providing individualized attention,recognizing the customer when they arrive and so on.• Tangibles are the physical evidence of the service, for instance, theappearance of the physical facilities, tools and equipment used to providethe service;• Reliability is the ability to perform the promised service in a dependableand accurate manner.• Responsiveness is to the readiness and willingness of employees to helpcustomers in providing prompt timely services.
FIVE ‘GAPS’ THAT CAUSE UNSUCCESSFUL DELIVERYMODEL’DEVELOPED BY A GROUP OF AUTHORS- PARASURAMAN, ZEITHAMLAND BERRY• GAP 1:• Gap between consumer expectation and management perception : This gap arises when themanagement does not correctly perceive what the customers want.GAP 2 :• Gap between management perception and service quality specification : Here themanagement might correctly perceive what the customer wants, but may not set aperformance standard.GAP 3:• Gap between service quality specification and service delivery : This gap may arise owing tothe service personnel. The reasons being poor training, incapability or unwillingness to meetthe set service standard.GAP 4 :• Gap between service delivery and external communication : Consumer expectations arehighly influenced by statements made by company representatives and advertisements. Thegap arises when these assumed expectations are not fulfilled at the time of delivery of theservice.GAP 5:• Gap between expected service and experienced service : This gap arises when the consumermisinterprets the service quality.
SERVICE QUALITY GAPS IN THEFOLLOWING AREAS:BANKING SERVICESPUBLIC TRANSPORT SERVICEELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTIONAIRLINES
Banking sector• With regards to credibility and tangibles, service delivery farexceeds expectations.• With regards to security and responsiveness, service deliveryexceeds expectations.• With regards to access, service delivery is on par with expectations.• With regards to communication and reliability, expectations farexceeds service delivery and hence, depicts areas for drasticimprovement.• With regards to courtesy and understanding the customer,expectations exceeds service delivery and hence, depicts areas forimprovement.• With regards to competence, expectations exceed service deliveryby a small margin and hence, slight improvement will be beneficial.
• If these areas are improved, Gaps 1 to 5 will beaddressed especially since:• Communication and understanding the customeraffects Gap 1.• Communication and reliability affects Gaps 2 and4.• Communication and courtesy affects Gap 3.• Communication, understanding the customer,reliability and courtesy affects Gap 5.
Public transport• TANGIBLES• Adequate equipment & infrastructure at stations• Physical Facilities like Lighting, seating and Toilets are OK• APPEARANCE• Time Tables, Display Boards etc are visually appealing.• REALIABILITY• accurate in Record keeping• Does not perform Service Correctly
• RESPONSIVENES• staff does not tell exactly when services will be performed• Railway employees are not always willing to help• Employees are too busy to respond• ASSURANCE• are trustworthy• safety measures are not adequate• EMPATHY• are not convenient to all passengers• Does not give personnel attention• It is easy to plan a journey
• Gap 1-not enough interaction with the top level-employees not willing to help always-staffs are not well informed.• Gap 2-inadequate service-standards are low-staffs are lazy
• Gap 3- does not provide service correctly.- misunderstanding• Gap 4- not good as expected- misinterpretation by customers• Gap 5- convenient to travel for some.
Electricity distribution• 1. There is a clear gap between the quality of service in these two categories,Domestic Consumers and Public Organization consumers. The Domestic consumersare relatively satisfied with most of the services where as the consumers in thePublic Organization are much more dissatisfied.• 2. The major factor for the low level of satisfaction of the domestic consumers isdue to the very poor rating for the advance information and notices which showsthat the power distribution company is complacent and in future it needs to bemore alert and inform the consumers in advance so that the consumers can planaccording to the information.• 3. Both the categories of consumers have given a relatively high rating for theutility service workforce and the availability of electricians for maintenance andrectification which shows that the company has enough resources and iscompetent to handle the existing complaints and capacity.• 4. In case of public organization consumers the high rating for the last two indicesshow that the company is handling personal complaint and issues (Decisions andsteps taken concerning a single person) relatively well.
Gap 1 –not knowing what customersexpect• Insufficient marketing research• Inadequate use of marketing research• Lack of interaction between managers andcustomers• Insufficient communication between contactemployees and managers
• Lack of market segmentation• Focus on transaction rather than relationship• Focus on new customer rather than oldcustomer.
Gap2- not selecting the right servicedesigns and standards• Inadequate standardization of servicebehaviors and designs• Absence of formal process for setting servicequality goals• Lack of customer defined standards• Inadequate service leadership
Gap 3- not delivering to servicestandards• Ineffective recruitment• Poor employee technology job fit• Inappropriate evaluation and compensationsystem• Lack of empowerment and teamwork
Gap 4 – not delivering propercommunication• Over promising in advertisement and personalselling• Difference in policies in branches• Insufficient customer education
Gap 5 – service experience• Over caring of customers.• Frequent disturbance by employees