APA Documentation


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This is the APA Documentation workshop for Purdue University Calumet's Writing Center. The workshop gives information on how to format a paper and cite sources correctly as well as gives examples.

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APA Documentation

  1. 1. APA Documentation Style
  2. 2.  “References” page, not “Works Cited” for bibliography  Major focus on when works were published  All material should be written in past tense  Non-traditional capitalization for titles on references page  Nothing is underlined ◦ Italics are used for titles of longer works ◦ “Quotation marks around titles of shorter works in-text.”
  3. 3. APA Format
  4. 4.  Times New Roman  Size 12
  5. 5.  Line Spacing – Double  Space Before – 0 pt  Space After – 0 pt  Click “Don’t add space between paragraphs of the same style.”
  6. 6.  Running Head  Page Number  Title of Paper  Your First and Last Name  Name of University  Author’s Note
  7. 7.  Double-click the very top of the page.  Click “Different First Page.”  Change the font to Times New Roman, 12.  Type “Running head:”  Type the title in all capital letters.
  8. 8.  Still in the header, press the “Tab” button twice.  In “Design,” click on “Page Number.”  Hover over “Current Position.”  Click “Plain Number.”
  9. 9.  Author Note is at the very bottom of the page.  Include: ◦ Course Name ◦ Section ◦ Professor’s Name
  10. 10.  Go to back to the header and change the font again to Times New Roman, 12.  Type the title in all caps without “Running head.”  Insert the page number again.  Include an “Abstract”, a paragraph overviewing what your paper is about.
  11. 11.  Your paper will begin on the next page, page 3.  Type the title at the top.  Begin your paper.
  12. 12. Why Do We Need APA Citations?
  13. 13.  It’s ethical.  It generates interest.  It strengthens your argument.  It helps others find your sources.
  14. 14.  Is taking credit for someone else’s work/ideas.  To avoid this, cite anything that doesn’t come out of your own head.  Anything that is not common knowledge must be cited.
  15. 15. What to Cite
  16. 16.  Direct Quotes  Paraphrases  Theories or ideas unique to a specific author  The specific argument of the author  Facts  Articles of studies quoted within your text  Uncommon knowledge
  17. 17.  When the author has said it best ◦ When the wording is too specific or detailed to reword ◦ When specialized language is used  To illustrate the writing style of the author
  18. 18.  When focusing on the meaning rather than the exact words  To condense paragraphs into a sentence or two  To show you understand what you’ve read
  19. 19. When Don’t I Have to Cite Sources?
  20. 20.  Proverbs, axioms, and common sayings ◦ Ex: “A day late and a dollar short.”  Well-known quotes ◦ Ex: “The body politic.”  Common knowledge ◦ Ex: George Washington was the first president of the United States.
  21. 21. In-Text/Parenthetical Citations
  22. 22.  Direct Quotes  Paraphrases  Theories or ideas unique to a specific author  The specific argument of the author  Facts  Articles of studies quoted within your text
  23. 23.  Direct Quotes  Paraphrases  Theories or ideas unique to a specific author  The specific argument of the author  Facts  Articles of studies quoted within your text
  24. 24.  Put parenthesis around the author’s last name ◦ Ex: (Vlahos)  Put the year after the author’s name, separated by a comma. ◦ Ex: (Vlahos, 2013)  Put the page number after the date, separated by a comma. ◦ Ex: (Vlahos, 2013, p. 10).  Put the period after the parenthesis. ◦ Ex: (Vlahos, 2013, p. 10).
  25. 25.  Two Authors ◦ Ex: (Davison & Newenhouse, 2014, p. 15).  Three to Five Authors ◦ Identify all authors the first you cite in-text.  Ex: (Jones, Rosenbrock, & Davison, 2012, p. 2). ◦ In later citations, use the first author’s name followed by “et al.”  Ex: (Jones et al., 2012, p. 2).
  26. 26.  Cite the article name with quotation marks inside of the parenthesis. ◦ Ex: (“How to Cite APA”).  Place a comma inside the quotes after the title, then put the date and page number. ◦ Ex: (“How to Cite APA,” 2014, p. 4).
  27. 27.  APA requires page numbers for quotations, summaries, and paraphrases, but when there is no page number, use paragraph numbers of headings to locate the specific passage. ◦ Ex: (Lynch, 2012, para. 6). ◦ Ex: Newenhouse (2013) pointed out that it is important to cite sources correctly using APA (Correct Citations section, para. 4).
