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  • The main topic of the talk will be the current situation of English language education in Korea, in both the public and private sectors. Specific issues to be addressed include the Korean government's policies and general attitude regarding early English education, its IBT-based English proficiency test, and universities' policies on teaching English in English. As the topic of early English education is quite controversial, the pros and cons of this initiative will be explored.
    Context: GeneralContent area: Administration, Management, & Employment IssuesFormat: Long PaperLanguage: English
  • Overvalue of English Education in Korea
  • Parents 77% (pros) vs. 23%
    Students78.3% vs. 21.7%
    Teachers26.5% vs. 73.5%
  • Level I: for adults including college students; ; items designed by the Korea Chamber of Commerce & Industry and four universities
    Level II: for high school graduates or undergraduate students in the programs where English is very important; focus on testing scholastic aptitude for college education; achievement standards similar to those of the KSAT
    Level III: for high school freshmen or undergraduate students who has needs for daily life communication; focus on testing basic communication skills; achievement standards similar to those of the 10th grade
  • EBSe와 함께 하는 초등영어 Activity TEACHING ENGLISH 웹사이트 HORNBY TRUST 웹사이트 LEARN ENGLSH 웹사이트
    영국문화원은 2008년 11월부터 ‘영어교육혁신 프로그램(Access English)’이라는 대규모 영어교육 프로젝트를 동아시아 10개국에서 동시에 진행 중입니다.
    영어교육혁신 프로그램은 각 지역의 영어교육개발 시스템에 맞춘 분명하고 일관된 지원 방법을 모색하는 동시에 각 나라의 영어교육정책 수립을 지원하기 위한 협력을 도모합니다. 영어혁신교육 프로그램은 영어 수업 및 개발을 위한 콘텐츠 자료에 접속할 수 있도록 하는 방식으로 영어교사에 대한 지원을 시행하며, 학습자와 학부모님들은 학습 자료에 접속할 수 있습니다.
    주한영국문화원에서는 이러한 영어교육혁신 프로그램을 EBS와의 협력을 통해 EBSe홈페이지에서 누구나 활용할 수 있는 초등영어 콘텐츠를 제공하는 것으로 실행하고 있습니다. 이런 방식의 학습지원 프로그램을 VTSN (가상 교사지원 네트워크)이라고도 부릅니다.
     프로젝트 목적
    VTSN(가상 교사지원 네트워크) 프로젝트는 교사들의 개별 필요에 따른 자료를 인터넷 접속을 통해 손쉽게 얻을 수 있도록 하여 뛰어난 교사 양성에 일조하는 것에 그 의의를 두고 국내에서는 EBSe를 기반으로 진행하고 있습니다. EBSe 초등영어 Activity에서 활용할 수 있는 콘텐츠는 영국문화원의 전문 지식을 한국의 영어교육 실정에 맞게 수정보완하여 제공한 것이며, 이 외에도 각 지역의 교육청과의 교육과 컨설팅을 통한 시스템 개발을 통해 한국의 영어 교사들에게 높은 수준의 영어학습지원 자료를 지속적으로 공급하는 노력을 기울이고 있습니다.
    본 프로젝트를 통한 성과는 다음과 같습니다.
    수백 종에 이르는 아래 자료들의 제공을 통해 국내 초중고 영어교사와 대학 강사의 지식 및 교습 능력 함양- 개별 교육과정에 맞는 수업 계획- 개별 상황에 적절한 수업 아이디어- 개인별 특정 교습방법에 초점을 둔 방법론
    EBSe를 통해 영어교사간의 활발하고 지속적인  네트워크 형성
    본 프로젝트는 영어교사들이 직면할 수 있는 여러 문제에 대해서 오프라인으로 만나서 그 해결책을 찾을 때까지 기다리기보다는 온라인으로 바로 접속하여 학습 기회를 찾을 수 있도록 하는 지속 가능한 원격 지원 시스템 개발을 적극 지원합니다.
