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    P R S A  Oct 2  N Y C P R S A Oct 2 N Y C Presentation Transcript

    • Build Your Bottom Line with Data Driven PR  October 2 , 2009Katie Delahaye PaineCEOkdpaine@kdpaine.comwww.kdpaine.comhttp:/kdpaine.blogs.comMember, IPR Measurement Commissionwww.instituteforpr.org
    • Why Measure?
      “The main reason to measure objectives is not so much to reward or punish
      individual communications manager for success or failure as it is to learn from the
      research whether a program should be continued as is, revised, or dropped in favor of another approach ”
      James E. Grunig, Professor Emeritus, University of Maryland
      “If we can put a man in orbit, why can’t we determine the effectiveness of our communications? The reason is simple and perhaps, therefore, a little old-fashioned: people, human beings with a wide range of choice. Unpredictable, cantankerous,
      capricious, motivated by innumerable conflicting interests, and conflicting desires.”
      Ralph Delahaye Paine, Publisher, Fortune Magazine , 1960 speech to the Ad Club of St. Louis
    • What Matters?
      To P&G: Engagement
      To the Humane Society: Donations
      To ComCast: Happier customers
      To Best Buy: Better informed employees
      To WMUR: Faster, more complete, more relevant stories
      To Dell: Sales
      To Molson: Better messaging
    • What Doesn’t Matter?
      AVEs
      Eyeballs
      HITS (How Idiots Track Success)
      Couch Potatoes
      # of Twitter Followers (unless you’re a celebrity)
      # of Facebook Friends/Fans (unless they donate money)
      Page 4
    • A measurement timeline
    • Page 6
      You are a party planner, not a communicator
      21st Century
      Old School
    • Page 7
      Social Media renders everything you know about measurement obsolete
      Old School PR
      21st Century Role of PR
      The definition of timely has changed
      The definition of reach has changed
      GRPs & Impressions are impossible to count (an irrevelvant) in social media
      The definition of success has changed
      The answer isn’t how many you’ve reached, but how those you’ve reached have responded
    • Signs that it’s the end of measurement as we know it
      Procter & Gamble is now paying for engagement, not eyeballs
      Sodexo cut $300K out of its recruitment budget using Twitter
      Facebook USERS translated the site from English to Spanish via a Wiki in less than 4 weeks and cost Facebook $0
      BMC Software measures communications effectiveness based on contribution to EPS
      HSUS generated $650,000 in new donations from an on-line photo contest on Flickr
      The Red Cross measures the effectiveness of Twitter via lives saved and harm avoided
      IBM 1000+ people tweeting & receives more leads, sales and exposure from a $500 podcast than it does from an ad
      11 Mom’s turned around Walmart’s image and delivered measureable increases in sales.
    • Some really scary numbers* if you’re an ad agency
      More respondents spend more time on daily personal Intent usage than watching TV
      53% of DVR owners watch at least 50% of content on replay – skipping ads all together
      Consumer Internet ad spend outpaces TV spend by 3X
      26% of US respondents have already contributed content to social networking sites.
      32% said they follow recommendations from friends
      2 out of 3 ad execs expect ad revenue to shift from impression-based to impact based metrics within three years
      *The End of Advertising as we Know it , IBM 2009
    • The New Rules of Communications
      You aren’t in control and never have been
      There is no market for your message
      You become what you measure
      She/he with the most data wins
      Behind every Tweet or Post is a person
      Empower employees, rely on customers
      Enable the conversations—it’s going on, with or without you
      Spin is dead, long live transparency – you can’t fake it so be who you are and see who is pleased
      Crowdsourcing will beat outsourcing every time
    • The Engagement Decision Tree
    • The measurement forks in the road
      Marketing/leads/sales/
      mission
      Reputation/relationships
      To fix this
      Or get to this
    • Goals drive metrics, metrics drive results
      13
      Goal
      Metrics
    • Change the conversation, improve your reputation
      Improve your reputation
      Listen first, then respond
      Stop doing stupid things
    • Negative coverage over time
    • Correlation exists between traffic to the ASPCA web site and the organization’s overall media exposure
    • Tying activity to development/marketing goals
      17
    • What do you need to measure?
    • Goals, Actions and Metrics
    • The 7 steps to Social Media ROI
      Define the “R” – Define the expected results?
      Define the “I” -- What’s the investment?
