ILLOCUTIONARY ACT IN THE MOVIE “50 FIRST DATES” (A PRAGMATIC STUDY) REZKIAWATI N AbstrakPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi dan mengklasifikasikan ujaran-ujaran yangmengandung illocutionary act dalam dialog film “50 First Dates”. Dalam ujaran-ujaran yang terjadidalam dialog film tersebut, penulis akan mengklasifikasikan ke dalam tiga bentuk kalimat, yaitudeclarative, imperative, dan interrogative. Selanjutnya penulis mengidentifikasi ujaran tersebutmenurut direct atau indirect illocutionary act. Ada banyak macam ujaran direct dan indirectillocutionary act yang terjadi.Dalam penelitian ini penulis menggunakan metode penelitian kepustakaan dan ditunjang dengan buku-buku referensi yang berhubungan erat dengan penelitian ini. sedangkan sumber data yang digunakanseluruhnya berasal dari naskah dialog film "50 First Dates", setelah itu penulis memilih beberapa datayang dikumpulkan dan didefinisikan jenis kalimatnya. I. IntroductionCommunication is a social activity requiring the coordinated efforts of two or more individuals. Meretalk to produce sentence, no matter how well formed or elegant the outcome, does not by itselfconstitute communication. Only when a move has elicited a response can we say communication istaking place. To participate in such verbal exchanges, that is, to create and sustain conversationalinvolvement, we require knowledge and abilities which go considerably beyond the grammaticalcompetence we need to decode short isolated messages. We do not and cannot automatically respond toeverything we hear. In the course of our daily activities we are exposed to a multitude of signals, manymore than we could possibly have time to react to.Movie is one media that reflects human social life. It is played by some actors/actresses. When thewriter watched a movie, she is interested the plot of the story, the background of the story (where ittake place), the fashion (the dresses of the characters), the way of the characters to speak (languagethey use), etc. one more important aspect that mostly occurred in a movie is dialogue (conversation)between the characters. The actor/ actress speak one to another, and there will be Illocutionary Act.And it is one reason why the writer takes a movie as the data of her analysis.
II. Research QuestionsWhat are the sentence types of the utterances performed by actors/actresses in “50 First Dates”? 1. What kinds of direct illocution of the utterances performed by actors/actresses in “50 First Dates”? 2. What kinds of indirect illocution of the utterances performed by actors/actresses in “50 First Dates”?III. Objective Of The StudyTo show what the sentence types of the utterances performed by actors/actresses in “50 First Dates”. 1. To show what kinds of direct illocution of the utterances performed by actors/actresses in “50 First Dates” 2. To show what kinds of indirect illocution of the utterances performed by actors/actresses in “50 First Dates”.IV. Method of ResearchIn this research, the writer used library research to collect certain data, information and theory relatedto the topic of this writing, the writer also read the script of “50 First Dates”, some relevant books andsome guiding books that closely related to the topic of this writing. Source of the data for this writing is “50 First Dates” a film acted by Adam Sandler and DrewBarrymore as the main characters. They mostly occur in this movie and involve in the conversation.The writer focused on all illocutionary acts between the characters. By using purposive samplingtechnique, there were some data which are representative for this writing. In choosing the samples thewriter focused on and selected the illocutionary acts.VI. Findings and DiscussionsA. The Short Definition of the Movie “50 First Dates”This movie is the love story of Lucy Whitmore that suffers lost short-time memory and Henry Rothwho afraid of making a commitment with a local girl, that’s why he just dating with tourists that cometo Hawaii. Until one morning in the Hukilau Café He meet Lucy Whitmore, they actually in love. Butsadly the next morning as they promise to breakfast again in that café, Lucy doesn’t remember himanymore. Henry firstly shocking but he decided not give up to find Lucy’s heart. Even when the nextmorning she doesn’t remember him anymore. Day by day He tries to make Lucy falling love with him
