Karla E.A. Steingraber, Psy.D. Licensed Clinical Psychologist Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. -  Wolfson Psychological Services
General Outline <ul><li>Types of Change </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme Reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding Adjustment Dis...
Change --  A part of life <ul><li>“ The only constant is change.” </li></ul><ul><li>--Unknown </li></ul><ul><li>A problem ...
Types of Change:  The Good, the Bad, & The Ugly <ul><li>Loss of Employment </li></ul><ul><li>Starting a New Job </li></ul>...
Dealing with Change <ul><li>While we all struggle to deal with change to varying degrees, sometimes our emotional resource...
Adjustment Disorder: General Definition <ul><li>Adjustment disorder (AD) is  </li></ul><ul><li>a stress-related,  short-te...
Types of Adjustment Disorders <ul><li>Adjustment disorder with depressed mood.   Symptoms mainly include feeling sad, tear...
Adjustment Disorder Statistics <ul><li>5-20%  of people in outpatient treatment have AD as principle diagnosis </li></ul><...
AD Symptoms <ul><li>Emotional </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral </li></ul><ul><li>Sadness  </li></ul><ul><li>Hopelessness  </li...
Risk Factors <ul><li>Why is one person more likely than another to develop an AD? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Component...
Risk Factors: Personal Components <ul><li>Age & Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Temperament </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-existing Person...
Risk Factors: Environmental/Life Experiences <ul><li>Support System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overprotective or abusive parent...
Complex Cases <ul><li>Most people experience multiple stressors and/or losses simultaneously. </li></ul><ul><li>For some, ...
Kubler-Ross Grief Stage Theory <ul><li>Denial  </li></ul><ul><li>Anger </li></ul><ul><li>Bargaining </li></ul><ul><li>Depr...
Psychosocial Development Erik Erickson <ul><li>Trust Versus Mistrust.  From ages birth to 1 year, children begin to learn ...
Defense Mechanisms <ul><li>Denial ;  an outright refusal or inability to accept some aspect of reality that is troubling. ...
Defense Mechanisms  (continued) <ul><li>Displacement;  An unacceptable feeling or thought about a person, place or thing i...
What Can You Do to Help Those at Risk <ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategies for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><...
Prevention Strategies The essential role of the “family”  (nurses & social workers) <ul><li>Develop healthy coping strateg...
Self-care:  Encourage clients to: <ul><li>Talk things over with caring family and friends  </li></ul><ul><li>Try to keep e...
Exercise <ul><li>Improves symptoms of certain mental health conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serotonin, dopamine, norepine...
Self-Esteem <ul><li>Healthy self-esteem promotes confidence, and this can contribute to better managing difficulties, ther...
Self-Esteem  Defined <ul><li>Self-Esteem  =  The degree to which one values him/herself. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-efficacy  ...
5 Steps toward Improving Self-Esteem  Step 1:  Identify troubling conditions or situations <ul><li>Think about what you fi...
Step 2:  Become aware of beliefs and thoughts <ul><li>Once you've identified troubling conditions or situations, pay atten...
Step 3:  Pinpoint negative or inaccurate thinking <ul><li>Your beliefs and thoughts about a condition or situation affect ...
Step 4:  Challenge negative or inaccurate thinking <ul><li>Your initial thoughts may not be the only possible way to view ...
Thought patterns that erode self-esteem: <ul><li>All-or-nothing thinking.  You see things as either all good or all bad. F...
Step 5:  Change your thoughts and beliefs <ul><li>The final step is to replace the negative or inaccurate thinking you've ...
Patient & Family Education Nurses & Social Workers are often the only point of contact for families.  Teach them about wha...
Team Unity Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. -  Wolfson Psychological Services
The Necessity of Team Unity <ul><li>Team Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicati...
Treatment <ul><li>2 Treatment Options: </li></ul><ul><li>Psychotherapy Treatment of choice for adjustment disorders is psy...
Therapeutic Options <ul><li>Individual psychotherapy </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Family and gr...
