1. Administrative Task Force
Presented December 15, 2009
Updated May 2010
1
2. Task Force Objectives
Given the context of the national economic crisis and the difficulties
Keene faces during this budget cycle that will require addressing fiscal
realities…
• Comprehensively review Keene’s administrative structure and
determine where efficiencies and cost savings may be found.
• Determine the financial benefits of sharing one principal between
two of Keene’s smaller elementary schools. Address the variety of
issues that would accompany such a decision and determine
whether those issues could be managed so that education for
Keene students would not suffer.
• From objectives 1 and 2, present recommendations on how to
move forward.
2
3. Step 1: District by District Comparisons
• The committee looked at how Keene’s district
costs compare to:
– four “like” districts recommended to us by Mark
Joyce Director of the NH School Administrators’
Association (Portsmouth, Exeter/Exeter Regional,
Hampton/Winnacunnet Cooperative, and
Londonderry)
– five additional districts studied after an initial review
of data (Concord, Laconia, Salem, Rochester,
Merrimack)
3
4. Comparative Factors
The committee analyzed these districts across a number of
measures:
• School Level • City Level
– Per pupil spending – Per capita income
– % Free Reduced – Total tax rate
participation
– % SPED rate – Keene only – a quick look
– School performance at the overall tax rate and
– Average school size tax breakdown over time
– A broad array of
administrative costs,
broken out subgroup by
subgroup
4
5. A Word about Numbers
Throughout this report and the accompanying presentation
there is a plethora of numbers. The Task Force tried, whenever
possible, to use the most recent numbers for which comparative
data was available. In many cases, this turned out to be 2008
2009.
For certain categories of information, such as per pupil spending,
the most recent data available at the time was from 20072008.
Our staffing comparison data (from A12B forms) was from 2008
2009. Because 20082009 per pupil expenditures are now
available, those slides have been updated.
Many of these numbers are subject to change even within the
same year (for instance, enrollment). For this reason, some
numbers must be treated as close approximations.
5
6. A Word About DOE Reports
For comparative data, we relied heavily on standard NH Department of
Education reports. In some cases, this limited the ability of the Task Force to
see data in precisely the way we might like.
• For instance, the DOE per pupil expenditure report is for grades K12.
The DOE class size reports only include grades 18 and are divided 12,3
4 and 58 (grouping 5th graders with 6th8th graders).
• Consolidated A12B forms provided a district by district comparison of
staffing numbers, but did not allow us to drill down into elementary,
middle and high school staffing. Though we continue to seek these kinds
of customized reports, progress is slow due to staffing cuts at the DOE
(the department in question has been reduced from 12 employees to 5
in recent years).
• Preschool added an additional element of complexity. In general, we
tried to keep preschool separate because preschool is not contained in
the per pupil expenditure or class size reporting. However, while we
could exclude preschool enrollments and preschool teachers from most
charts, we could not separate out all preschool staff. This shortcoming,
however, was applied equally across all districts studied.
6
7. DISTRICT AND CITY LEVEL
DEMOGRAPHICS
7
8. District Enrollments
(As of Oct 2008)
6,000
5,119 5,278
5,004
5,000 4,499 4,631
4,000 3,656
2,994
3,000 2,600
2,251
2,000
1,225 1,273
995
1,000
0
Districts are K12 unless otherwise noted. These enrollment numbers include
preschool enrollments. Preschool staffing and enrollments are not included in
staffing ratios or per pupil expenditure later in the presentation. 8
9. 20072008 Early Exit and Drop Out
Data by District
25.0%
Annual DropOut % 4 Yr Cum. Rate 21.2%
20.0%
15.0%
11.0% 11.1% 11.3%
9.9%
10.0%
6.7%
5.4% 5.5% 5.8%
5.0% 3.2% 3.8%
2.6% 2.9% 2.9% 2.9%
1.0% 1.4% 1.4% 1.7%
0.8%
0.0%
In 20072008, Keene’s dropout rate equated to 52 students. In 20082009 (numbers
not yet certified by the DOE), the number of students dropping out without earning a
GED is 20.
9
10. % Special Education by District as of
12/1/2008
50% 47%
45%
40% 37%
35%
30%
25%
21%
19% 20%
20% 17%
15% 15% 16% 16%
13% 14%
15%
10%
5%
0%
10
12. 2007 City Level – Demographics
Residents with
Residents with income below Cost of Living
income below 50% of the Median Mean prices in Index (U.S.
the poverty poverty level in Household Per Capita 2007: All Average =
City level in 2007: 2007: Income 2007 Income 2007 housing units: 100)
Merrimack 1.9% 0.7% $87,229 $34,586 $302,969 117.4
Londonderry 2.3% 1.5% $89,714 $36,225 $302,766 117.0
Hampton 3.9% 1.4% $74,892 $41,641 $406,994 122.4
Salem 4.1% 1.6% $75,851 $35,417 $333,438 119.7
Concord 8.0% 3.1% $52,120 $27,211 $251,198 118.6
Rochester 8.4% 3.0% $55,080 $24,891 $188,511 112.4
Exeter 8.7% 5.0% $57,817 $33,378 $240,615 119.9
Laconia 8.9% 3.0% $47,895 $24,875 $222,575 91.2
Portsmouth 9.3% 3.9% $59,013 $37,271 $373,703 126.8
Keene 10.7% 5.7% $47,917 $27,206 $220,901 92.2
12
13. City Level – A Comparison of Per
Capita Income (2007)
13
14. City Level Comparison of the
Total Tax Rates (2008) and Property Valuation
City 2008 /Equalized Local Educ. Other Local State Education Total Tax Rate
Valuation of School
Districts for Local
Taxes (with Utilities)
SALEM 4,623,083,845 6.03 5.64 2.15 13.82
PORTSMOUTH 3,781,039,963 4.89 8.08 2.1 15.07
HAMPTON 3,031,631,500 6.42 7.35 2.23 16.00
LACONIA 2,151,357,301 6.99 7.57 2.22 16.78
LONDONDERRY 3,392,542,383 11.19 5.32 2.17 18.68
ROCHESTER 2,357,398,865 9.09 8.43 2.21 19.73
MERRIMACK 3,219,721,756 12 5.47 2.28 19.75
CONCORD 3,882,616,366 8.91 9.23 2.1 20.24
EXETER 1,591,018,998 11.16 6.91 2.19 20.26
KEENE 1,927,581,987 11.9 13.18 2.2 27.28
14
15. Per Capita Income (2007) with Total Tax Rate (2008) Overlay
15
16. Cost of Living Index Comparison
Cost of Living Index (100= U.S. avg)
140
126.8
119.7 119.9 122.4
117 117.4 118.6
120 112.4
100
100 92.2
91.2
80
60
40
20
0
Laconia Keene U.S. Average Rochester Londonderry Merrimack Concord Salem Exeter Hampton Portsmouth
16
17. Keene Local and State Education Taxes –
% of Total Tax (1999 and 2008)
1999 2008
7.21%
9.53%
Local and State Ed. Local and State Ed.