     EBSe 초등영어 Activity 웹사이트 바로가기
  • Jalt2010발표pp

    1. 1. 1 Kee-Ho Kim (Korea University) JALT 2010 (2010 Nov. 20) keehokim@korea.ac.kr English Education in Korea: Early Exposure
    2. 2. 2  Private English education in Korea  Major changes in English education in Korea  Arguments for/against earlier English education  Major steps by Korean government Contents
    3. 3. DESIGN GUIDELINE 3 Stress on English in Korea Q. Why is English so important in Korea? English is one of the critical factors for the college entrance examination: CSAT (College Scholastic Ability Test) English is one of the key factors for a better job: 1st document review: TOEIC score Job interview Hot social issues in Korea the high cost of private education the negative cycle of education: The poorer, the worse education, the poorer English, the poorer. The richer, the better education, the better English, the richer.
    4. 4. DESIGN GUIDELINE 4 A hot social issue: the cost of private education (2009 Korean government statistics) % of students who are taking private education Yearly Monthly Elementary school 87.4% 2,945,000 W (218,000Y) 245,000 W (18,150Y) middle school 74.3% 3,122,000 W (231,260Y) 262,600 W (19,450Y) high school 53.8% 2,609,000 W (193,260Y) 217,000 W (16,070Y)  The cost of private education in Korea  22, won (22 trillion W) (1.6 trillion Yen)  8,000,000,000,000 won (30%): English education
    5. 5. DESIGN GUIDELINE 5 Similarities in private education between Korea & Japan
    6. 6. DESIGN GUIDELINE 6 Comparison between Korea & Japan  Similar situation both in Korea & Japan  Highly competitive college entrance  The high cost of private education  3 major changes in English education in Korea The introduction of listening test to CSAT in 1994 The introduction of English to elementary schools (from 3rd grade) in 1997 The introduction of NEAT (IBT) (2009-2015)  Reading, listening, speaking & writing
    7. 7. DESIGN GUIDELINE 7 Major changes in English education in Korea Q. What happened in English education in Korea over the last 20 years? 1994: the introduction of English to CSAT (college scholastic ability test) Introduction of listening: Reading & Listening 1994: 50 total questions. (8 listening questions) Listening: Practical English: time, place, job, purpose, etc. Listen to the following, choose the most appropriate one. • Where does this conversation occur? • What is the woman’s purpose in the talk? etc. 2012: 50 total questions (listening & speaking 17 Qs) / 70mins. Result: improvement in listening skills
    8. 8. DESIGN GUIDELINE 8 [Phone rings.] M: Hello? W: John, why didn’t you pick up the phone? I kept calling you! M: Sorry, I missed your calls. What’s up? W: I wasn’t able to complete my part of our project. M: What? It’s due at 5 p.m. There’s only half an hour left! W: I know, but I couldn’t open the file you sent. The password didn’t work. M: What’s the password you used? W: It’s 013456, isn’t it? That’s what you wrote on the memo. M: Oh, no! It’s not 01. It’s ol, ol3456. W: What? I’ve been trying the wrong password until now! I totally lost my patience. M: I’m sorry. I should’ve told you it was a combination of letters and numbers. W: It’s too late now. I won’t be able to finish by the deadline! Q. Listen to the following conversation, and choose the most appropriate description of the woman’s feeling. (2010CSAT: Q2) ( 대화를 듣고 , 여자의 심정으로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오 .) ① frustrated jealous indifferent satisfied grateful② ③ ④ ⑤
    9. 9. DESIGN GUIDELINE 9 Major changes in English education in Korea  Early English education in Korea 1982: Introduction of English as an extracurricular activity (from 4th grade, 1 hour/w) 1997: Introduction of English in elementary schools as a compulsory course (from 3rd grade).  Goals: to make students get interest & confidence in English & to acquire basic communicative skills to understand & to use English in daily life. cf. Japan: 2011 from 5th grade (1 hour /w) China: since 2004, from 3rd grade (3 hours/w)
    10. 10. DESIGN GUIDELINE 10 Major changes in English education in Korea 1997: English in elementary schools from 3rd grade. (English class hours per week) 1997: 3rd - 6th graders: 2 hours/w 2001: 3rd - 4th graders: 1 hours/w, 5th - 6th graders: 2 hours/w 2010: 3rd - 4th graders: 2 hours/w (expanding 1 to 2 hours) 2011: 5th - 6th graders: 3 hours/w (expanding 2 to 3 hours/w) cf. 2006: teaching English from 1st grade (50 experimental schools nation-wide) (3-4 experimental schools for each province) The on-going discussion for and against the introduction of early English education to lower graders
