Methods of Palm print, Ear Biometrics and DNA.
Reg No: 11MSE0251
Faculty: Srinivasa Permual
Palm print recognition inherently implements many of the same matching
characteristics that have allowed fingerprint recognition to be one of the most
well-known and best publicized biometrics. Both palm and finger biometrics are
represented by the information presented in a friction ridge impression. This
information combines ridge flow, ridge characteristics, and ridge structure of the
raised portion of the epidermis. The data represented by these friction ridge
impressions allows a determination that corresponding areas of friction ridge
impressions either originated from the same source or could not have been made
by the same source. Because fingerprints and palms have both uniqueness and
permanence, they have been used for more than a century as a trusted form of
identification. However, palm recognition has been slower in becoming
automated due to some restraints in computing capabilities and live-scan
The five modules are described below:
(1) Palm print Acquisition:
A palm print image is captured by our palm print scanner and then the
AC signal is converted into a digital signal, which is transmitted to a computer for
A coordinate system is set up on basis of the boundaries of fingers so as to
extract a central part of a palm print for feature extraction.
(3) Textured Feature Extraction:
We apply a 2-D Gabor filter to extract textural information from the central
A distance measure is used to measure the similarity of two palm prints.
It is used to store the templates obtained from the enrolment phase.
The block diagram of our method is shown in figure 1. As shown, the proposed
methods include three stages: palm detection, feature extraction and template
matching. When the system is in enrolment phase, the extracted features of palm
(ROI) are stored in system database. When the system is in test phase, extracted
template of new image is matched with stored templates in system databases.
Our proposed method is simple and significant algorithm that is invariant to
rotation, translation and scale variation.
Edge detection by
In some biometric systems based on palm print features a few pegs are used
to positioning the user hand. We removed pegs due to increase user acceptance
and just required from user to separating fingers while acquiring image. In this
stage, fingers extremities are used to identify the palm ROI. First, the hand
contour is extracted and distance between contour points and gravity point are
Then locally extremes are labelled as peak and valley point. Using these
labelled points we could obtained the end points of index and small fingers. In
fact, this line is passes through these two points (p1 and p2). Finally, the square
region is detected as palm ROI.
In this step a feature vector is extracted from palm ROI that is include two substeps. (a) Projection of edged palm ROI, (b): autocorrelation method. As this
paper is based on radon transform and autocorrelation method, first we review
briefly these two methods. Note that the edge of image is found by Soble operator.
(a): signature contour.
(b): palm ROI .
Advantages of Palm print Biometrics:
Since the palm area is much larger, hence more distinctive features can be
captured compared to fingerprints. This makes it more even more suitable
in identification systems than fingerprints.
Disadvantages of Palm print Biometrics:
The palm print scanners are usually bulkier and expensive since they need
to capture a larger area than the fingerprints scanners.
Biometrics are unique physical or behavioral characteristics of an individual
which can be measured and thus compared to accurately verify or identify an
Universal: each person should possess the characteristics.
Unique: no two persons should share the characteristics.
Permanent: the characteristics should not change.
Collectable: easily presentable to a sensor and quantifiable.
EAR BIOMETRICS METHODS:
There are at least three methods for ear identification:
(i) Taking a photo of an ear,
(ii) Taking “earmarks” by pushing ear against a flat glass and
(iii) Taking thermo gram pictures of the ear.
Alfred Iannarelli has made two large-scale ear identification studies in 1989. In
the first study there were over 10,000 ears drawn from a randomly selected sample
in California. The second study was for researching identical and non-identical
twins. These cases support the hypothesis about ear uniqueness. Even the
identical twins had similar, but not identical, ear physiological features.
Alfred Iannarelli had been working 30 years as deputy sheriff in Alameda County,
California, as the chief of the campus police at California State University at
Hayward and in several other law enforcement positions. He became interested in
ears in 1948 and over the next 14 years classified about 7,000 ear’s from
photographs. The first version of the book describing his classification method
was published 1964. The second edition was published in 1989. Iannarelli does not
have academic background for his studies. (Morgan, 1999).