Treatment Overview <ul><li>Treatment of ADs entails psychotherapeutic counseling aimed at: </li></ul><ul><li>reducing the ...
‘ Goodness of Fit’ Theory <ul><li>Goodness of Fit results when the properties of the environment and its expectations and ...
Medication Classes & Problems with Typical Use in Special Populations <ul><li>Stimulants/ADHD (e.g. Ritalin, Concerta, Foc...
Challenging the notion of  “Toughing it out”   <ul><li>An adjustment disorder is a severe emotional reaction to a difficul...
Bibliography <ul><li>Kaplan, Harold & Sadock, Benjamin (1988) Synopsis of Psychiatry 5 th  edition. Williams & Wilkins, Ba...
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Coping With Transitions Short Version Presented To Northwestern 12 08 1

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Understanding disorders of adjustment and how to treat them

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Coping With Transitions Short Version Presented To Northwestern 12 08 1

  1. 1. Karla E.A. Steingraber, Psy.D. Licensed Clinical Psychologist Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
  2. 2. General Outline <ul><li>Types of Change </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme Reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding Adjustment Disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying Contributing Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Grief Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment, Intervention, & Treatment </li></ul>Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
  3. 3. Change -- A part of life <ul><li>“ The only constant is change.” </li></ul><ul><li>--Unknown </li></ul><ul><li>A problem with this reality is that most people don’t like change, nor do we always know how to deal with it well. </li></ul><ul><li>Over the last centuries, life has become more complex and requires us to adapt to more things more quickly than ever before. </li></ul><ul><li>We are not born with all the essential life survival skills, so we have to learn them along the way. </li></ul><ul><li>What if we struggle to do this? </li></ul>Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
  4. 4. Types of Change: The Good, the Bad, & The Ugly <ul><li>Loss of Employment </li></ul><ul><li>Starting a New Job </li></ul><ul><li>Moving </li></ul><ul><li>Getting Married/Divorced </li></ul><ul><li>Having a Baby </li></ul><ul><li>Aging </li></ul><ul><li>Loved Ones Passing Away </li></ul><ul><li>Declining Healthy </li></ul><ul><li>Others ? </li></ul>Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
  5. 5. Dealing with Change <ul><li>While we all struggle to deal with change to varying degrees, sometimes our emotional resources become too taxed and overwhelmed. This can result in an adjustment disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>Adjustment disorders are very common and can affect anyone, regardless of gender, age, race, or lifestyle. </li></ul>Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
  6. 6. Adjustment Disorder: General Definition <ul><li>Adjustment disorder (AD) is </li></ul><ul><li>a stress-related, short-term , nonpsychotic disturbance. </li></ul><ul><li>overly intense responses to given stimuli. </li></ul><ul><li>these responses manifest as emotional or behavioral reactions to an identifiable stressful event </li></ul><ul><li>time-limited, usually beginning within 3 months of the stressful event, and symptoms lessen within 6 months upon removal of the stressor or when new adaptation occurs. </li></ul>Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
  7. 7. Types of Adjustment Disorders <ul><li>Adjustment disorder with depressed mood. Symptoms mainly include feeling sad, tearful and hopeless, and a lack of pleasure in the things you used to enjoy. </li></ul><ul><li>Adjustment disorder with anxiety. Symptoms mainly include nervousness, worry, difficulty concentrating or remembering things, and feeling overwhelmed. Children who have adjustment disorder with anxiety may strongly fear being separated from their parents and loved ones. </li></ul><ul><li>Adjustment disorder with mixed anxiety and depressed mood. Symptoms include a mix of depression and anxiety. </li></ul><ul><li>Adjustment disorder with disturbance of conduct. Symptoms mainly involve behavioral problems, such as fighting, reckless driving or ignoring your bills. Youngsters may skip school or vandalize property. </li></ul><ul><li>Adjustment disorder with mixed disturbance of emotions and conduct. Symptoms include a mix of depression and anxiety as well as behavioral problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Adjustment disorder unspecified. Symptoms don't fit the other types of adjustment disorders but often include physical problems, problems with family or friends, or work or school problems. </li></ul>Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