    11. 11. DESIGN GUIDELINE 11 Demonstration against the early English education 2006.5.23
    12. 12. DESIGN GUIDELINE 12 Arguments for earlier (1st & 2nd ) English education  English as a lingua franca just like Latin of medieval times.  Lenneberg (1967)’s the Critical Period Hypothesis  Before age 2, the brain has not developed enough, and after puberty it has developed too much, with the loss of “plasticity” and the completion of “lateralization” of the language function.  Thomas Scovel (1969) suggested that the plasticity of the brain prior to puberty enables children to acquire not only their first language but also a second language.  Children never exposed to any language (spoken or signed) by about age 7 gradually lose their ability to master any language.  the Wolf Boy, Djuma (found in the wastes of southern Russia in 1962)  the Wild Boy of Aveyron, Victor (discovered in the French in 1800) Phonological evidence: Adults are capable of learning to communicate a foreign language.
    13. 13. DESIGN GUIDELINE 13 The Critical Period Hypothesis 100 90 80 70 60 50 Native 3-7 8-10 11-15 17-39 Percentage correct on grammar test Age at arrival, in years Learning a new language gets harder with age. The older the age at immigration, the poorer the mastery of a second language.
    14. 14. DESIGN GUIDELINE 14 Arguments against earlier English education  Arguments against earlier (1st & 2nd ) English education  L2 reverse interference to L1 acquisition  Loss of self & national identity Psycholinguistic perspective: L1 acquisition vs. L2 learning  The acquisition of the communicative and functional purposes of language is, in most circumstances, far more important than a perfect native accent. Obler (1981) noted that in second language learning, there is significant right hemisphere participation and that "this participation is particularly active during the early stages of learning the second language". Genesee (1982) & Seliger (1982) found support for right hemisphere involvement in the form of complex language processing as opposed to early language acquisition. • Second language learners, particularly adult learners, might benefit from more encouragement of right-brain activity in the classroom context.
    15. 15. DESIGN GUIDELINE 15 Antipathy to earlier English education Q. Is English education necessary for lower graders? (Kim, J-R. 2008)  Background of antipathy to earlier English education: i) Issues of self & national identity, ii) teachers’ English competence, iii) teachers’ resistance
    16. 16. DESIGN GUIDELINE 16 Q. Is early English education effective?  More than 10 years since 1997 (English from 3rd grade).  Elementary school teachers’ perceptions: (Kwon et al 2006)  Improvement of 4 skills (Listening, Speaking, Reading & Writing) <6th grade students>  know 500 words.  understand classroom English  be able to speak in English (positive)  Kwon (2006): Test year of 1st & 2nd year H-S students Elementary English education # of schools # of students G TEC Average score Year of 2003 No experience 5 (the same) 4,043 414.5 Year of 2006 Experience 5 (the same) 4,019 459.6 (+ 45.1)
    17. 17. DESIGN GUIDELINE 17 Issues with English education  After 10 years of early English education:  Merits: improvement of 4 skills of English  Demerits:  widening the gap between the top group & the bottom group  widening the gap between urban students (who had been given relatively better English education) & rural students.  Some left-behind students lose interest in English much earlier.  Social pressure:  Negative cycle of English education & income:  The poorer, the poorer education, the poorer English, the poorer.  The richer, the better education, the better English, the richer.  Succession of wealth and social class causes social frustration.
    18. 18. DESIGN GUIDELINE 18 Negative cycle of English education & income The richer, the better education, the better English, the better job, the richer. The poorer, the poorer education, the poorer English, the poorer incomer. Q. How to break this negative cycle of English education?