31.21%
City City
51.71%
County 38.76% County
61.57%
Education is only one piece (51.71%) of the Keene tax burden.
17
18. Keene  % Change in Taxes Raised –
1999 to 2009
18
19. DISTRICT LEVEL STAFFING
COMPARISONS
Based on Data from the FY 2009 Department of Education District
Staffing A12B
19
20. Limits of the Data and Comparisons
• This is a district by district comparison. It does not provide
building level information, or even a breakdown among
elementary*, middle and high school staffing levels. It’s a
big picture, high altitude view.
• It may be helpful to focus more on the direction of the
information and less on any specific number.
• This data can give a broad view of where the Keene School
District is now; any adjustments that may need to be made
will require thoughtful planning.
*Elementary staffing ratios do not include preschool staff or
preschool enrollments. DOE per pupil expenditure data is also
K12.
20
21. Number of Students Per Employee
This category includes all of the Of the eight K12
positions reported by school districts, the average
districts on form A12B:
number of Students/
• fulltime kindergarten teachers
Employee is 6.2
• regular and special education
classroom teacher Keene averages 5.2
• instructional aides Students/Employee
• principals & assistant principals On the other end of the
• guidance counselors graph: Salem has 1,376
• library specialists and staff more students than
• clerical staff and all other non Keene, but employs 12
teaching support staff. fewer people overall.
21
22. Number of Students Per Employee
8.0
7.3
7.0 6.8 6.8
6.4 6.5 6.6
6.3 6.3
5.8 5.9 5.9
6.0
5.4
5.2
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
22
23. Average Number of Students
Per Teacher
This category includes all full Of the eight K12
time equivalent teaching districts, the average
positions reported by school number of Students/
districts on form A12B: Teacher is 12.8
• fulltime equivalent
kindergarten teachers Keene averages 12.0
Students/Teacher
• regular and special education
classroom teacher
• “specials” teachers, Title I
and ESL teachers are
reported as classroom
teachers
23
24. Average Number of Students
Per Teacher
16.0 14.9
14.5
14.0 13.2 13.4 13.6
12.4 12.5 12.8
12.0 12.1
12.0 11.4
10.8
10.4
10.0
8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
24
25. Average Number of Students Per Aide
(Tutors and Paraprofessionals)
Regular instructional aides SPED aides (tutors and
(paras): paras):
In Keene, Regular instructional SPED aides are tutors or
aides are a subset of paraprofessionals based on
paraprofessionals providing individual student need as
classroom support, including noted in the student’s IEP.
Title I paras.
The average number of The average number of
Students/Regular Aide in the Students/SPED Aide in the
eight K12 districts is 183.3 eight K12 districts is 35.5
Keene averages 78.1 Keene averages 23.1
Students/Regular Aide Students/SPED Aide
Note: Preschool paras and aides are included in this data for all districts. The
consolidated A12B data used did not allow them to be separated out. 25
26. Average Number of Students Per
Regular Instructional Aide (Paras)
450.0
406.5
400.0
366.2
350.0
300.0
250.0
193.1
200.0 177.9 183.3
148.3
150.0 137.5
122.2 126.9
115.3
100.0 77.8 78.1
50.0
0.0
0.0
26
27. Average Number of Students
90.0
Per SPED Aide (Tutors and Paras)
82.7
80.0
70.0
60.0
54.5
50.0
41.8 42.2 43.4 43.6
40.0 35.5 35.8 37.1
33.3
30.0 27.4
23.1
20.3
20.0
10.0
0.0
27
28. Average Number of Students Per Aide:
Comparing Keene (K5) to Exeter (K5)
Because Keene’s
instructional aide numbers Students Per Regular aide
are spread across the K12 90.0 77.8
district, a true comparison 80.0
70.0
to Exeter (K5) cannot be 60.0
made based on the 50.0
36.7
original data. 40.0
30.0
However, we know that 20.0
70% of Regular aides are in 10.0
0.0
the elementary schools Keene (K5) Exeter (K5)
(32.2 positions out of 45.9
total)
Student SPED aide
We also know that 68.9%
25.0
of SPED aides are at the 20.3
elementary level (106.2 20.0
positions out of 155 total). 15.0 11.1
With this information, we 10.0
can compare Keene (K5) 5.0
to Exeter (K5) 0.0
Keene (K5) Exeter (K5)
28
29. Students Per Non Instructional
Professional
This category includes Students Per Non
nonteaching education Instructional Professional:
professionals who have not
The average number of
been reported as teachers such
as nurse, resource officer,
Students/Non
curriculum coordinator, OT/ PT Instructional professional
therapist, reading specialist, in the eight K12 districts
speech pathologist, psychologist is 137.6.
and technology coordinator
Keene averages 78.1
Students/Non
Instructional Professional
29
30. Average Number of Students
Per Non Instructional Professional
350.0
307.7
300.0
250.0
200.0 185.1
166.3
155.5
150.0 136.6 137.6
121.5
106.1
93.9
100.0 76.1 78.1
68.9 75.3
50.0
0.0
30
31. Students Per Clerical Position
This category includes all of the Students Per Clerical Position
clerical support staff in the
The average number of
schools such as clerical workers
in the principals’ or guidance
Students/Clerical
offices. This count does not position in the eight K
include clerical staff in the 12 districts is 159.5.
superintendents’ office.