  8. 8. Adjustment Disorder Statistics <ul><li>5-20% of people in outpatient treatment have AD as principle diagnosis </li></ul><ul><li>0.05% (6,290) of hospital consultant episodes were for reaction to severe stress and adjustment disorders </li></ul><ul><li>95% of hospital consultant episodes for reaction to severe stress and adjustment disorders required hospital admission </li></ul><ul><li>50% of hospital consultant episodes for reaction to severe stress and adjustment disorders were for men </li></ul><ul><li>50% of hospital consultant episodes for reaction to severe stress and adjustment disorders were for women </li></ul><ul><li>80% of hospital consultant episodes for reaction to severe stress and adjustment disorders required emergency hospital admission </li></ul><ul><li>18.3 days was the mean length of stay in hospitals for reaction to severe stress and adjustment disorders </li></ul><ul><li>9 days was the median length of stay in hospitals for reaction to severe stress and adjustment disorders </li></ul><ul><li>90% of hospital consultant episodes for reaction to severe stress and adjustment disorders occurred in 15-59 year olds </li></ul><ul><li>3% of hospital consultant episodes for reaction to severe stress and adjustment disorders occurred in people over 75 </li></ul><ul><li>(Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03) </li></ul>Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
  9. 9. AD Symptoms <ul><li>Emotional </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral </li></ul><ul><li>Sadness </li></ul><ul><li>Hopelessness </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of enjoyment </li></ul><ul><li>Crying spells </li></ul><ul><li>Nervousness </li></ul><ul><li>Thoughts of suicide </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Worry </li></ul><ul><li>Desperation </li></ul><ul><li>Trouble sleeping </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty concentrating </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling overwhelmed </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawing from family and Friends </li></ul><ul><li>Fighting </li></ul><ul><li>Reckless driving </li></ul><ul><li>Ignoring bills </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding family or friends </li></ul><ul><li>Poor school or work performance </li></ul><ul><li>Skipping school </li></ul><ul><li>Vandalism </li></ul>
  10. 10. Risk Factors <ul><li>Why is one person more likely than another to develop an AD? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Components </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Risk Factors: Personal Components <ul><li>Age & Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Temperament </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-existing Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Disposition, Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Early Life Experiences </li></ul><ul><li>History of Mental Healthy Difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>Coping Strategies & Resilience </li></ul><ul><li>Connectedness to others – Social </li></ul>Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
  12. 12. Risk Factors: Environmental/Life Experiences <ul><li>Support System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overprotective or abusive parenting, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family disruptions and frequent moves early in life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exposure to wars or violence without development of PTSD </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantaged life circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Timing </li></ul><ul><li>Form & Presentation of Stressor </li></ul><ul><li>Recent changes, difficulties or losses at work or in your family life </li></ul>Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
  13. 13. Complex Cases <ul><li>Most people experience multiple stressors and/or losses simultaneously. </li></ul><ul><li>For some, it is the accumulation of a variety of problems which serve to overwhelm their otherwise sufficient resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Important to do a differential diagnosis, e.g. complicated bereavement, depression, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Declining health </li></ul><ul><li>2) Loss of spouse </li></ul><ul><li>3) Loss of driving privileges </li></ul><ul><li>4) Loss of previous home </li></ul><ul><li>These common traumas create a very intimidating situation </li></ul>Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
  14. 14. Kubler-Ross Grief Stage Theory <ul><li>Denial </li></ul><ul><li>Anger </li></ul><ul><li>Bargaining </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy grieving lessens potential for an AD </li></ul>Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
  15. 15. Psychosocial Development Erik Erickson <ul><li>Trust Versus Mistrust. From ages birth to 1 year, children begin to learn the ability to trust others based upon the consistency of their caregiver(s). </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt . Between the ages of 1-3, children begin to assert their independence, by walking away from their mother, picking which toy to play with, and making choices about what they like to wear, to eat, etc. (development of self-esteem) </li></ul><ul><li>Initiative vs. Guilt. Around age 3-6 children assert themselves more frequently. They begin to plan activities, make up games, and initiate activities with others. </li></ul><ul><li>Industry vs. Inferiority. From age 6 years to puberty, children begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments. They initiate