Biometrics system


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Biometrics system

  1. 1. BIOMETRICS SYSTEM ASSIGNMENT Topic: Methods of Palm print, Ear Biometrics and DNA. Submitted by Name:B.Keerthana Reg No: 11MSE0251 Slot: C2 Faculty: Srinivasa Permual PALMPRINT RECOGNITION
  2. 2. Palm print recognition inherently implements many of the same matching characteristics that have allowed fingerprint recognition to be one of the most well-known and best publicized biometrics. Both palm and finger biometrics are represented by the information presented in a friction ridge impression. This information combines ridge flow, ridge characteristics, and ridge structure of the raised portion of the epidermis. The data represented by these friction ridge impressions allows a determination that corresponding areas of friction ridge impressions either originated from the same source or could not have been made by the same source. Because fingerprints and palms have both uniqueness and permanence, they have been used for more than a century as a trusted form of identification. However, palm recognition has been slower in becoming automated due to some restraints in computing capabilities and live-scan technologies. The five modules are described below: (1) Palm print Acquisition: A palm print image is captured by our palm print scanner and then the AC signal is converted into a digital signal, which is transmitted to a computer for further processing. (2) Pre-processing: A coordinate system is set up on basis of the boundaries of fingers so as to extract a central part of a palm print for feature extraction. (3) Textured Feature Extraction: We apply a 2-D Gabor filter to extract textural information from the central part. (4) Matching: A distance measure is used to measure the similarity of two palm prints. (5) Database: It is used to store the templates obtained from the enrolment phase. Proposed Algorithm:
  3. 3. The block diagram of our method is shown in figure 1. As shown, the proposed methods include three stages: palm detection, feature extraction and template matching. When the system is in enrolment phase, the extracted features of palm (ROI) are stored in system database. When the system is in test phase, extracted template of new image is matched with stored templates in system databases. Our proposed method is simple and significant algorithm that is invariant to rotation, translation and scale variation. Original image Contourextraction Palm detection Database ROI extraction Edge detection by Sobel operator Radon transform Autocorrelation method Palm detection: In some biometric systems based on palm print features a few pegs are used to positioning the user hand. We removed pegs due to increase user acceptance and just required from user to separating fingers while acquiring image. In this stage, fingers extremities are used to identify the palm ROI. First, the hand contour is extracted and distance between contour points and gravity point are obtained. Then locally extremes are labelled as peak and valley point. Using these labelled points we could obtained the end points of index and small fingers. In fact, this line is passes through these two points (p1 and p2). Finally, the square region is detected as palm ROI. Feature extraction: M a t c h i n g
  4. 4. In this step a feature vector is extracted from palm ROI that is include two substeps. (a) Projection of edged palm ROI, (b): autocorrelation method. As this paper is based on radon transform and autocorrelation method, first we review briefly these two methods. Note that the edge of image is found by Soble operator. (a): signature contour. (b): palm ROI . Advantages of Palm print Biometrics: Since the palm area is much larger, hence more distinctive features can be captured compared to fingerprints. This makes it more even more suitable in identification systems than fingerprints. Disadvantages of Palm print Biometrics: The palm print scanners are usually bulkier and expensive since they need to capture a larger area than the fingerprints scanners.
  5. 5. Ear biometrics Biometrics are unique physical or behavioral characteristics of an individual which can be measured and thus compared to accurately verify or identify an individual. Universal: each person should possess the characteristics. Unique: no two persons should share the characteristics. Permanent: the characteristics should not change. Collectable: easily presentable to a sensor and quantifiable.
  6. 6. EAR BIOMETRICS METHODS: There are at least three methods for ear identification: (i) Taking a photo of an ear, (ii) Taking “earmarks” by pushing ear against a flat glass and (iii) Taking thermo gram pictures of the ear. Photo comparison: Alfred Iannarelli has made two large-scale ear identification studies in 1989. In the first study there were over 10,000 ears drawn from a randomly selected sample in California. The second study was for researching identical and non-identical twins. These cases support the hypothesis about ear uniqueness. Even the identical twins had similar, but not identical, ear physiological features. Alfred Iannarelli had been working 30 years as deputy sheriff in Alameda County, California, as the chief of the campus police at California State University at Hayward and in several other law enforcement positions. He became interested in ears in 1948 and over the next 14 years classified about 7,000 ear’s from photographs. The first version of the book describing his classification method was published 1964. The second edition was published in 1989. Iannarelli does not have academic background for his studies. (Morgan, 1999).