    19. 19. DESIGN GUIDELINE 19 Major steps by Korean government Three issues of English education in Korea  How to reduce the cost of private education  How to improve the quality of public schools’ English education  How to reduce the gap between the poor & the rich, between rural vs. urban areas in English education Governmental projects for strengthening English education 1. Improve “public school English education” 1. Expand English class hours in elementary schools 2. Introduce “specialist instructors” for English conversation 3. Introduce the “NEAT” (national English ability test) (IBT type) 2. Ways to improve the quality of English education 1. Support the teachers’ teaching ability. 2. Provide special classrooms just for English 3. Provide fair opportunities for English education for everyone.
    20. 20. DESIGN GUIDELINE 20 Expanding English class hours 2010: 3rd - 4th graders: 2 hours/w (expanding 1 to 2 hours) 2011: 5th - 6th graders: 3 hours/w (expanding 2 to 3 hours/w) (since 1997): goal: to arouse kids’ interest in English Introduction of lots of games, song, chanting, etc (from 2010): strengthening reading & writing Earlier introduction of reading & writing 3rd grader (from 9th unit): alphabet, phonics (reading & writing of words) 4th grader (from 1st unit – 13 units): teach to read English words and phrases (from 14th unit - ): teach to read English sentences 5th – 6th graders unit 1: listening, unit 2: speaking, unit 3: reading, unit 4: writing, unit 5: storytelling
    21. 21. DESIGN GUIDELINE 21 Building advanced curriculum & textbooks Teachers’ CD Rom (4th grade) (digital textbook) Look & Listen: (click) Animation & Native speaker’s voice Listen & Repeat: (click) Video Use of lots of animation, songs, puzzles, games, etc. (multimedia)
    22. 22. DESIGN GUIDELINE 22 Specialists for English conversation  Introducing specialists for English conversation.  Elementary School:  Since 2009, specialists teach after-school English classes.  From 2010, they teach regular school classes.  Middle & High Schools:  Students can choose to attend English classes fit for their levels. (3 levels of English classes)
    23. 23. DESIGN GUIDELINE 23 National English Ability Test (IBT)  IBT(Internet-based test)  Test of 4 English skills: Reading, Listening, Speaking & Writing  3 levels:  Level I: for adults including college students  Level II: for high school graduates or undergraduate students; achievement standards similar to those of the CSAT  Level III: focus on testing basic communication skills; achievement standards similar to those of the 10th grade  When?  2009: developing NEAT, preliminary test.  2010 – 2011: several model tests  2012: starting of the real tests  (2016): replacing English of CSAT to Level II & III NEAT
    24. 24. DESIGN GUIDELINE 24 Intensifying support programs for teachers  Making infrastructure that can improve teachers’ ability For current teachers:  Providing language programs enhancing teachers’ teaching ability:  providing intensive English language programs (more than 600 hours/year) for English teachers since 2009.  providing diverse custom-made language programs  For future teachers:  Intensifying English education programs in universities of education  Evaluating elementary school teachers’ ability teaching in English for their teacher certification examination.  Elementary school teacher certification examination: English interview & evaluation of teaching in English  Middle school teacher certification examination: English essay, English interview, & evaluation of teaching in English.
    25. 25. DESIGN GUIDELINE 25 Providing special classrooms just for English  Provide special classrooms only for English to make English class more fun.  Every elementary school: at least one classroom by 2011.  English experiential classroom for elementary schools:  Situational English experience  Reading English fairy tales, stories  Situational role-playing  In 2008: 1,387 schools.  English classroom only for English for middle/high schools:  Students can choose classes fit to their English level.  On-line (video) English lectures/chatting  In 2008: 2,539 schools.
    26. 26. DESIGN GUIDELINE 26 Expanding educational welfare  Provide fair opportunities for English education for everyone.  TaLK (Teach & Learn in Korea) program: (*****satisfaction)  since September 2008.  overseas Koreans, foreign university students  2010 fall: 5th English volunteer scholarship: 600 (240 USA, 59 Canada, 18 England, 15 New Zealand, …)  Remote Video-Camera Lectures for isolated areas such as islands:  lecture & chatting with native English teachers through video-cam.  Free English camps during vacations:  for rural, fishing & mountain village students  for underprivileged urban students  2 or 3-week intensive English programs during vacations  In 2008, more than 60,000 students participated.