      Understand your audiences and what motivates them
      Define the metrics (what you want to become)
      Determine what you are benchmarking against
      Pick a tool and undertake research
      Analyze results and glean insight, take action, measure again
    • Step 1: Define the “R”
      What return is expected? – Define in terms of the business or mission.
      What were you hired to do? What difference are you expected to make?
      If you are celebrating complete 100% success a year from now, what is different about the organization?
      If your department was eliminated, what would be different?
      21
    • Step 2: Define the “I”
      What is the investment?
      Personnel
      Agency compensation
      Senior Staff time
      Opportunity cost
      Raw costs/hr costs vs material costs.
      22
    • Step 3: Define your audiences and how you impact them
      There is no “audience.” There are multiple constituencies
      Should you blog or Twitter? Don’t ask me, ask your customers
      List every stakeholder
      Where do they go for information?
      What’s important to them?
      What is the benefit of having a good relationship with that stakeholder group?
      What’s important to them?
      Where do they go for information?
      What do you want them to know?
      Understand your role in getting the audience to do what you want it to do
      Raise awareness
      Increase preference
      Increase engagement
      23
    • Step 4: Define your Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)
      24
      The Perfect KPI
      Gets you where you want to go (achieves corporate goals)
      Is actionable
      Continuously improves your processes
      Is there when you need it
      KPIs should be developed for:
      Your own properties
      Different tactics
      Other influential sites
    • Step 4: Define your Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) carefully because you become what you measure
      Cost savings
      Efficiency
      Cost per message communicated
      Cost per new lead/customer acquired
      Productivity:
      Increase in employee engagement/morale
      Lower turnover/recruitment costs
      Engagement:
      Ratio of posts to comments
      % of repeat visitors
      % of 5+min visitors
      % of registrations
      Trust:
      Improvement in relationship /reputation scores with customers and communities (Loyalty/Retention)
      Thought leadership:
      Share of quotes
      Share of opportunities
      Message penetration
      Positioning on key issues
      Improvement in favorable/unfavorable ratio
      Improvement in Optimal Content Score (OCS)
      25
    • Measuring the impact of messaging
      Percent of impressions containing messages by product
      A major software company had had many different product launches over the course of a year. By measuring the extent to which key messages were communicated, versus those messages they didn’t want to see in print they were able to judge the effectiveness of each launch. Further, by investigating the large number of negative messages they were able to isolate problems with a specific group of media. Turns out, the person responsible for that group of publications was sidetracked by her wedding and hadn’t returned phone calls.
      26
    • Metric: Cost per message communicated
      The press tour was clearly the most efficient for communicating key messages and the big party was least efficient.
      Measuring which tactic was most efficient
      27
    • KPIs for External blogs and other Consumer Generated Media
      Share of positioning
      Share of rants vs. raves
      Share of positives/negatives
      Share of visibility
      Share of quotes
      Share of brand benefits mentioned
      Types of conversations
      Engagement – ratio of posts to comments
      Optimal content score
    • Why an Optimal Content Score?
      You decide what’s important:
      Benchmark against peers and/or competitors
      Track activities against OCS over time
      Positive:
      Mentions of the brand
      Key messages
      Positioning
      Visibility
      Negative
      Omitted
      Negative tone
      No key message
      29
    • How to calculate Optimal Content
    • Revenue KPIs
      Cost savings
      Cost per click thru, downloads, engagement vs other marketing channels
      Cost per message communicated vs other channels
      Lifetime value of engagement
      Cost per customer acquisition
    • Engagement metrics
      % increase or decrease in unique visits
      In the past  month,  what % of all sessions represent more than 5 page views
      % of sessions that are greater than 5 minutes in duration
      % of visitors that come back for more than 5 sessions
      % of sessions that arrive at your site from a Google search, or a direct link from your web site or other site that is related to your brand
      % of visitors that become a subscriber
      % of visitors that download something from the site
      % of visitors that provide an email address
      Ratio of posts to comments
      Courtesy of Eric Peterson
    • For all institutions, most postings were simply making an observation or distributing media.