  7. 7. Earmarks: Ear identification can be done from photographs or from video. There is another possibility: the ear can be pressed against some material, e.g. glass, and the ‘earmark’ can be used as a biometric. This has been used in crime solving. In England four delinquents have been judged between 1996-1998 by using only the earmarks (Bamber, 2001). However In the Netherlands the court decided that the earmarks are not reliable enough for judging (Forensic-Evidence News, 2000). The Dutch found out that the earmarks usually doesn’t have enough details for reliable identification. Also when there are no dependable proofs that ears are unique, it was decided that ear identification cannot be used as evidence. Thermo gram pictures: In case the ear is partially occluded by hair the hair can be masked out of the image by using thermo gram pictures (see figure 3). In the thermo gram pictures different colours and textures are used to find different parts of ear. In the figure 3 the subject’s hair is between 27.2 and 29.7 degrees Celsius while the outer ear areas range from 30.0 to 37.2 degrees Celsius. The ear is quite easy to detect and localizable using Thermo gram imagery by searching high temperature areas. (Burge et al., 2000). Advantages – disadvantages: Ears are smaller than e.g. faces  reduced spatial resolution Ears are not as variable as e.g. faces We have almost none adjectives to describe ears: we can recognize people from faces but can we recognize them from ears?
  8. 8. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Biometrics Doctors now use genetic tests to detect specific types of inherited disease such as Huntington's disease or cystic fibrosis. Tests have also been developed to identify an inherited predisposition to certain types of breast cancer and Alzheimer's disease. As more is learned about the information stored in DNA, DNA tests may be used more widely in preventative medicine to help individuals avoid specific foods or certain environmental conditions. DNA analysis is no longer confined to genetic and medical research. Forensic science relies heavily on the ability of DNA to identify the source of biological substances and determine who is most likely to have committed a crime. This ability to identify an individual is enhanced by the variety of substances that contain DNA, including blood, semen, saliva, hair, urine, bone, teeth, feces, and tissues. Using saliva, the FBI were able to match DNA samples from letters mailed to relatives by Theodore Kaczynski with DNA obtained from stamps on letters mailed by the Unabomber. Identification of specimens using DNA has had other benefits, in one third of the cases where this technique has been used, DNA analysis has been able to exonerate people wrongly accused of crimes. Prisoners wrongly accused of rape or murders have been freed on basis of DNA evidence. DNA analysis is now a common tool for establishing paternity, and it has been called on to identify remains after tragedies such as airline accidents and the inferno at the Branch Davidian complex in Waco, Texas. Anthropologists are using DNA analysis to study the migration of human beings across the oceans and historians employ these techniques to identify genetic disease in famous individuals. The variation of DNA sequences between species and individuals has also been useful for wildlife biologists attempting to track endangered species.
  9. 9. DNA structure: The prime features of the structure which can be seen here are: – two strands of DNA wrap around each other – it is a right-handed helix – there is a 2-fold axis of symmetry – The two strands are colored differently to show that two complementary molecules make up the duplex. Is DNA a Biometric? First of all, DNA differs from standard biometrics in several ways: DNA requires a tangible physical sample as opposed to an impression, image, or recording. DNA matching is not done in real-time, and currently not all stages of comparison are automated. DNA matching does not employ templates or feature extraction, but rather represents the comparison of actual samples. Regardless of these basic differences, DNA is a type of biometric inasmuch as it is the use of a physiological characteristic to verify or determine identity. DNA testing is a technology with a high degree of accuracy however, the possibility of sampling contamination and degradation will pose an impact on the accuracy of the method. Advances of DNA Biometrics: The analysis of DNA took weeks and even months to process. With steady and resilient research, developers have been able to reduce the entire process down to less than 30 minutes. Organizations such as NEC have developed the world’s first portable human DNA analyzer. This unit integrates all steps of the DNA analysis process and is able to do so in approximately 25 minutes (Tech News). Although this is completely unsuitable for access to a secure facility and is unacceptable to use in a Security Network environment, advances are being made to expedite the analysis process. While biometric standards, privacy issues, financial expectations, accuracy and various other topics are in question, developers continue to work closely with the NSTC and other technological organizations to investigate and improve the DNA biometric process.