projects, see them through to completion, and feel good about what they have achieved. </li></ul><ul><li>Identity vs. Role Confusion. During adolescence, the transition from childhood to adulthood is most important. Children are becoming more independent, and begin to look at the future in terms of career, relationships, families, housing, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Intimacy vs. Isolation. Occurring in Young adulthood, we begin to share ourselves more intimately with others. We explore relationships leading toward longer term commitments with someone other than a family member. </li></ul><ul><li>Generativity vs. Stagnation. During middle adulthood, we establish our careers, settle down within a relationship, begin our own families and develop a sense of being a part of the bigger picture. We give back to society through raising our children & being productive at work,. </li></ul><ul><li>Ego Integrity vs. Despair. As we grow older and become senior citizens, we tend to slow down our productivity, and explore life as a retired person. It is during this time that we contemplate our accomplishments and are able to develop integrity if we see ourselves as leading a successful life. </li></ul>Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
  16. 16. Defense Mechanisms <ul><li>Denial ; an outright refusal or inability to accept some aspect of reality that is troubling. For example: &quot;this thing has not happened&quot; when it actually has. </li></ul><ul><li>Splitting ; a person cannot stand the thought that someone might have both good and bad aspects, so they polarize their view of that person as someone who is &quot;all good&quot; or &quot;all bad&quot;. Any evidence to the contrary is ignored. For example: &quot;My boss is evil&quot;, after being let go from work, when in reality, the boss had no choice in the matter and was acting under orders herself. Splitting functions by way of Dissociation, which is an ability people have in varying amounts to be able to wall off certain experiences and not think about them. </li></ul><ul><li>Projection ; a person's thought or emotion about another person, place or thing is too troubling to admit, and so, that thought or emotion is attributed to originate from that other person, place or thing. For example: &quot;He hates me&quot;, when it is actually the speaker who hates. A variation on the theme of Projection is known as &quot;Externalization&quot;. In Externalization, you blame others for your problems rather than owning up to any role you may play in causing them. </li></ul><ul><li>Passive-aggression ; A thought or feeling is not acceptable enough to a person to be allowed direct expression. Instead, that person behaves in an indirect manner that expresses the thought or emotion. For example: Failing to wash your hands before cooking when you normally would, and happen to be cooking for someone you don't like. </li></ul><ul><li>Acting out ; an inability to be thoughtful about an impulse. The impulse is expressed directly without any reflection or consideration as to whether it is a good idea to do so. For example: a person attacks another person in a fit of anger without stopping to consider that this could seriously wound or disfigure that other person and/or possibly result in legal problems. </li></ul>Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
  17. 17. Defense Mechanisms (continued) <ul><li>Displacement; An unacceptable feeling or thought about a person, place or thing is redirected towards a safer target. For example, it may feel unsafe to admit anger towards a parent, but it is perfectly safe to criticize the neighborhood he or she lives in. </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation/Intellectualization; Overwhelming feelings or thoughts about an event are handled by isolating their meaning from the feelings accompanying the meaning, and focusing on the meaning in isolation. For example, you cope with the recent death of a parent by reading about the grieving process. </li></ul><ul><li>Repression; A milder form of denial; You manage uncomfortable feelings and thoughts by avoiding thinking about them. You are able to admit that you feel a certain way (unlike in denial), but you can't think of what might have led up to that feeling, and don't really want to think about it anyway. </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction Formation; You react to uncomfortable, unacceptable feelings or ideas that you have (but aren't quite conscious of really), by forming the opposite opinion. For example; you unconsciously hate your parent, but your experience is to the contrary; you are only aware of loving feelings for your parent. </li></ul>Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
  18. 18. What Can You Do to Help Those at Risk <ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategies for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-Care </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-Esteem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Team Unity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul>Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
