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Indian railway services

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  • 1. SERVICE OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT INDIAN RAILWAY PASSENGER SERVICES 10/7/2013 1 K.KEERTHI (DM14229)
  • 2. INTRODUCTION  Railways were first introduced to India in 1853. By 1947, there were forty-two rail systems. In 1951 the systems were nationalized, thus Indian Railways, becoming one of the largest networks in the world.  Indian Railways has 114,500 km of total track over a route of 65,000 km and 7,500 stations. It has the world's fourth largest railway network after those of United States, Russia and China.  The railways carry over 30 million passengers and 2.8 million tons of freight daily. It is the world's 2nd largest commercial or utility employer, by number of employees, with more than 1.36 million employees.  Indian Railways operates long distance and suburban rail systems on a multi gauge network of broad, meter and narrow gauges.  It also owns locomotive and coach production facilities. As for rolling stock, IR owns over 240,000 (freight) wagons, 60,000 coaches and 9,000 locomotives. PRODUCT OFFERING:  Passenger services  Freight services 10/7/2013 2
  • 3. SERVICE CONCEPT SERVICE DELIVERY SYSTEM OPERATING STRATEGY SERVICE VALUE DEFINITION- safe and dependable train services 10/7/2013 3 Festival and seasonal special trains Model and modern stations Pension facilities for employees Different modes of booking Availability of facilities according to different classes Covering 115000 km of total track with 7500 trains Notified standard for various services courteous & efficient counter service adequate passenger amenities responsive and effective grievance redressal
  • 4. INPUTS PROCESS OUTPUT Engine Announcement of trains Passenger journey Boogies Train arrival Arrival Human resources Passenger arrival Porter services Technology Porter services Ticket check Electricity PNR status check Passenger departure Power Boarding Passenger Journey experience Tack Train departure Ticket booking Ticket checking Stations Train services as per the Class Catering facilities Security check First aid facilities Security Maintenance of train Maintenance of station Engineering & Mechanical Laundry 10/7/2013 4
  • 5. SERVICE DELIVERY SYSTEM CUSTOMER MANAGEMENT: •24*7 Customer service – in the form of SMS or Call •E-ticketing for reserved segment and Janasadharan ticket booking sewaks and Gramin ticketing booking sewaks for unreserved segment •automated PNR status •Complaints and suggestions taken from customers •Porter facility •Security arrangement on board the trains •Provision of catering services •Waiting Hall facility •Model and Modern stations- for provision of upgraded passenger amenities •Facilities for physically challenged •Break van facility –for excess luggage EMPLOYEE MANAGEMENT: •Pension facilities for retired staff •Pass entitlements: Free travel facilities •Leave entitlements: 15 days- Leave on average pay, 10 days- Leave on Half average pay, 8 days- Casual leave •Medical facilities: Free medical treatment for serving and retired employees •Accommodation: Quarters facility •Railways schools for employee’s children, Scholarships for technical education under staff benefit 10/7/2013 5
  • 6. QUALITY MANAGEMENT •Maintenance of trains •Maintenance of Stations •Frequents surprise Inspections by higher officials •Complaint forum in Online portal CAPACITY PLANNING: •Special trains on festivals •Seasonal trains •Tatkal booking •Increasing the number of trains •Increasing the number of boogies FACILITY PLANNING: •Availability of different Classes •Security facility in train •Medical facilities •Catering services 10/7/2013 6 SERVICE DELIVERY SYSTEM Contd’
  • 7. LOCATION PLANNING: •Divided into sixteen divisions •114,500 Km of total track over a route of 65,ooo Km and 7500 trains PROCESS PLANNING: •E-ticket, I-ticket, direct- ticket booking available •Availability of cancellation and re-booking, tatkal booking •Porter services •Waiting Halls •Automated Display of schedule •Automated announcement of departure •Reservation Chart preparation •Display of platform numbers, display of coach numbers on the platform •Catering services 10/7/2013 7 SERVICE DELIVERY SYSTEM Contd’
  • 8. QUALITY MANAGEMENT 1.SERVICE QUALITY ATTRIBUTES 10/7/2013 8 •Railways are accurate in Record Keeping. •Railways are accurate in timing of Trains. •Railways performs Service Correctly. •When you have problems Railways shows sincere interest in solving it. •Railways adheres to punctuality of Trains. RELIABILITY •Indian Railways is trustworthy. •You feel safe in your travel. •Railway employees are courteous with customers. •Railway employees have knowledge to answer customer questions. ASSURANCE
  • 9. •Railway staffs tell exactly when services will be performed. •Railway employees give prompt service to customers. •Railway employees are always willing to help. •Railway employees are never too busy to respond to customer requests. RESPONSIVENESS •Railways give individual attention. •Railway operations are convenient to passengers. •Railway employees give personnel attention. •It is easy to plan a railway journey. EMPATHY •Railway has modern looking equipment & infrastructure at stations and trains. •2. Railways Physical Facilities like Lighting, seating and Toilets are OK. •3. Staffs of Railways are neat in Appearance. •4. Time Tables, Display Boards etc are visually appealing. PHYSICAL EVIDENCE 10/7/2013 9 SERVICE QUALITY ATTRIBUTES Contd’
  • 10. 2. SERVICE QUALITY GAP ANALYSIS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Perception Avg. Expectation Avg. 10/7/2013 10 Dimension Perception Avg. Expectation Avg. Tangibles 2.92 5.68 Reliability 2.8 6.05 Responsiven ess 2.9 5.45 Assurance 3.61 5.87 Empathy 2.96 5.5
  • 11. Gap in the Reliability is higher which means, it is Railway’s weakest dimension. The most important dimension is Reliability. The least important dimension is Responsiveness. The most satisfying dimension is Assurance. The least satisfying dimension is Reliability. 10/7/2013 11 SERVICE QUALITY GAP ANALYSIS Contd’