Ear identification can be done from photographs or from video. There is another
possibility: the ear can be pressed against some material, e.g. glass, and the
‘earmark’ can be used as a biometric. This has been used in crime solving. In
England four delinquents have been judged between 1996-1998 by using only the
earmarks (Bamber, 2001). However In the Netherlands the court decided that the
earmarks are not reliable enough for judging (Forensic-Evidence News, 2000). The
Dutch found out that the earmarks usually doesn’t have enough details for
reliable identification. Also when there are no dependable proofs that ears are
unique, it was decided that ear identification cannot be used as evidence.
Thermo gram pictures:
In case the ear is partially occluded by hair the hair can be masked out of the
image by using thermo gram pictures (see figure 3). In the thermo gram pictures
different colours and textures are used to find different parts of ear. In the figure 3
the subject’s hair is between 27.2 and 29.7 degrees Celsius while the outer ear
areas range from 30.0 to 37.2 degrees Celsius. The ear is quite easy to detect and
localizable using Thermo gram imagery by searching high temperature areas.
(Burge et al., 2000).
Advantages – disadvantages:
Ears are smaller than e.g. faces reduced spatial resolution
Ears are not as variable as e.g. faces
We have almost none adjectives to describe ears: we can recognize people
from faces but can we recognize them from ears?
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Biometrics
Doctors now use genetic tests to detect specific types of inherited disease such as
Huntington's disease or cystic fibrosis. Tests have also been developed to identify
an inherited predisposition to certain types of breast cancer and Alzheimer's
disease. As more is learned about the information stored in DNA, DNA tests may
be used more widely in preventative medicine to help individuals avoid specific
foods or certain environmental conditions. DNA analysis is no longer confined to
genetic and medical research. Forensic science relies heavily on the ability of DNA
to identify the source of biological substances and determine who is most likely to
have committed a crime. This ability to identify an individual is enhanced by the
variety of substances that contain DNA, including blood, semen, saliva, hair,
urine, bone, teeth, feces, and tissues. Using saliva, the FBI were able to match
DNA samples from letters mailed to relatives by Theodore Kaczynski with DNA
obtained from stamps on letters mailed by the Unabomber.
Identification of specimens using DNA has had other benefits, in one
third of the cases where this technique has been used, DNA analysis has been able
to exonerate people wrongly accused of crimes. Prisoners wrongly accused of rape
or murders have been freed on basis of DNA evidence. DNA analysis is now a
common tool for establishing paternity, and it has been called on to identify
remains after tragedies such as airline accidents and the inferno at the Branch
Davidian complex in Waco, Texas. Anthropologists are using DNA analysis to
study the migration of human beings across the oceans and historians employ
these techniques to identify genetic disease in famous individuals. The variation
of DNA sequences between species and individuals has also been useful for
wildlife biologists attempting to track endangered species.
The prime features of the structure which can be seen here are:
– two strands of DNA wrap around each other
– it is a right-handed helix
– there is a 2-fold axis of symmetry
– The two strands are colored differently to show that two
complementary molecules make up the duplex.
Is DNA a Biometric?
First of all, DNA differs from standard biometrics in several ways:
DNA requires a tangible physical sample as opposed to an impression,
image, or recording.
DNA matching is not done in real-time, and currently not all stages of
comparison are automated.
DNA matching does not employ templates or feature extraction, but
rather represents the comparison of actual samples.
Regardless of these basic differences, DNA is a type of biometric inasmuch as it is
the use of a physiological characteristic to verify or determine identity. DNA
testing is a technology with a high degree of accuracy however, the possibility of
sampling contamination and degradation will pose an impact on the accuracy of
Advances of DNA Biometrics:
The analysis of DNA took weeks and even months to process. With steady and
resilient research, developers have been able to reduce the entire process down to
less than 30 minutes. Organizations such as NEC have developed the world’s first
portable human DNA analyzer. This unit integrates all steps of the DNA analysis
process and is able to do so in approximately 25 minutes (Tech News). Although
this is completely unsuitable for access to a secure facility and is unacceptable to
use in a Security Network environment, advances are being made to expedite the
analysis process. While biometric standards, privacy issues, financial
expectations, accuracy and various other topics are in question, developers
continue to work closely with the NSTC and other technological organizations to
investigate and improve the DNA biometric process.