  19. 19. Prevention Strategies The essential role of the “family” (nurses & social workers) <ul><li>Develop healthy coping strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Improve Resilience </li></ul><ul><li>Create a good support network </li></ul><ul><li>Seek out humor or laughter </li></ul><ul><li>Live a healthy lifestyle & Request a healthy lifestyle </li></ul><ul><li>Think positively & Pass it on </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare for change </li></ul><ul><li>Suggest stress management </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage checking in with health care or mental health care provider to review healthy ways to manage stress. </li></ul>Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
  20. 20. Self-care: Encourage clients to: <ul><li>Talk things over with caring family and friends </li></ul><ul><li>Try to keep eating a healthy diet </li></ul><ul><li>Stick to a regular sleep routine </li></ul><ul><li>Get regular physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in a hobby they enjoy </li></ul><ul><li>Find a support group geared toward their situation </li></ul><ul><li>Find support from a faith community : </li></ul><ul><li>Be around those who offer encouragement to talk about feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Offer support and understanding to others </li></ul><ul><li>Make choices </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid Destructive Activities. </li></ul><ul><li>If they use these kinds of self-care steps but they don't seem to be helping, be sure to refer them to their health care provider. </li></ul>Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
  21. 21. Exercise <ul><li>Improves symptoms of certain mental health conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and endorphins, have strong effects on mood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reducie feelings of anxiety, stress (Cortisol) and depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help to strengthen immune system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20 types of endorphins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>beta-endorphins secreted during exercise reduce pain & muscle tension </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Helps prevent a relapse after treatment for depression or anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Even small amounts - as little as 10-15 minutes at a time - can improve mood in the short term. </li></ul><ul><li>Improves sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Increases body temperature, which may have calming effects. </li></ul><ul><li>If you exercise regularly but depression or anxiety symptoms still interfere with your daily living, seek professional help. Exercise isn't meant to replace medical treatment of depression or anxiety. </li></ul>Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
  22. 22. Self-Esteem <ul><li>Healthy self-esteem promotes confidence, and this can contribute to better managing difficulties, thereby lessening the potential for an AD </li></ul>Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
  23. 23. Self-Esteem Defined <ul><li>Self-Esteem = The degree to which one values him/herself. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-efficacy = One’s sense of basic confidence in the face of life’s challenges. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-respect = Extent to which one feels “Worthy of Happiness”. </li></ul><ul><li>The Six Pillars of Self Esteem by Nathanial Branden (1994) </li></ul><ul><li>The practice of living consciously </li></ul><ul><li>The practice of self - acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>The practice of self - responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>The practice of self - assertiveness </li></ul><ul><li>The practice of living purposefully </li></ul><ul><li>The practice of personal integrity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The missing pillar: social connectedness We are social beings! </li></ul></ul>Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
  24. 24. 5 Steps toward Improving Self-Esteem Step 1: Identify troubling conditions or situations <ul><li>Think about what you find troubling and deflates your self-esteem. </li></ul><ul><li>You may wish to change aspects of your personality or behavior, such as a fear of giving a business presentation or frequently becoming angry </li></ul><ul><li>You may be struggling with depression, a disability or a change in life circumstances, such as the death of a loved one, a lost promotion or children leaving home. </li></ul><ul><li>Or you may wish to improve your relationship with another person, such as a spouse, family member or co-worker. </li></ul>Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
  25. 25. Step 2: Become aware of beliefs and thoughts <ul><li>Once you've identified troubling conditions or situations, pay attention to your thoughts. </li></ul><ul><li>This includes your self-talk — what you tell yourself — as well as your interpretation of what a situation means and your beliefs about yourself, other people and events. Your thoughts and beliefs may be positive, negative or neutral. They may be rational — based on reason or facts — or irrational — based on false ideas. </li></ul>Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