again. Lucy’s father, Marlin Whitmore firstly doesn’t agree with what Henry did to her daughter. Butto looking Henry’s seriousness, finally He supports Henry. Henry try to found some way to get Lucystill remember about him. And he’s got a brilliant idea about taping the activity after Lucy’s accident.And this way is working. Every morning when Lucy wake up, she watch that video and realizing all thethings she has missed. And of course she always reminded of her love, Henry.One day, Lucy heard about Henry’s obsession, sailing to Alaska and doing research about the live ofwild walrus. But Henry doesn’t want to leave Lucy and cancelled his plan. Lucy doesn’t want to letHenry sacrifice his live just for keeping Lucy. Lucy comes to Henry’s place and asking for break uptheir relationship. At the beginning Henry refuse Lucy’s wish, but finally he understands the reasonwhy Lucy do that. Henry then disappear from Lucy’s live, when they met accidently Henry try topretending like He never know Lucy before.Henry decided to fulfill his ambition, He’s preparing for his sailing to Alaska, when Marlin comes tosay good bye, He also give Henry a Beach Boys’s CD album. When Henry heard that songs Hesuddenly remembers Lucy and crying. He realize the meaning of that song, Marlin said Lucy only singthat song at the day She meet Henry. That means Lucy remembers Henry even a little. Henry then backfrom his sailing and looking for Lucy. When they meet, Henry asking Lucy, is She Know him?. Lucy’sanswer no. Henry then disappointed again but then Lucy asking him to follow her. Lucy shows herstudio and there are so many Henry’s face painting. Lucy said that every night she dreams about Henrybut she never remembers who Henry is. Henry was so happy and explaining about them in the past.And they finally got married.B. Presentation and Analysis of DataDatum 1Linda: “Henry Roth, why didnt you tell me you were a secret agent?” (1) Henry: “l prefer intelligence operative, and l couldnt tell you until l knew you.”(2)Linda : “Well, can l call you when l land?”(3)Henry: “You can call me, but lll be in Peru. l said that a little loud.”(4)Linda: “Well, maybe when you get back from Peru.” (5) At this scene, the introduction of the main character Henry Roth. The place in the port forfarewell to his dates. The girl is a tourist that got cush on Henry, same with the others dates, this is justa one night stand dates. The girl name Linda said why Henry didn’t tell her that Henry was a secret
agent as in utterance (1) this is a interrogative sentence and the direct illocution is asking while theindirect illocutionary act of this sentence is protesting to Henry, why since their first meet Henrydidn’t tell her the truth. She never realizes that this a Henry’s deceitfull. She seems so hardly to saygood bye to Henry. And Henry make a reason to complete his lying. He said that this to protect Linda(2). Then He makes a declarative sentence and a kind direct illocutionary act of asserting. Actually hejust don’t want to make any contact further with Linda, because this is just a short date for him, and nocommitment for their relationship. Then Linda make an offering, to call Henry when he’s back whenshe’s landing like in utterance (3) the direct illocution is asking but actually Linda makes an offeringto Henry by using an interrogative sentence, she really hopes Henry don’t reject her offering. ButHenry not a defeased easy man. He stands of his principal. He makes a rejection by using refusing actas the indirect illocution in utterance (4) by said that maybe he will be in Peru. This an imperativesentence. While the direct illocution is disapproving. Henry totally wants to get away from that girl.Linda don’t give up to get Henry, She makes direct illocutionary act of asserting in utterance (5). Shesaid that maybe she can call him when Henry’s back from Peru. So, the indirect illocutionary act issuggesting. Table 1 The structure of direct and indirect illocutionary act of the utterance are: Types of illocutionary acts Utterance Types of illocutionary acts Actors Types of sentence number Direct Indirect 1 Linda Interrogative Asking Protesting 2 Henry Declarative Asserting - 3 Linda Interrogative Asking Offering 4 Henry Declarative Informing Refusing 5 Linda Declarative Asserting SuggestingSource: Data AnalyzedDatum 2Henry : “We have to go our separate ways now. Well, goodbye.. “(1)Henry : “Got it! Moving out!”(2)The boat rider: “What the hell is your problem?“(3)Henry : “Just keep going,”(4) “lll give you $ 20.”(5)The boat rider: “You got it.”(6) “Hows your balls?“(7)
