Railways were first introduced to India in 1853. By 1947, there were forty-two rail
systems. In 1951 the systems were nationalized, thus Indian Railways, becoming one of
the largest networks in the world.
Indian Railways has 114,500 km of total track over a route of 65,000 km and 7,500
stations. It has the world's fourth largest railway network after those of United
States, Russia and China.
The railways carry over 30 million passengers and 2.8 million tons of freight daily. It is
the world's 2nd largest commercial or utility employer, by number of employees, with
more than 1.36 million employees.
Indian Railways operates long distance and suburban rail systems on a multi gauge
network of broad, meter and narrow gauges.
It also owns locomotive and coach production facilities. As for rolling stock, IR owns
over 240,000 (freight) wagons, 60,000 coaches and 9,000 locomotives.
SERVICE DELIVERY SYSTEM
km of total track
with 7500 trains
responsive and effective
INPUTS PROCESS OUTPUT
Engine Announcement of trains Passenger journey
Boogies Train arrival Arrival
Human resources Passenger arrival Porter services
Technology Porter services Ticket check
Electricity PNR status check Passenger departure
Power Boarding Passenger Journey experience
Tack Train departure
Ticket booking Ticket checking
Stations Train services as per the Class
Catering facilities Security check
First aid facilities
Maintenance of train
Maintenance of station
Engineering & Mechanical
SERVICE DELIVERY SYSTEM
•24*7 Customer service – in the form of SMS or Call
•E-ticketing for reserved segment and Janasadharan ticket booking sewaks and Gramin ticketing
booking sewaks for unreserved segment
•automated PNR status
•Complaints and suggestions taken from customers
•Security arrangement on board the trains
•Provision of catering services
•Waiting Hall facility
•Model and Modern stations- for provision of upgraded passenger amenities
•Facilities for physically challenged
•Break van facility –for excess luggage
•Pension facilities for retired staff
•Pass entitlements: Free travel facilities
•Leave entitlements: 15 days- Leave on average pay, 10 days- Leave on Half average pay, 8
days- Casual leave
•Medical facilities: Free medical treatment for serving and retired employees
•Accommodation: Quarters facility
•Railways schools for employee’s children, Scholarships for technical education under staff
•Maintenance of trains
•Maintenance of Stations
•Frequents surprise Inspections by higher officials
•Complaint forum in Online portal
•Special trains on festivals
•Increasing the number of trains
•Increasing the number of boogies
•Availability of different Classes
•Security facility in train
SERVICE DELIVERY SYSTEM Contd’
•Divided into sixteen divisions
•114,500 Km of total track over a route of 65,ooo Km and 7500 trains
•E-ticket, I-ticket, direct- ticket booking available
•Availability of cancellation and re-booking, tatkal booking
•Automated Display of schedule
•Automated announcement of departure
•Reservation Chart preparation
•Display of platform numbers, display of coach numbers on the platform
SERVICE DELIVERY SYSTEM Contd’
1.SERVICE QUALITY ATTRIBUTES
•Railways are accurate in Record Keeping.
•Railways are accurate in timing of Trains.
•Railways performs Service Correctly.
•When you have problems Railways shows sincere
interest in solving it.
•Railways adheres to punctuality of Trains.
•Indian Railways is trustworthy.
•You feel safe in your travel.
•Railway employees are courteous with customers.
•Railway employees have knowledge to answer
•Railway staffs tell exactly when services will be
•Railway employees give prompt service to customers.
•Railway employees are always willing to help.
•Railway employees are never too busy to respond to
•Railways give individual attention.
•Railway operations are convenient to passengers.
•Railway employees give personnel attention.
•It is easy to plan a railway journey.
•Railway has modern looking equipment & infrastructure
at stations and trains.
•2. Railways Physical Facilities like Lighting, seating and
Toilets are OK.
•3. Staffs of Railways are neat in Appearance.
•4. Time Tables, Display Boards etc are visually appealing.