Keene averages 116.3
Students/Clerical
position
31
32. Average Number of Students
Per Clerical Position
250.0 236.1
218.5
200.0 191.7
171.4
155.9 159.5
149.4
150.0 142.7
134.4
127.4
110.5 116.3
106.1
100.0
50.0
0.0
32
33. Number of Students Per Support
Positions (Other)
This category includes all Students Per Support
other support positions not Position
already reported on form The average number of
A12B including: Students/Other Support
• social workers, data
processing, maintenance, bus
position in the eight K
drivers, security and food 12 districts is 58.2.
service workers
Keene averages 53
Students/Other Support
position
33
34. Average Number of Students
Per Support Position
80.0
73.5
69.4
70.0
60.5 61.5
58.2 58.2 59.2 59.4
60.0
53.0 53.8
50.0 45.8
40.0 36.8 37.8
30.0
20.0
10.0
0.0
34
35. Other Staffing Categories
Keene Average of
eight K12
districts
Students/ Guidance 188.6 211.6
Students/ Library specialist &Library support 328.7 331.5
Students/Guidance Students/Library:
The average number of The average number of
Students/Guidance in the Students/Library specialist
eight K12 districts is in the eight K12 districts is
211.6 331.5
Keene averages 188.6 Keene averages 328.7
students/ Guidance Students/Library specialist
35
36. Average K12 Students Per Principal
1600.0 1497.0
1400.0
1273.0
1200.0
1000.0
862.5
800.0 718.0 740.3
597.8 616.0 619.9
600.0 486.0 511.9
403.3 438.1 439.4
400.0
200.0
0.0
If Keene used the average number (616), the difference is approximately 1 principal
position.
Note: Hampton (K8), Exeter (K5), Winnacunnet and Exeter Regional are not K12
districts and are not directly comparable to Keene in this category.
36
37. Note: Per Pupil Spending has been updated to reflect 20082009
numbers.
PER PUPIL SPENDING: HIGH SCHOOL,
MIDDLE SCHOOL, ELEMENTARY
37
38. 20082009 High School Cost Per Pupil
$16,000 $14,553
$13,781
$14,000 $12,553
$11,670 $11,763
$12,000 $11,205 $11,573
$10,440 $10,731
$9,647
$10,000 $8,859
$8,000
$6,000
$4,000
$2,000
$
Salem Rochester Concord Londonderry Keene State Laconia Merrimack Exeter Winnacunnet Portsmouth
Average Regional Cooperative
Cooperative (912 only)
(612 only)
In 20082009, Keene’s average per pupil spending at the high school level was $368 less than
the State Average.
When multiplied by Keene’s 20082009 high school population of 1784 high school students,
Keene spent approximately $656,512 less than Keene would have spent using the average
per pupil cost.
38
39. Keene High School Per Pupil Costs vs.
State Average Costs Since 2000
Based on
enrollments,
Keene what the
Average Cost State Difference/ HS Difference
Year per HS Pupil Average Per Pupil Enrollment translates to:
20082009 $ 11,205 $ 11,573 $ (368) 1784 $ (656,512)
20072008 $ 10,438 $ 10,877 $ (439) 1850 $ (811,336)
20062007 $ 9,893 $ 9,992 $ (99) 1880 $ (186,759)
20052006 $ 9,637 $ 9,431 $ 206 1834 $ 378,079
20042005 $ 9,214 $ 8,982 $ 232 1844 $ 426,904
20032004 $ 8,360 $ 8,503 $ (143) 1861 $ (265,937)
20022003 $ 7,973 $ 8,023 $ (50) 1742 $ (86,281)
20012002 $ 7,608 $ 7,502 $ 106 1698 $ 180,531
20002001 $ 7,687 $ 7,167 $ 520 1659 $ 862,973
39
40. Graph of the Difference between Keene High School
Costs vs. State Average Costs Since 2000
$14,000
Keene Cost per High School Pupil State Average
$12,000 $11,573
$11,205 $10,877
$10,438
$9,893
$10,000 $9,992
$9,637
$9,431 $9,214 $8,982
$8,360 $8,503
$7,608 $7,687
$8,000 $7,973 $8,023 $7,502 $7,167
$6,000
$4,000
$2,000
$
20082009 20072008 20062007 20052006 20042005 20032004 20022003 20012002 20002001
40
41. Average Cost of Principals + APs Per
High School Student
Principal+AP Cost/High School Student
$350.00
$314.53
$300.00
$238.57 $246.79
$250.00
$200.00
$145.81
$150.00
$100.00
$50.00
$
41
42. 20082009 Middle School Cost Per Pupil
16,000.00
13,492.55 13,629.56
14,000.00
12,551.75 12,566.33
11,123.78
12,000.00 10,741.32 $11,160.93
11,271.36
10,169.56
9,587.89
10,000.00
8,346.68
8,000.00
6,000.00
4,000.00
2,000.00

Salem Rochester Londonderry Concord Exeter State Merrimack Keene Laconia Portsmouth Hampton
Regional Average
Cooperative
In 20082009 (the most recent year for which per pupil spending data is available), Keene’s
average per pupil spending at the middle school level was $1391 more than the State
Average.