  26. 26. Step 3: Pinpoint negative or inaccurate thinking <ul><li>Your beliefs and thoughts about a condition or situation affect your reaction to it. Inaccurate or negative thoughts and beliefs about something or someone can trigger unhealthy physical, emotional and behavioral responses, including: </li></ul><ul><li>Physical responses, such as a stiff neck, sore back, racing heart, stomach problems, sweating or change in sleeping patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional responses, such as difficulty concentrating or feeling depressed, angry, sad, nervous, guilty or worried. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral responses, such as eating when not hungry, avoiding tasks, working more than usual, spending increased time alone, obsessing about a situation or blaming others for your problems. </li></ul>Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
  27. 27. Step 4: Challenge negative or inaccurate thinking <ul><li>Your initial thoughts may not be the only possible way to view a situation. So test the accuracy of your thoughts. Ask yourself whether your view of a situation is consistent with facts and logic or whether there might be other explanations. </li></ul><ul><li>You may not easily recognize inaccuracies in your thinking. Most people have automatic, long-standing ways of thinking about their lives and themselves. These long-held thoughts and beliefs feel normal and factual to you, but many are simply opinions or perceptions. </li></ul>Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
  28. 28. Thought patterns that erode self-esteem: <ul><li>All-or-nothing thinking. You see things as either all good or all bad. For example, &quot;If I don't succeed in this job, I'm a total failure.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Mental filtering. You see only negatives and dwell on them, distorting your view of a person or situation or your entire life. For example, &quot;I made a mistake on that report and now everyone will realize I'm a failure.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Converting positives into negatives. You reject your achievements and other positive experiences by insisting that they don't count. For example, &quot;My date only gave me that compliment because he knows how bad I feel.&quot; &quot;I only did well on that test because it was so easy.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Jumping to negative conclusions. You reach a negative conclusion when little or no evidence supports it. For example, &quot;My friend hasn't replied to my e-mail, so I must have done something to make her angry.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Mistaking feelings for facts . You confuse feelings or beliefs with facts. For example, &quot;I feel like a failure, so I must be a failure.&quot; No matter how strong a feeling is, it isn't a fact. </li></ul><ul><li>Self put-downs. You undervalue yourself, put yourself down or use self-deprecating humor. This can result from overreacting to a situation, such as making a mistake. For example, &quot;I don't deserve anything better.&quot; &quot;I'm weak, stupid or ugly.&quot; </li></ul>Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
  29. 29. Step 5: Change your thoughts and beliefs <ul><li>The final step is to replace the negative or inaccurate thinking you've identified with accurate thoughts and beliefs. This can enable you to find constructive ways to cope and give your self-esteem a boost. </li></ul><ul><li>This step can be difficult. Thoughts often occur spontaneously or automatically, without effort on your part. It can be hard to control or turn off your thoughts. Thoughts can be very powerful and aren't always based on logic. It takes time and effort to learn how to recognize and replace distressing thoughts with accurate ones. </li></ul>Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
  30. 30. Patient & Family Education Nurses & Social Workers are often the only point of contact for families. Teach them about what you are doing, such as…. <ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Care </li></ul><ul><li>Individual differences </li></ul><ul><li>AD: One instance or series of stressful events </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage acknowledgement of the personal significance of the stressful event. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage getting support </li></ul>Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
  31. 31. Team Unity Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
  32. 32. The Necessity of Team Unity <ul><li>Team Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Without Team Approach …. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example of team splitting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good cop, Bad cop = failed treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Team Meeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior Plans </li></ul></ul>Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