  • 12. PROCESS PLANNING FACTORY SHOP Mass Service PROFESSIONAL 10/7/2013 12 Capital Intensive Labor Intensive Customization Low High Railw ays 1.SERVICE CLASSIFICATION
  • 13. 2.PROCESS STRATEGY Boarding stage Journey stage Arrival 10/7/2013 13 Process Type F.O/B.O Booking counter Runner F.O Data base and reservation system Runner B.O Issue of ticket Runner F.O Porter services Runner F.O Reservation chart preparation Runner B.O Laundry Runner B.O Security Runner B.O Maintenance of station Runner B.O Maintenance of Train Runner B.O CORE PROCESS SUPPLEMENTARY PROCESS
  • 14. 3.SERVICE BLUE PRINT 10/7/2013 14 Service and scripts Enquiry stage Reservation System Boarding Stage Journey Stage Arrival at the station Physical evidence customerContact (Visible) Invisible Process Booking Counter, Sound and Tone of the representativ e Booking Counter, Sound and Tone of Person and ticket Seats, toilets, windo ws, cleanli ness- The list Of Passe nger Railway Station, Voice of Announcem ents, Train appearanc e Food, pillows & sheets Ticket checker uniform, list of other passenge rs Noise of the trains, tracks and signals Tea stall, Annou nceme nts of trains Enquiry Board the train Journey start Gets Ticket checke d Receive Food and facilities Arrives at destinati on and hires a coolie Check PNR status Arrives at the station and hires coolie if required Reservatio n Gives Required Info. Ticket checker checke d ticket Deliver food and bedding Takes the bag to the taxi Take the Bags to the boogie Issue the ticket Driver starts the train Preparati on of list and putting at required places Invisible Process Database and reservation system Rail traffic operator Provide with list of passenger s and other info Prepare food and clean the bed
  • 15. Delay in arrivals and departures of trains. Poor Railway traffic management. Poor catering facilities inside the train. Poor condition of tangibles inside the train as well as on the stations. Only one track in many regions. Difficulty in purchasing tickets at the counters. Poor capacity utilization. Frequent failure of server for online booking. Poor and last moment management of waitlisted tickets. Unethical behavior of ticket collectors. 10/7/2013 15 The following bottlenecks were observed in the blueprinting:
  • 16. 4. METRICS Process Standard Announcement of trains 10-15 min in advance of arrival Train arrival On time Train departure On time Ticket checking 3 min Booking counter 5 min Issue of ticket 2 min Reservation chart preparation For trains that departure before 12:00 noon, chart should be prepared before 08:00PM of previous day. For trains after 12:00 noon, should be prepared before four hours 10/7/2013 16
  • 17. CAPACITY PLANNING Capacity is created (or destroyed) by a host of factors, all interrelated. Capacity is not only infrastructure issue but rolling stock, motive power, employees and operating strategies (size of trains, speed of trains, timing of trains, etc.) are all part of Capacity. capacity constraints: •shortage of coaches •overcrowded trains •low space capacity •old and outdated seats Demand is large and shortage of time, labor and facilities make the problem worse. we need to identify demand patterns for different capacity constraints. 10/7/2013 17
  • 18. Travelling in peak hours is especially high. Non-frequent travelers also prefer to travel in nights to save the day time for work. Demand patterns can be analyzed using large available data with Indian railways. For increasing infrastructure as well as maintaining the existing infrastructure, labor is a must require input. Labor supply is not same every time and is dependent on the business cycle. Demand for facilities may increase due to delay in arriving time of trains at station, weather conditions, frequent travelling etc. Variables like weather conditions cannot be controlled, so we see a random demand fluctuation in use of facilities 10/7/2013 18 Capacity Constraints Demand patterns Time Charting demand patterns Labor Predictable cycles Facilities Random demand fluctuation CAPACITY PLANNING Contd’
  • 19. RECOMMENDATIONS There is a strong need to bring some private player into catering services to enhance the quality of catering. Proper mechanism of maintaining time table should be implemented to enhance the punctuality. More no. of ticket counters should be built, duration of booking should be increased also. Ticket booking staffs need to work very efficiently and should be given proper training to deal with passengers. Capacity of its existing online booking server should be increased 10/7/2013 19 Analyzed various bottlenecks present in the entire service delivery system can be eliminated by :
  • 20. Railways needs to enhance the conditions of seats in the compartment and need to maintain proper sanitation. Railways needs to work a lot to manage its demand and capacity by proper utilization of their resources. . Proper monitoring of unethical behavior of railway employees should be there. 10/7/2013 20 RECOMMENDATIONS Contd’
  • 21. Nature of Constraints How to overcome it? Time Increasing the frequency of trains at peak times Enhancing speed and safety Labor Maintaining proper supply of labor Replacing machines with human labor. Facilities Availability of monthly passes and quarterly passes, Concession for students Cleanliness 10/7/2013 21 To manage Capacity: RECOMMENDATIONS Contd’
  • 22. Developing Complementary services- Collaborating with hotel industry especially for tourist spots. Improving the catering facilities by involving private players. Promoting off-Peak demand- Lowering fares for special occasions and off-peak season. Introducing special discounts on purchase of bulk tickets. Modifying timing and location of service delivery- Improvising upon the running schedule of each train. Timely modification in extended routes of different trains. Stretch time, labor, facilities and equipment- Maximum utilization of the current capacity to enhance the tangible facilities in the train as well as on the stations. 10/7/2013 22 Following strategies can be adopted for managing demand to match capacity: RECOMMENDATIONS Contd’