When multiplied by Keene’s 20082009 middle school population of 708 middle school
students, Keene spent approximately $984,828 more than Keene would have spent using
the average per pupil cost. 42
43. Keene Middle Per Pupil Costs vs. State
Average Costs Since 2000
Based on
enrollments,
Keene Middle what the
Average Cost State Difference/ School Difference
Year per MS Pupil Average Per Pupil Enrollment translates to:
20082009 $ 12,552 $ 11,161 $ 1,391 708 $ 984,828
20072008 $ 11,536 $ 10,640 $ 896 729 $ 653,534
20062007 $ 11,482 $ 9,821 $ 1,661 728 $ 1,209,288
20052006 $ 10,622 $ 9,208 $ 1,414 776 $ 1,097,380
20042005 $ 9,792 $ 8,558 $ 1,234 795 $ 981,094
20032004 $ 9,397 $ 7,901 $ 1,496 801 $ 1,198,528
20022003 $ 8,129 $ 7,144 $ 985 841 $ 828,789
20012002 $ 7,455 $ 6,646 $ 809 858 $ 693,916
20002001 $ 7,184 $ 6,232 $ 952 873 $ 831,111
43
44. Graph of the Difference between Keene Middle School
Costs vs. State Average Costs Since 2000
$14,000
$12,552 Keene Cost per Middle Pupil State Average
$12,000 $11,536 $11,482
$11,161
$10,640 $10,622
$9,792
$10,000 $9,821
$9,208 $9,397
$8,558
$8,129
$7,901
$8,000
$7,455 $7,184
$7,144
$6,646
$6,232
$6,000
$4,000
$2,000
$
20082009 20072008 20062007 20052006 20042005 20032004 20022003 20012002 20002001
44
45. Average Cost of Principals + APs Per
Middle School Student
Principal+AP Cost/Middle School Student
$400.00
$354.56
$350.00
$300.00
$261.53
$250.00
$200.00
$150.00
$100.00
$50.00
$
Note: Some schools, such as Londonderry, have additional administrative
positions (e.g. housemaster, dean, Athletic Director) that are not captured here.
45
46. Average Middle School Class Size
20082009
46
47. 20082009 Elementary Cost Per Pupil
16,000 15,134
13,906 14,204
12,828
14,000 12,650
12,082 12,096 12,096
11,805 11,899
12,000
10,337
10,000
8,000
6,000
4,000
2,000

In 20082009, Keene’s average per pupil spending at the elementary level was $3,037 more
than the State Average.
When multiplied by Keene’s 20082009 K5 population of 1187 students, Keene spent
approximately $3.6 million more than Keene would have spent using the average per pupil
cost.
47
48. Keene Elementary Per Pupil Costs vs.
State Average Costs Since 2000
Based on
Keene enrollments,
Average Cost K5 what the
per Elem State Difference/ Elementary Difference
Year Pupil Average Per Pupil Enrollment translates to:
20082009 $ 15,133.73 $12,095.86 $3037.87 1187 $3.6 million
20072008 $15,320.00 $11,506.00 $3,814.00 1111 $4.2 million
20062007 $14,922.00 $10,716.00 $4,206.00 1092 $4.6 million
20052006 $14,159.00 $ 10,108.00 $4,051.00 1153 $4.7 million
20042005 $12,309.00 $9,406.00 $2,903.00 1185 $3.4 million
20032004 $11,843.00 $8,743.00 $3,100.00 1243 $3.8 million
20022003 $9,966.00 $7,961.00 $2,005.00 1280 $2.6 million
20012002 $9,108.00 $7,321.00 $1,787.00 1336 $2.4 million
20002001 $9,229.00 $6,705.00 $2,524.00 1351 $3.4 million
48
20082009 Data added 5/2010
49. Graph of the Difference between Keene Elementary
Costs vs. State Average Costs Since 2000
$18,000
Keene Cost per Elem Pupil State Average
$16,000 $15,134 $15,320
$14,922
$14,159
$14,000
$12,096 $12,309
$11,843
$12,000 $11,506
$10,716
$10,108 $9,966
$10,000 $9,406 $9,108 $9,229
$8,743
$7,961
$8,000 $7,321
$6,705
$6,000
$4,000
$2,000
$
20082009 20072008 20062007 20052006 20042005 20032004 20022003 20012002 20002001
49
50. 20072008 Elementary vs. High School Per Pupil Costs
An Analysis of 175 New Hampshire districts
• Of the 175 districts in NH, 65 districts have elementary and high
school per pupil costs to compare.
– 27 out of 65 (42%) spend more at the high school level per pupil than
at the elementary school level per pupil.
• On average, those districts spend $2,018 (median $,1444) more per high
school pupil than per elementary student
– 38 out of 65 (58%) spend more at the elementary level than at the
high school level.