  33. 33. Treatment <ul><li>2 Treatment Options: </li></ul><ul><li>Psychotherapy Treatment of choice for adjustment disorders is psychotherapy, also called counseling or talk therapy. Therapy can provide emotional support, help you learn why the stressful event affected you, and healthy coping skills. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The form and type of psychotherapy will vary upon the clinician, and the personality features of the patient. This therapy often takes the form of solution-focused, to help the individual deal more effectively with the specific life problem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A focus on guiding the client toward finding new coping mechanisms, or finding a better understanding of issues in their lives. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medications In some cases, medications may help, too. Medications can help with such symptoms as depression, anxiety and suicidal thoughts. </li></ul>Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
  34. 34. Therapeutic Options <ul><li>Individual psychotherapy </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Family and group therapies </li></ul>Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
  35. 35. Treatment Overview <ul><li>Treatment of ADs entails psychotherapeutic counseling aimed at: </li></ul><ul><li>reducing the stressor, </li></ul><ul><li>improving coping ability with stressors that cannot be reduced or removed, </li></ul><ul><li>and formatting an emotional state and support systems to enhance adaptation and coping. </li></ul><ul><li>Goals of psychotherapy should include: </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the stressors that are affecting the patient, and determine whether they can be eliminated or minimized. </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify and interpret the meaning of the stressor for the patient. </li></ul><ul><li>Reframe the meaning of the stressor. </li></ul><ul><li>Illuminate the concerns and conflicts the patient experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify a means to reduce the stressor. </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize the patient's coping skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Assist patients to gain perspective on the stressor, establish relationships, attend support groups, and manage themselves and the stressor. </li></ul>Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
  36. 36. ‘ Goodness of Fit’ Theory <ul><li>Goodness of Fit results when the properties of the environment and its expectations and demands are in accord with the individual’s own capacities, characteristics, and style of behaving. </li></ul><ul><li>( Apply to ADHD-work=Minimal distractions Spouse=organized, Patient </li></ul><ul><li>Interactionism - A combined function of inherent and environmental influences. An expression of continuous organism-environment interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Individualization – Uniqueness. One’s variability in his/her physiological, psychological, cognitive, and perceptual attributes. </li></ul><ul><li>Chess, Stella & Thomas, Alexander (1999). </li></ul>Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
  37. 37. Medication Classes & Problems with Typical Use in Special Populations <ul><li>Stimulants/ADHD (e.g. Ritalin, Concerta, Focalin); Alternatives (Strattera, Wellbutrin) </li></ul><ul><li>Antidepressants/Depression or anxiety (e.g. Prozac, Zoloft, Effexor, Cymbalta) </li></ul><ul><li>Antipsychotics/Psychosis or PTSD (e.g. Resperidone, Seroquel, Geodone, Abilify) </li></ul><ul><li>Mood stabilizers/Bipolar Disorder (e.g. Trileptal, Abilify, Depakote) </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social stigma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team disagreements </li></ul></ul>Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
  38. 38. Challenging the notion of “Toughing it out” <ul><li>An adjustment disorder is a severe emotional reaction to a difficult event. </li></ul><ul><li>It impacts daily routines and gaining satisfaction out of life. </li></ul><ul><li>No one should have to tough it out alone. </li></ul><ul><li>Nurses and Social Workers, who see the these clients very regularly, are in the best position to impact these clients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Because they are liked and admired </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because they are available </li></ul></ul>Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
  39. 39. Bibliography <ul><li>Kaplan, Harold & Sadock, Benjamin (1988) Synopsis of Psychiatry 5 th edition. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD </li></ul><ul><li>DSM-IV-TR American Psychiatric Association, Washington DC </li></ul><ul><li>Branden, Nathaniel (1994) The Six Pillars of Self-Esteem. Bantam Books, New York, N.Y. </li></ul><ul><li>Chess, Stella & Thomas, Alexander (1999). Goodness of Fit. Brunner/Mazel, Philadelphia, PA </li></ul><ul><li>Faulkner, Terry (2008). Personal communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Kubler-Ross, Elisabeth (1969) On Death And Dying. </li></ul><ul><li>Macmillan Publishing Co., New York, N.Y. </li></ul><ul><li>MayoClinic.com </li></ul><ul><li>eMedicine.com </li></ul><ul><li>PsyWeb.com </li></ul><ul><li>wrongdiagnosis.com </li></ul><ul><li>absolutefitness.co.uk </li></ul><ul><li>appliedsportpsych.org </li></ul>Karla Steingraber, Psy.D. - Wolfson Psychological Services
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