      Page 33
      cx
    • Share of conversation vs share of engagement
      Page 34
      Share of Engagement by Subject
      -
      ,External Blogs
      Share of Subject
      Students
      23.6%
      33.2%
      22.1%
      21.1%
      Staff
      100.0%
      Research, Social Sciences
      1
      4
      1
      Research, Social Sciences
      4.4%
      95.6%
      Campus Life
      Research, Physical Sciences
      1
      38.3%
      2.3%
      31.0%
      28.4%
      Research, Other
      Institution, Overall
      2
      1
      3
      Research, Life Sciences
      13.0%
      20.8%
      13.0%
      53.2%
      Policies
      2
      Research, Earth Sciences
      86.8%
      13.2%
      Research, Agriculture
      4
      Research, Agriculture
      100.0%
      Projects, Non
      -
      Research
      Other
      28.6%
      28.6%
      28.6%
      14.2%
      1
      Policies
      100.0%
      Legal News
      Peer 1
      1
      2
      Partnerships
      Michigan State
      Admissions
      1
      1
      Peer 1
      Other
      Peer 2
      Staff
      Michigan State
      1
      Legal News
      43.3%
      56.7%
      Peer 3
      Inventions
      Peer 2
      Research, Life Sciences
      1
      1
      2
      1
      3
      Peer 4
      Institution, Overall
      5.8%
      94.2%
      Peer 3
      Alumni Topics
      1
      1
      Financials
      68.7%
      12.5%
      18.8%
      Peer 4
      Financials
      2
      1
      2
      Faculty
      15.3%
      34.9%
      6.3%
      43.5%
      Projects, Non
      -
      Research
      Events
      1
      1
      1
      2
      Courses
      28.6%
      71.4%
      Research, Earth Sciences
      1
      2
      2
      Community Relations
      Courses
      1
      2
      Campus Life
      Research, Physical Sciences
      3
      2
      4
      6
      Alumni Topics
      96.8%
      3.2%
      Admissions
      Students
      33.3%
      66.7%
      5
      2
      1
      7
      Faculty
      2
      6
      2
      2
      6
      0%
      10%
      20%
      30%
      40%
      50%
      60%
      70%
      80%
      90%
      100%
      0
      2
      4
      6
      8
      10
      12
      14
      16
      18
      20
    • The vast majority of discussion in external blogs is neutral.
      Page 35
    • Emerging benchmarks
      Past Performance
      Think 3
      Peer
      Underdog nipping at your heels
      Stretch goal
      Whatever keeps the C-suite up at night
      Step 5: Define your benchmarks
      36
    • The competitive landscape
    • Overview of Key Metrics
      Peer 1 was the competitive leader in all but YouTube, where Peer 4 and Peer 3 led.
      Actions attributed to individuals were responsible for most content, except on YouTube.
    • Few subjects appear across all forms of social media, so tailor outreach accordingly
    • Benchmarks put numbers in perspective
      Page 40
    • First: find out what already exists
      Web analytics
      Customer Satisfaction data
      Customer loyalty data
      Second: Decide what research is needed to give you the information you need
      Step 6: Conduct research (if necessary)
    • Step 6: Selecting a measurement tool
      42
    • Your tool box needs:
      A content source:
      Google News/Google Blogs, RSS feeds
      Technorati, Social Mention, Twazzup,
      Cyberalert, CustomScoop, e-Watch
      Radian 6, Techrigy, Sysymos, Visible Technologies, Scout Labs
      Survey Monkey/Zoomerang
      43
    • Your tool box also needs to include:
      2. A way to analyze that content
      Automated vs. Manual
      Census vs random sample
      The 80/20 rule – Measure what matters because 20% of the content influences 80% of the decisions
      Dashboards to aggregate data
      Tools:
      • Woopra
      • Net promoter score
      • Hubspot Grader
      • Xinureturns
      • Twinfluence
      • SPSS
      • Excel
      • Crimson Hexagon
      • www.tealium.com
      44
    • Content analysis: What do you need to know?
      Tonality
      What messages were communicated
      How you’re positioned on key issues
      Dominance/Prominence/Visibility
      Subject of the article/posting
      Who was quoted?
      Products, events, initiatives, battles mentioned
    • Standard classifications of discussion
      • Responding to criticism
      • Giving a shout-out
      • Making a joke
      • Making a suggestion
      • Making an observation
      • Offering a greeting
      • Offering an opinion
      • Putting out a wanted ad
      • Rallying support
      • Recruiting people
      • Showing dismay
      • Soliciting comments
      • Soliciting help
      • Starting a poll
      • Validating a position
      • Acknowledging receipt of information
      • Advertising something
      • Answering a question
      • Asking a question
      • Augmenting a previous post
      • Calling for action
      • Disclosing personal information
      • Distributing media
      • Expressing agreement
      • Expressing criticism
      • Expressing support
      • Expressing surprise
      • Giving a heads up
    • Standard classifications of videos
      Advertisement
      Animation
      Demonstration
      Event/Performance
      Fiction
      Film
      Home Video
      Instructional Video
      Interview
      Lecture
      Montage
      Music Video
      News Broadcast
      Promotional Video
      Sightseeing/Tour
      Slideshow
      Speech
      Television Show
      Video Log
    • Building Measures
      Units of content
      Overall theme (when many messages are combined)
      Entire message (e.g. article, blog post, etc.)