• On average, those districts spend $1407 (median $1,087) more per
elementary pupil than per high school pupil
• Keene spends $4,882 more per elementary pupil than per high school pupil
(out of 38 districts, only Lebanon has a higher figure than this)
50
51. Average Cost of Principals/APs Per Elementary Student
Using the
20082009 Principal+AP Cost/Elementary Student
Salary and $450.00
$400.00 $376.03
Benefits $350.00 $321.26
Survey of NH $300.00
$250.00
Association $200.00
of School $150.00
$100.00
Principals, $50.00
we calculated $
the average
cost of
Principals
and Assistant
Principals per
Elementary
Pupil across Multiplying the average per pupil administration cost
the districts. ($318.81) by Keene’s student population of 1187
elementary students, Keene spends $65,667 more than
the average on elementary principals and assistant
principals. 51
52. Average Elementary Principal Salary by
School Size
Looking at 38 of the 41 elementary principals in the districts the committee studied
(no data available for 3 Rochester schools):
Average 20082009 20082009
# of schools in Elementary # K12 Principal
Elementary School Size group Principal Salary School students Salary
150200 2 $ 82,759 Wheelock Elementary School 250 $ 87,343
201250 4 $ 84,375 Jonathan M. Daniels School 190 $ 78,174
251300 3 $ 76,384 Franklin Elementary School 210 $ 92,000
301350 6 $ 85,234 Fuller Elementary School 283 $ 90,916
350400 9 $ 86,329 Symonds Elementary School 329 $ 95,661
401450 4 $ 89,088
451500 3 $ 98,046
500550 1 $ 99,156
551600 2 $ 94,741
601700 2 $ 85,837
701800 1 $ 97,786
801900 1 $ 91,658 52
53. Because understanding administration costs, particularly at the
elementary level, was a key objective of the Task Force, we also spent
considerable time examining:
KEENE’S ENROLLMENT, STAFFING
AND ADMINISTRATION OVER TIME
53
54. Students Per Administrator
Students per Administrator, 19892009
Elementary Middle High School
400
350
300
Students
250
200
150
School Years
54
55. Staff Per Administrator
Supervised Staff per Administrator, 19892009
Elementary Middle High School
70.0
60.0
50.0
40.0
Staff
30.0
20.0
10.0
0.0
School Years
55
56. Elementary Enrollments Since 1989
1800
Elem. Students Per Principal 1600
Students/
1400
Enrollment Principals Principal
19891990 1667 5 333 1200
19992000 1416 5 283
20082009 1260 5 252 1000
Enrollment
800
Students/ Principal
600
400
Note: These enrollment figures do 200
include preschool. 0
19891990 19992000 20082009
While elementary enrollments have declined by approximately 25%, Keene’s
total elementary administrators have remained constant.
56
57. Elementary Staff Per Principal
350
Elem. Staff Per Principal
Staff/ 300
Total Staff Principals Principal
19891990 201.6 5 40 250
19992000 233.7 5 47
20082009 301.3 5 60
200
Total Staff
150 Staff/ Principal
100
50
0
19891990 19992000 20082009
However, while elementary enrollments have declined by approximately 25%,
total elementary staff has increased by 50%
Nearly all of these additional staff are supervised by elementary principals
57
58. Middle School Enrollments Since 1989
1000
Middle Students Per Administrator 900
800
Principals + Students/ 700
Enrollment APs Principal+APs
600
19891990 805 4 201 Enrollment
19992000 861 4 215 500
20082009 708 3 236 400 Students/
300 Principal+APs
200
100
0
19891990 19992000 20082009
While middle school enrollments have declined by approximately 12% since
1989, students per administrator have increased (KMS reduced one
administrator in 2005). However, Keene had the smallest number of students per
assistant principal out of the nine comparison districts that have middle schools.
58
59. Middle School Staff Per Administrator
140
Middle Staff Per Administrator 120
Principals + Staff/ 100
Total Staff APs Principal+APs
19891990 95 4 24 80
19992000 118.6 4 30 Total Staff
20082009 128.2 3 43 60
Staff/ Principal+APs
40
20
0
19891990 19992000 20082009
While middle school enrollments have declined by approximately 12% since
1989, middle school staff has increased by approximately 35%.
Due to the reduction of an administrator in 2005, staff per administrator has
increased (again, a supervision responsibility increase for administration).
59
60. High School Enrollments Since 1989
2000
HS Students Per Administrator
1800
1600
Principals + Students/
Enrollment APs Principal+APs 1400
19891990 1559 6 260 1200
Enrollment
19992000 1638 6 273 1000
20082009 1819 8 227 800 Students/
600 Principal+APs
400
200
0
19891990 19992000 20082009
While high school enrollments have increased by approximately 17% since 1989,
students per administrator have decreased due to the addition of administrators,
first in 20002001, then again in 20052006.
60
61. High School Staff Per Administrator
HS Staff Per Administrator 250
Principals + Staff/ 200
Total Staff APs Principal+APs
19891990 179.2 6 30 150
19992000 218.3 6 36
Total Staff
20082009 230.1 8 29
100 Staff/ Principal+APs
50
0
19891990 19992000 20082009
While high school staff has increased by approximately 28%, due to the addition
of the two administrators, staff per administrator has remained about the same.
61
62. A Closer Look at Keene Elementary
Schools
• Based on Keene’s average elementary per pupil costs
and the staffing analysis, the next step was to take a
closer look at elementary spending. The committee:
– examined average class sizes in Keene and across districts
– compared Keene’s per pupil spending and average school
size to other cities and towns in Keene’s population range
– compared Keene to other cities that are spending similar
amounts per pupil
– prepared case studies of districts that are performing well
and have a lower per pupil cost than Keene
62
63. 2008 Average Elementary Class Size Across Districts
Keene’s average class size in grades 12 is comparable to the other districts, but
is lower than any of the comparison districts in grades 3 and up.