  28. 28.  At the end of the sentence ◦ Ex: The Writing Center focuses on helping students learn about the writing process (Davison, 2014, p. 3).  In the sentence itself ◦ Mention the author in the sentence ◦ Put the date in parenthesis right after the author’s name. ◦ Put the page number at the end of the sentence.  Ex: According to Jones et. al (2012), tutoring can also help improve the tutor’s writing as well (p. 2).
  29. 29.  Not Dated ◦ Ex: n.d.  Not Paginated ◦ Ex: n.p.  These can be used in place of a date or page number if they are missing.
  30. 30. Citing Indirect Sources and Block Quotes
  31. 31.  Are quotes inside of someone else’s work  Name the author who said the quote in the same sentence as the quote  In in-text citations, only cite the author of the book or article containing the quote ◦ Ex: Davison claimed that “APA is easy”(as cited in Newenhouse, 2011).
  32. 32.  Use when the quote is longer than 40 words.  Make the quote its own separate paragraph within the original paragraph.  Place an additional 1” margin around it.  Then continue the normal paragraph.
  33. 33. Example from http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/
  34. 34. Personal Communication and Sacred Texts
  35. 35.  Personal interviews, letters, e-mails, and other communications not published should be cited in text only.  They do not go on the reference page.  Include the first initial and last name in the parenthesis with personal communication and the date. ◦ Ex: (J. Harrison, personal communication, January 1, 2014).
  36. 36.  Mention the text, version or edition used, and the specific chapter, verse, or line referenced in text.  Do not include the source on the reference page. ◦ Ex: (Isaiah 2:4, Revised Standard Version). Example from http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/
  37. 37. References Page
  38. 38.  Click “Insert”  Click “Page Break”  This will start a new page.
  39. 39.  Center the title.  “References” if citing more than one reference.  “Reference” if citing only one reference.  Do not italicize or underline.
  40. 40.  Organize the sources in alphabetical order, double spaced Example from http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/
  41. 41.  Highlight your sources.  Pull the bottom triangle on the ruler to the .5 mark.
  42. 42.  Only the first letter in the first word of the title is capitalized. ◦ Ex: Teaching documentation styles  The first letter in the subtitle (after the colon) capitalized. ◦ Ex: Teaching documentation styles: Citing made easy  All proper nouns (i.e., Christmas) are capitalized.  All other words are lower case.
  43. 43.  Basic format Last name, first initial. (Year Published). Title of book. City of Publication, State: Publisher. Example from http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/
  44. 44.  Book with an editor Editor’s last name, first initial. (Eds.). (Year Published). Title of book. (Edition number). City of Publication, State: Publisher.  Book with an author and editor Author’s last name, first intial. (Year Published). Title of book. (Name of editor(s).). Place of Publication: Publisher. Examples from http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/
  45. 45.  Document from a website Last name, first initial. (Year, month). Document title. Retrieved from URL. Example from http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/
  46. 46.  Section in a Web Document Author. (Year). Title of section. In Title of web document. Retrieved from URL. Example from http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/
  47. 47.  Print Last Name, first initial. (Year). Article title. Journal Title, volume, page range. Example from http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/
  48. 48.  Online Last name, first initial. (Year). Article title. Journal Title, volume, page range. DOI  If there is no DOI, include the URL for the journal’s home page. Example from http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/
  49. 49.  Newspaper Last name, first initial. (Year, month+day). Article title. Newspaper title, page number.  Magazine Last name, first initial. (Year, month). Article title. Magazine title, volume(issue), page range. McKibben, B. (2007, October). Carbon’s new math. National Geographic, 212(4), 32-37. Examples from http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/
  50. 50.  Two to seven authors Example from http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/
  51. 51.  Organization as author ◦ Some documents can be written by private organizations or government agencies.  Unknown author ◦ Begin the entry with the work’s title. Example from http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/
  52. 52. Bedford St. Martin’s APA Style http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/resdoc5e/RES5e_ch09_o.ht ml American Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  53. 53. Good Luck!