Henry : “Killing me. Hit it.”(8) This is the continuation scene from datum 1, and finally this is the farewell for Henry andLinda, Henry said that they have to go separate ways now (1) this is an declarative and the kind ofleave taking acts. Then Henry pretending and act like the real secret agent. He’s pretending like therewas an instruction to go out soon in utterance (2) and this is an imperative acts, and the illocutionaryact is ordering. Then Henry jump into the riding boat by someone that actually a stranger. But this isjust for convincing Linda that Henry truly a secret agent. Of course the stranger that riding a boat wasso surprising and asked Henry why he do that, He performs the kind of utterance of asking in utterance(3) and the indirect illocution is a protesting act, but Henry just answered and to keep going (4) this isan imperative sentence and produce the indirect illocution of requesting and Henry will give him 20dollars like in utterance (5) He performs a declarative utterance and this is the indirect illocution ofpromising, while the direct illocution is asserting. Then the boat rider approving Henry’s request in utterance (6) So, He performs a declarativesentence and the direct illocution of approving. While the indirect illocution is allowing. He allowsHenry on his boat. When Henry jump he feels pain for his ball. And the stranger asked Henry aboutthat as in utterance (7), by performs direct illocutionary act of asking, this is an interrogative sentence.Henry answered that was very hurt in utterance (8). He performs a declarative sentence. And the directillocution of asserting or informing act. Table 2The structure of direct and indirect illocutionary act of the utterance are: Types of illocutionary acts Utterance Types of illocutionary acts Actors Types of sentence number Direct Indirect 1 Henry Declarative Leavetaking - 2 Henry Imperative Ordering - 3 The boat rider Interrogative Asking Protesting 4 Declarative Requesting - Henry 5 Declarative Asserting Promising 6 Declarative Approving Suggesting The boat rider 7 Interrogative Asking - 8 Henry Declarative Informing -Source: Data Analyzed
Datum 3Ula: “Hey, lm a person, not a seal.”(1)Henry: “Well, l am a vet, not a doctor. “(2) “So just hold still, or l wont give you a treat.”(3)Ula: “l know, its okay.”(4)Henry is sewing Ula’s wound, when Ula is moaning of pain. And Ula produce a declarative byinforming that He is a person and not a seal and the indirect illocution is protesting that Henry shouldbe carefully of sewing his wound in utterance (1). Henry reciprocating Ula and protesting too that He isnot a doctor, he just a vet that used to take care of seal. So He performs a declarative sentence bysaying the act of informing. While in the utterance (2) Henry try to get Ula calm down so He performsan act of ordering by using imperative sentence (3). He performs a declarative sentence. And Ula saidthat’s OK in utterance (4) maybe He thinks it’s OK altough Henry not a real doctor, but He still needhim to treat his wound. This is a declarative sentence and a kind of approving act. Table 3The structure of direct and indirect illocutionary act of the utterance are: Types of illocutionary acts Utterance Types of illocutionary acts Actors Types of sentence number Direct Indirect 1 Ula Declarative Informing Protesting 2 Henry Declarative Informing - 3 Henry Imperative Ordering - 4 Ula Declarative Approving -Source: Data AnalyzedDatum 4