63
64. Average Elementary Class Size
– Keene Policy and Current Enrollments (Sept 2009)
• Grades K3: District Standard is 20:1 (State Standard is max 25, 20
recommended)
– Keene has a total of 199 Kindergarten students in 12 Kindergarten classes, for
an average class size of 16.58*(school averages between 12.5 and 20)
– Keene has a total of 220 1st graders in 12 1st grade classes, for an average class
size of 18.33* (school averages between 15.5 and 21)
– Keene has a total of 206 2nd graders in 12 2nd grade classes, for an average
class size of 17.16* (school averages between 14.5 and 18)
– Keene has a total of 188 3rd graders in 11 3rd grade classes, for an average class
size of 17.09* (school averages between 15.6 and 23)
• Grades 45: District Standard is 25:1 (State Standard is max 30, 25
recommended)
– Keene has a total of 212 4th graders in 12 fourth grade classes, for an average
class size of 17.66 * (school averages between 14.33 and 20.33)
– Keene has a total of 147 5th graders in 9 fifth grade classes, for an average
class size of 16.33* (school averages between 12 and 23)
64
65. Keene Average Elementary Class Sizes
Since 2000
Year Keene Average Keene Average Keene Average
Class Size 12 Class Size 34* Class Size 58
20082009 18.0 16.2 17.2
20072008 17.0 16.6 18.8
20062007 16.0 17.2 17.9
20052006* 17 18 18
20042005 18 19 21
20032004 19 18 20
20022003 17 19 22
20012002 17 19 22
*Note: in 20052006, the Keene Board of Education set a guideline reducing class
size maximums to 20 students per class in grades K5. 65
66. 20072008 Per Pupil K5 Spending Comparison
with NH towns of 14,000 to 34,000 population
# of Average Average Cost
2008 K5 Elementary Students per per Elementary
Town Population Enrollment Schools School Pupil (2008)
Exeter 14058 972 2 486 13,004.77
Hampton 14937 775 2 387.5 13,650.32
Laconia 16411 965 3 321.7 11,690.18
Goffstown 16929 798 2 399 9,793.78
Bedford 18274 2406 4 601.5 10,195.97
Portsmouth 20784 992 3 330.7 14,330.59
Keene 22563 1187 5 237.4 15,320.45
Hudson 22928 1496 4 374 8,205.10
Londonderry 23236 2115 3 705 11,354.31
Merrimack 25119 1535 3 512 10,692.23
Dover 26884 1356 3 452 10,203.20
Salem 28112 1648 6 285 9,706.18
Rochester 28461 1888 8 236 11,706.46
Derry 34021 2343 5 468.6 11,599.10
Averages (not including Keene) 427.6 11240.9
66
67. Chart of the Average School Size Versus the Average
Cost Per K5 Pupil – Towns of Similar Population
Average Students per School Average Cost per Elementary Pupil (2008)
800 $18,000
700
$15,320 $16,000
705
$14,331 $13,650
$14,000
600 $13,005 602
$11,599
$11,690
$10,692 $11,354 $12,000
500 512
$10,203
$11,706 $9,794 486
452 469 $10,000
400 $10,196
$9,706 399
$8,205
374 $8,000
388
331
300 322
237 285 $6,000
236
200
$4,000
100 $2,000
$
Rochester Keene Salem LaconiaPortsmouthHudson HamptonGoffstown Dover Derry Exeter Merrimack Bedford
Londonderry
67
68. A Comparison of Keene and Other Districts
with Small Schools/Lower Per Pupil Costs
20082009 Keene Rochester Salem
District K5 Enroll. 1187 1888 1648
Average school size 237 236 285
Per Pupil Spending $15,130 $12,082 $10,337
Students /Teacher 12 12.5 14.5
Students/Employee 5.2 6.4 7.3
Students/Reg. Aide 78.1 115.3 406.5
Students/SPED Aide 23.1 43.6 37.1
Students/Non Instruct. 78.1 75.3 155.5
Professional
Students/Clerical 116.3 171.4 236.1
Students/Other Support 53 73.5 60.5
68
69. A Look at Cities with Similar K5 Per Pupil Spending
2008
# of Average Average
2008 K5 Elementary Students Cost per K5
Town Population Enrollment Schools per School Pupil
Plymouth (K8) 6,362 426 1 426 15,019.72
Newfound Area (7 towns) 9,878 594 4 148.5 15,080.49
Hanover 10,850 472 1 472 15,223.21
Oyster River Cooperative (Durham) 12,664 728 2 364 15,223.49
Keene 22563 1187 5 237.4 15,320.45
Croydon (Sullivan) 661 25 1 25 15,397.60
Hampton Falls 1,880 276 1 276 15,554.43
Jackson 835 55 1 55 15,584.02
Ashland 1,955 153 1 153 15,685.96
Averages (not including Keene) 5,636 288 240 15,346.12
Based on the eight cities directly above and below Keene in per pupil spending,
Keene is more closely aligned with smaller towns (average population = 5,636) with
smaller schools (average 240 students).
Of 175 NH school districts, 22 spend more per pupil at the elementary level. The
average population of these 22 towns is 2,043 and the average school size is 115
students. 69
70. 20082009 Average Elementary Class Size
Comparisons by Size of Town
2008 Average 2008 Average 2008 Average
Class Size Class Size Class Size
Gr. 12 Gr. 34* Gr. 58
Towns with 14,00034,000 population
18.6 19.9 22.3
(not incl Keene)
Small Towns with similar per pupil
15.8 15.5 16.8
elementary spending (not incl Keene)
Keene 18 16.2 17.2
State Averages 17.5 18.9 20.5
One of the effects of small schools is a lesser ability to be nimble regarding class size.
The fewer classrooms there are per grade, the more difficult it becomes to adjust to
shifting student populations.
Other costs include duplication of administration, support staff, libraries, building
maintenance, snow removal, fuel, electricity, etc. 70
71. Step 3: Case Studies
A closer look at:
• Exeter – K5 district, high performing, large
schools, higher than average per pupil spending
($2315 per pupil less than Keene in 20072008/
$1228 per pupil less in 20082009)
• Salem – K12 district, high performing, small
elementary schools, lower than average per pupil
spending ($4797 per pupil less than Keene in
20082009)
71
72. Exeter
• Exeter (K5) is one small district in SAU 16
(comprised of Exeter, East Kingston,
Brentwood, Newfields, Kensington, Stratham
and Exeter Regional Cooperative)
• Exeter’s average per pupil cost in 0809 was
$13,906
• Exeter has two schools
– Main St. (K2)/466 students/1 Principal + 1 AP
– Lincoln St. (35)/495 students/1 Principal + 1 AP
72
73. Exeter
• Exeter has an active volunteer program and large PTO.
– Parent volunteers staff the cafeteria at lunchtime (Lincoln St), assist in the
libraries and in the classrooms
– Parent volunteers (as well as high school student volunteers) offer after school
classes such as French, Spanish, Japanese, Sign Language, Cooking, Sports
Medley, Dance, etc. in both schools
• Exeter emphasizes technology in the classroom. The Lincoln Street School
has 3 mobile laptop labs that can be used in classrooms around the
building. The Main Street School has several computers in each classroom.