SERVICE QUALITY ATTRIBUTES Contd’
Gap in the Reliability is higher which means, it is
Railway’s weakest dimension.
The most important dimension is Reliability.
The least important dimension is Responsiveness.
The most satisfying dimension is Assurance.
The least satisfying dimension is Reliability.
SERVICE QUALITY GAP ANALYSIS Contd’
Mass Service PROFESSIONAL
Process Type F.O/B.O
Booking counter Runner F.O
Data base and reservation system Runner B.O
Issue of ticket Runner F.O
Porter services Runner F.O
Reservation chart preparation Runner B.O
Laundry Runner B.O
Security Runner B.O
Maintenance of station Runner B.O
Maintenance of Train Runner B.O
CORE PROCESS SUPPLEMENTARY PROCESS
3.SERVICE BLUE PRINT
Boarding Stage Journey Stage Arrival
of list and
with list of
Delay in arrivals and departures of trains.
Poor Railway traffic management.
Poor catering facilities inside the train.
Poor condition of tangibles inside the train as well as on the stations.
Only one track in many regions.
Difficulty in purchasing tickets at the counters.
Poor capacity utilization.
Frequent failure of server for online booking.
Poor and last moment management of waitlisted tickets.
Unethical behavior of ticket collectors.
The following bottlenecks were observed in the blueprinting:
Announcement of trains 10-15 min in advance of arrival
Train arrival On time
Train departure On time
Ticket checking 3 min
Booking counter 5 min
Issue of ticket 2 min
Reservation chart preparation For trains that departure before 12:00
noon, chart should be prepared before
08:00PM of previous day. For trains after
12:00 noon, should be prepared before
destroyed) by a
Capacity is not
issue but rolling
of trains, speed
of trains, timing
of trains, etc.)
are all part of
time, labor and
we need to
Travelling in peak hours is especially high. Non-frequent travelers also prefer to
travel in nights to save the day time for work. Demand patterns can be analyzed
using large available data with Indian railways.
For increasing infrastructure as well as maintaining the existing infrastructure, labor is
a must require input. Labor supply is not same every time and is dependent on the
Demand for facilities may increase due to delay in arriving time of trains at
station, weather conditions, frequent travelling etc. Variables like weather
conditions cannot be controlled, so we see a random demand fluctuation in use of
Capacity Constraints Demand patterns
Time Charting demand patterns
Labor Predictable cycles
Facilities Random demand
CAPACITY PLANNING Contd’
There is a strong need to bring some private
player into catering services to enhance the
quality of catering.
Proper mechanism of maintaining time table
should be implemented to enhance the
More no. of ticket counters should be built,
duration of booking should be increased also.
Ticket booking staffs need to work very
efficiently and should be given proper training
to deal with passengers.
Capacity of its existing online booking server
should be increased
Analyzed various bottlenecks present in the entire service delivery system can be eliminated by :
Railways needs to enhance the conditions of
seats in the compartment and need to
maintain proper sanitation.
Railways needs to work a lot to manage its
demand and capacity by proper utilization of
their resources. .
Proper monitoring of unethical behavior of
railway employees should be there.
Nature of Constraints How to overcome it?
Time Increasing the frequency of trains at peak
Enhancing speed and safety
Labor Maintaining proper supply of labor
Replacing machines with human labor.
Facilities Availability of monthly passes and
quarterly passes, Concession for students
To manage Capacity:
Developing Complementary services- Collaborating with hotel industry
especially for tourist spots. Improving the catering facilities by involving
Promoting off-Peak demand- Lowering fares for special occasions and
off-peak season. Introducing special discounts on purchase of bulk
Modifying timing and location of service delivery- Improvising upon the
running schedule of each train. Timely modification in extended routes of
Stretch time, labor, facilities and equipment- Maximum utilization of the
current capacity to enhance the tangible facilities in the train as well as on
Following strategies can be adopted for managing demand to match