Henry : “Why do you say mean things like that...”(1) “...and why is your foot on my pillow?”(2)“l dont want your ass on it, either.”(3)“ Get up! Get up!”(4) This is the scene where Ula, Henry’s friend try to influence Henry. And Henry doesn’t likeabout what Ula said, he thinks that it is so mean to trapping the tourists with the love game so theywould stay in Hawaii. This is an asking act by using interrogative sentence, and He performs theindirect illocution of protesting act as in utterance (1). Then Ula raise his foot at Henry’s pillow, ofcourse Henry asking Ula why his foot on his pillow in utterance (2) this is an interrogative sentenceand the indirect illocution is ordering Ula to get down his foot. And Ula try to sit on that pillow, Henryasserting that He doesn’t want Ula’s ass on his pillow too, this is a declarative sentence but theindirect illocution is ordering (3). And then Henry ordering Ula to get up, this is an imperativesentence like in utterance (4). Table 4The structure of direct and indirect illocutionary act of the utterance are: Types of illocutionary acts Utterance Types of illocutionary acts Actors Types of sentence number Direct Indirect 1 Interrogative Asking Protesting 2 Interrogative Asking Ordering Henry 3 Declarative Asserting Ordering 4 Imperative Ordering -Source: Data AnalyzedDatum 5Henry : “Jocko! Whats going on with you, buddy?” (1)“Dont be scared. Everythings gonna be fine.”(2)“Just stay calm. All right.” (3)
This is the scene when Alexa comes to Henry’s room and informs that something happen withJocko, one of their seals. And Henry gets panic when he heard that. So He and Alexa run into Jocko’spool. Henry try to asking the seal like his own friend. This is an interrogative sentence as in utterance(1). He performs direct illocutionary act of asking. While, indirect illocution is assuring. He assuresthat Jocko just fine. Henry try to calm down Jocko by saying like in uterance (2) this is a declarativesentence. This is direct illocutionary act of asserting and indirect illocution is suggesting. Henrysuggests Jocko not to scared cause everything’s will be fine. Further, in utterance (3) Henry stillperforms direct illocutionary act of asserting and indirect illocution is suggesting, by using adeclarative sentence. Table 5The structure of direct and indirect illocutionary act of the utterance are: Types of illocutionary acts Utterance Types of illocutionary acts Actors Types of sentence number Direct Indirect 1 Interrogative Asking Assuring 2 Henry Declarative Asserting Suggesting 3 Declarative Asserting SuggestingSource: Data AnalyzedV. Conclusions and SuggestionsThe writer has successfully analyzed and described the direct illocutionary act and indirectillocutionary act, within the character of utterances and their sentence types. The writer has found somekinds of sentence type such as declarative sentence, interrogative sentence, and imperative sentence.And also many kinds of direct and indirect illocutionary act in the movie’s dialogue 50 First Dates.Such as asserting act, ordering act, promising act, suggesting act, assuring act, protesting act, informingact, approving act, etc.
BIBLIOGRAPHYAustin, J.L. 1975. How To Do Things With Words. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Cole, Peter and Jerry L. Morgan. 1975. Syntax And Semantics Volume 3: Speech Acts.Cambridge: University Press Inc.,Cook, Guy. 1989. Discourse. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Coulthard, Malcom. 1985. An Introduction To Discourse Analysis. Longman Inc., New York. Crystal, David. 1941. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hurford, James B., Brendan Hasley. 1987. Semantics: A Course Book. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Kempson, Ruth M. 1984. Semantic Theory. London: Cambridge University Press.
Levinson, Stephen C. 1983. Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Lyons, John.(Ed). 1985. Semantics (II). London: Cambridge University. Nababan & Sri Utari Subyakto. 1992. Psikolinguistik: Suatu Pengantar. Jakarta: Gramedia Richard,C and Smidt,R. 1982. Language and Communication. New York: Longman Inc. Searle, John R. 1969. Speech Acts (An Essay In The Philosophy Of Language). Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. Sevilla, et al. 1993. Pengantar Metodologi Penelitian. Jakarta: Universitas Indonesia Press.Syubbs, Michael.1989. Discourse Analysis. Basil Blackwell.Oxford Ullman, Stephen. 1962. Semantics: An Introduction to the Science of Meaning. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Wolfson, N and E. Judds. 1983. Sosiolinguistics And Language Acquisition. London: Newburry House Publisher. BIOGRAPHYPenulis lahir di Segeri, kabupaten Pangkajene dan Kepulauan.