• Exeter (Lincoln St, 35) also places emphasis on music instruction:
instrumental lessons (including strings) during the school day, band and
choral concert rehearsals during the school day, after school district
elementary band, 4th grade Symphony trip each fall, etc.
• Exeter places great emphasis on curriculum coordination, and has two full
time curriculum directors working with teachers on instructional practices,
effective use of assessment, tailoring lessons to student needs, summer
curriculum work, etc.
73
74. 20082009 Exeter: Student/Teacher
Ratio and Average Class Size
Category Exeter Keene Difference if Keene used
(K5) (K5) Exeter’s ratio and a
Keene elementary
enrollment of 1181
Students/Teacher 12.4 12.25 Difference of 1 position
Avg. Class Size K2 Avg. Class Size Avg. Class Size
Grades 34 Grade 5
Exeter 19 18.1 19.4
Keene 18 16.2 17.2
74
75. Exeter: Regular and SPED Aide
Comparison
Exeter Keene
(K5) (K5)
Aides apportioned
Students/Regular Aides 77.8 36.7
Students/SPED Aides 20.3 11.9
Percentage of Students 20% 19% (district %) –
Identified as Special Ed. higher if elementary
only
70% of Keene’s regular aides are at the elementary level (32.2 positions out of
45.9), and 68.5% of Keene’s SPED aides are at the elementary level (102.6
positions out of 155).
Next to Keene, Exeter had the smallest number of students/aide of the districts
studied, and a slightly higher rate of identified special education students.
75
76. Exeter: Principal/Assistant Principal Costs
Oct 2008 Number Number Total salary of Average
Enrollment of of Principals and Cost per
Principals Assistant Assistant Student
Principals Principals*
Exeter 961 2 2 $ 359,443.00 $374
Keene 1181 5 0 $ 444,094.00 $376
Keene (K5) and Exeter (K5) spend comparable amounts on Principals &
Assistant Principals (as a combined administration figure).
*NH Association of School Principals 20082009 Salary and Benefits survey
76
78. 2008 Exeter (K5) and Keene (K5)
NECAP Whole School Performance
Exeter whole school 
Math 90.5% proficient
60
50
48.8 Keene whole school –
44
46.5
69% proficient
40
30 Exeter
20.2 Keene
20 17.4
13.6
10 7
2.5
0
L4 L3 L2 L1
78
79. 2008 Exeter and Keene:
District AYP
Whole School Ed Disability Econ Disadvantage
Comparative Index Comparative Index Comparative Index
Scores Scores Scores
(Not % proficient) (Not % proficient) (Not % proficient)
(AYP Status) (AYP Status)
Exeter Keene Exeter Keene Exeter Keene
Reading 95.5 (Y) 91.7 (Y) 83.40 (Y) 75.50 (N) 86.80 (Y) 85.50 (Y)
Math 96.1 (Y) 85.1 (Y) 85.20 (Y) 61.80 (N) 87.60 (Y) 74.90 (N)
DOE District AYP data includes both elementary and middle school levels.
Keene’s District Ranking in Reading is 81 out of 158; In Math, 103 out of 158; and
in Writing, 103 out of 158, with 1 as the highest ranking.
Exeter’s District Ranking in Reading is 25 out of 158; In Math, 7 out of 158; and
in Writing, 5th out of 158 with 1 as the highest ranking.
79
80. Exeter: Summary
• Like Keene, Exeter has a larger number of employees
per student (including a larger number of aides) than
the average
• Exeter has a student/teacher ratio similar to Keene’s
• Based on the assessment data available, Exeter is
performing at a high level
• Exeter runs two large elementary schools (average size
of 486) versus five small schools (average size 237),
configured K2 and 35.
• Exeter’s per pupil costs are approximately $2,315 less
than Keene’s (multiplied by Keene’s elementary
population, a difference of about $2.7 million)
80
81. Salem
• The Salem school district (SAU 57) is a K12 district with a total enrollment
of about 5000.
• Approximately 320 juniors and seniors at Salem HS are tuition students
from the neighboring town of Windham.
• Salem’s average elementary per pupil spending in 20082009 was $10,337
• Salem has eight schools, 6 of which are elementary
– Soule Elem. (K5)/217 students/1 principal
– Fisk Elem. (K5)/315 students/1 principal
– N. Salem Elem (K5)/332 students/1 principal
– Haigh Elem (K5)/209 students/1 principal
– Lancaster School (K5)/254 students/1 principal
– Barron Elem (K5)/384 students/1 principal
– Woodbury Middle (68)/1165 students/1 principals & 2 APs
– Salem HS (912)/2200 students/1 principal & 3 APs
81
82. Salem
• Elementary schools promote community and a social curriculum in a variety of
ways. For instance:
– VIPS (very interested in providing service) program
– Character Counts student recognition program
– School Heroes: Trying to make someone else’s day better
– Pennies for Patients
• Salem emphasizes small classes grades K3.
– Salem has an average class size of 16 in its lower grades. In grades 45, classes may have up to
25.
• Salem places great emphasis on a consistent curriculum across all of its elementary
schools with a special focus on literacy in the younger grades (K3)
• Resource Sharing
– Salem shares resources extensively between and among schools, though Salem chooses not to
share principals or guidance
– All specials teachers are shared between schools. One certified media specialist serves six
schools, supported by a paraprofessional in each building (who teaches lessons prepared by
the certified specialist)
– Schools also share the services of a speech and language pathologist, reading specialist,
occupational therapist and assistant, inclusion specialist, and ESOL (English for Speakers of
Other Languages) teacher.