    27. 27. DESIGN GUIDELINE 27 Expanding educational welfare  Provide fair opportunities for English education for everyone.  EBS English programs:  diverse free English programs for teachers, students, & parents http://www.ebse.co.kr/  free English level test for students  free teachers’ teaching materials  Click parents’ corner  EBSe Access Program with British Council  British Council LearnEnglishKids program  for elementary school teachers of (3rd – 6th graders)  Flashcards, games, songs, stories for each unit http://www.ebse.co.kr/ebs/britishcouncil.laf
    28. 28. DESIGN GUIDELINE 28 EBSEnglish http://www.ebse.co.kr/
    29. 29. DESIGN GUIDELINE 29 EBSe (Access Program) with British Council • • Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Unit 7 Unit 8 • Unit 9 Unit 10 Unit 11 Unit 12 Unit 13 Unit 14 Unit 15
    30. 30. DESIGN GUIDELINE 30 Free on-line English education materials  British council on-line English materials: http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en  BBC for children (diverse English stories, songs, game, coloring activties with parents, etc.) http://www.bbc.co.uk/cbeebies/  PBS kids (games, stories, video clips, activities with parents & teachers, etc.) http://pbskids.org/lions/  Edunet (in Korean) http://www.edunet4u.net/index.jsp  Digital English teaching materials (in Korean) http://de.edunet4u.net/digitalEnglish/index.jsp
    31. 31. DESIGN GUIDELINE 31 http://learnenglishkids.britishcouncil.org/
    32. 32. DESIGN GUIDELINE 32 http://www.bbc.co.uk/cbeebies/
    33. 33. DESIGN GUIDELINE 33 http://pbskids.org/lions/
    34. 34. DESIGN GUIDELINE 34  Hot social issues in Korea  the high cost of private English education  the negative cycle of English education  Major changes in Korean English education  In 1994, introduction of listening to KSAT  In 1997, introduction of English in elementary schools  In 2012, introduction of speaking & writing to NEAT  On-going arguments for/against earlier English education  Major steps of Korean government  goal: to reduce the cost of private education & the gap between the rich and the poor.  improve public school English education  support teachers’ teaching abilities Summary
    35. 35. 35 Tons of thanks for your attention!
    36. 36. DESIGN GUIDELINE 36 References BBC teaching English website: http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/ EBEe (website) : http://www.ebse.co.kr/ebs/britishcouncil.lafEBEe (website) : http://www.ebse.co.kr/ebs/britishcouncil.laf Genesee, F. (1982) “Experimental neuropsychological research on second language processing,” TESOL Quarterly 16: 315-22. Kim, Jeong-ryeol. (2008) “Theoretical & practical discussions of early English education inKim, Jeong-ryeol. (2008) “Theoretical & practical discussions of early English education in EFL context,”EFL context,” Kwon, O. (2006) Seeking ways to activate elementary & secondary English education by analyzing 10 years achievements of elementary English education. Ministry of Education. Kwon, O. et.al. (2006) Results of an Interview and Questionnaire Survey with Teachers ,”Results of an Interview and Questionnaire Survey with Teachers ,” The 4th Asia TEFL ConferenceThe 4th Asia TEFL Conference , Fukuoka,, Fukuoka, August 18-20.August 18-20. Lenneberg, E.H. (1967) Biological foundations of language. Wiley, New York. Obler, L. (1981) “Right hemisphere participation in second language acquisition,” Scovel, T. (1969). Foreign accents, language acquisition, and cerebral dominance. Language Learning, 19, (3 & 4), 245-253. Seliger, H. (1982) "On the possible role of the right hemisphere in second language acquisition," TESOL Quarterly 16: 307-314. Ministry of Education, Science & Technology. http://english.mest.go.kr/index.jspMinistry of Education, Science & Technology. http://english.mest.go.kr/index.jsp Ministry of Education, Science & Technology. 2010.Ministry of Education, Science & Technology. 2010. Elementary English 3Elementary English 3.. http://www.english.go.kr/http://www.english.go.kr/ (Korean English policy)(Korean English policy)
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