• Each school notes the value of its active PTA
82
83. 2008 Salem: Student/Teacher Ratio
and Average Class Size
Category Salem Keene Avg. of
(K12) (K12) K12
districts
Students/Teacher 14.5 12.0 12.8
Avg. Class Size K2 Avg. Class Size Avg. Class Size
Grades 34 Grade 58
Salem
16.0 19.5 24.8
Keene 18 16.2 17.2
83
84. Salem: Regular and SPED Aide
Comparison
Salem Keene
(K12) (K12)
Students/Regular 406.5 78.1
Aides
Students/SPED 37.1 23.1
Aides
Percentage of 16% 19%
Students
Identified as
Special Ed.
This slide compares the district wide aide numbers for both districts rather
than the apportioned numbers used when comparing Keene (K5) to Exeter (K
5).
84
85. Salem: Elementary Principal/Assistant Principal
Costs
Oct 2008 Number Number Total salary of Average
Enrollment of of Principals and Cost per
Principals Assistant Assistant Student
Principals Principals*
Salem 1711 6 0 $475,100 $278
Keene 1181 5 0 $ 444,094.00 $376
Though Salem has small schools and six elementary principals, Salem’s
average elementary principal salary is $79,183, about $9,600 less than
Keene’s elementary principal average salary. This combined with Salem’s
larger elementary enrollment makes their administration cost per student
significantly less than Keene’s.
*NH Association of School Principals 20082009 Salary and Benefits survey
85
86. 2008 Salem and Keene
NECAP Whole School Performance
Salem whole school 
Reading 79% proficient
70
61.7 Keene whole school –
60
54.8 78.6 % proficient
50
40
Salem
30
23.8 Keene
20 17.3 16.5
14.4
10 7
4.5
0
L4 L3 L2 L1
86
87. 2008 Salem and Keene
NECAP Whole School Performance
Salem whole school 
Math 79.6% proficient
60
54.3
48.8
Keene whole school –
50
69% proficient
40
30
25.3
Salem
20.2 Keene
20 17.4
14 13.6
10 6.5
0
L4 L3 L2 L1
87
88. 2008 Salem and Keene:
District AYP Status
Whole School Ed Disability Econ Disadvantage
Comparative Index Comparative Index Comparative Index
Scores Scores Scores
(Not % proficient) (Not % proficient) (Not % proficient)
(AYP Status) (AYP Status)
(Elementary/Middle (Elementary/Middle
District level) District level)
Salem Keene Salem Keene Salem Keene
Reading 92.5 (Y) 91.7 (Y) 75.80 (N) 75.5 (N) 86.30 (Y) 85.50 (Y)
Math 90.2 (Y) 85.1 (Y) 70.20 (N) 61.80 (N) 84.20 (Y) 74.90 (N)
Keene’s District Ranking in Reading is 81 out of 158. In Math, 103 out of 158 and
in Writing, 103 out of 158, with 1 as the highest ranking.
Salem’s District Ranking in Reading is 66 out of 158. In Math, 51 out of 158 and
in Writing, 66 out of 158, with 1 as the highest ranking.
88
89. Salem: Summary
• Like Keene, Salem has relatively small elementary
schools
• However, as a district, Salem has a much larger
number of students per employee than does
Keene. They manage this despite having very
small class sizes in their lower grades.
• Based on the assessment data available, Salem is
performing well; no elementary schools are in
need of improvement based on NCLB.
• Salem’s per pupil costs are significantly lower
than Keene’s at all levels (elem, middle, high)
89
90. Note: NECAP data is for 2008. This information needs to be updated with
2009 results.
NECAP – WHOLE SCHOOL DATA BY
DISTRICT
90
95. Elementary/Middle District Reports
Reading – Economically Disadvantaged
All of the districts Elem/Middle Reading  Index Scores
make AYP in
Economically Disadvantaged
Reading within
this subgroup. 88.00 86.80 87.30
86.20 86.30
86.00 85.20 85.50
84.60 84.80
83.90
84.00
82.00
80.30
80.00
78.00
76.00
95
96. Elementary/Middle District Reports
Math – Economically Disadvantaged
Keene, Portsmouth,
Laconia, and Elem/Middle Math  Index Scores
Concord did not Economically Disadvantaged
make AYP in Math 90.00 87.60
within this 85.00 82.80
84.20
81.60
subgroup. 78.80
80.00
76.30 76.50 77.00
74.90 75.80
(Scores in beige 75.00
boxes did not meet 70.00
AYP targets.) 65.00
96
98. Elementary/Middle District Reports
Math– Educational Disability
Of the ten
districts, Exeter, Elem/Middle Math Index Scores
Hampton and Educational Disability
Merrimack met 90.0 85.2
AYP standards 80.0
66.3 67.5 68.7 69.4 70.2
70.0 60.6 61.0 61.8
in both subject
60.0 50.5
areas within 50.0
the educational 40.0
30.0
disability
20.0
subgroup . 10.0
0.0
98
101. Summary of Findings
I. Education in Keene, particularly at the elementary level and to a
lesser degree at the middle school, is more costly than that of
other comparison districts due to a number of expensive choices
the district and community have made.
II. In per pupil spending over the past 8 years, Keene High School
stands at or near the state average; Keene Middle School is higher
than the state average; Keene elementary schools are
significantly higher than the state average.
III. Keene has small K5 schools for a community its size, and each is
staffed by one principal – resulting in administrative staffing
higher than that of comparison districts. Keene Middle School
also has administrative costs that are comparatively high.
IV. Keene staffing is richer than that of comparison districts. With 5.2
students per employee, Keene has the lowest number of students
per employee of any comparison district.
101
102. Summary of Findings
V. Staffing levels at the elementary and middle levels are
one driver of administration costs.
VI. Keene class sizes in grades 12 are comparable to other
districts; 38 are smaller than those of comparison school
districts.
VII. Keene’s percent of students enrolled in special education
services is significantly higher than the state average.
VIII. Despite Keene’s substantial investment in special
education and its deep commitment to its students, the
performance of special education students on the NECAP
was less strong than other comparison districts allocating
fewer resources to special education.
102
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