      Message parts (brand mentions, paragraphs, sentences)
      Types of content
      Manifest: on the surface
      Latent: the meaning or interpretation of the content
      Latent Pattern: meaning determined by surface observations
      Latent Projective: meaning determined by coder interpretation
    • Building Measures (cont.)
      Variables are exhaustive/ mutually exclusive
      One can always be selected, and only one
      Types of variables
      Nominal: categories, “buckets”
      Brands mentioned, organizations mentioned, messages communicated
      Ordinal: categories with an order or scale
      Tonality, prominence, dominance
      Numbers: number of words (zero means no words), number of brand mentions
    • ROI measurement tools
      Google Analytics
      Membership/donations/signups
      Intent to purchase
      Registrations
      Money saved
      Marketing Mix Modeling
      50
    • To do Marketing Mix Modeling you MUST track
      Tonality
      Prominence/visibility
      Dominance
      Share of discussion
      Share of favorable/unfavorable positioning on key issues that drive customer behavior
      Share of recommendations
      Share of brand benefits
      Share of brand mentions
      51
      Sales
      GRPs
      Content Analysis
      Web data
      Media Demographic analysis
    • Your tool box also needs to include:
      3. A way to measure relationships
      52
    • Relationships = Reputation and brand
      You can manage relationships, you can’t “manage” your reputation
      Brands are dead, long live Lovemarks
      It’s all about stories, conversations, and the experience
      You can’t measure stories, conversations or the experience without measuring relationships
      53
    • Aspects of relationships
      Control mutuality
      Trust
      Satisfaction
      Commitment
      Exchange relationship
      Communal relationship
      54
    • Control Mutuality
      The degree to which parties agree on who has the rightful power to influence one another. Although some imbalance is natural, stable relationships require that organizations and publics each have some control over the other.
      55
    • Questions that test Control Mutuality
      This organization and people like me are attentive to what each other says.
      This organization believes the opinions of people like me are legitimate.
      In dealing with people like me, this organization has a tendency to throw its weight around. (Reversed)
      This organization really listens to what people like me have to say.
      The management of this organization gives people like me enough say in the decision-making process.
      56
    • Measuring Trust
      One party’s level of confidence in and willingness to open oneself to the other party. Includes:
      Integrity: the belief that an organization is fair and just
      Dependability: the belief that an organization will do what it says it will do
      Competence: the belief that an organization has the ability to do what it says it will do.
      57
    • Questions to measure trust
      This organization treats people like me fairly and justly.
      Whenever this organization makes an important decision, I know it will be concerned about people like me.
      This organization can be relied upon to keep its promises.
      I believe that this organization takes the opinions of people like me into account when making decisions.
      I feel very confident about this organization’s skills.
      This organization has the ability to accomplish what it says it will do.
      58
    • Measuring satisfaction
      The extent to which each party feels favorably toward the other because positive expectations about the relationship are reinforced. A satisfying relationship is one in which the benefits outweigh the costs.
      59
    • Questions to Measure Satisfaction
      I am happy with this organization.
      Both the organization and people like me benefit from the relationship.
      Most people like me are happy in their interactions with this organization.
      Generally speaking, I am pleased with the relationship this organization has established with people like me.
      Most people enjoy dealing with this organization.
      60
    • Measuring commitment
      The extent to which each party believes and feels that the relationship is worth spending energy to maintain and promote.
      61
    • Commitment
      I feel that this organization is trying to maintain a long-term commitment to people like me.
      I can see that this organization wants to maintain a relationship with people like me.
      There is a long-lasting bond between this organization and people like me.
      Compared to other organizations, I value my relationship with this organization more.
      I would rather work together with this organization than not.
      62
    • Measuring relationships
      Exchange Relationship
      In an exchange relationship, one party gives benefits to the other only because the other has provided benefits in the past or is expected to do so in the future.
      Communal Relationship
      In a communal relationship, both parties provide benefits to the other because they are concerned for the welfare of the other -- even when they get nothing in return.
      63
    • Exchange Relationships
      Whenever this organization gives or offers something to people like me, it generally expects something in return.
      Even though people like me have had a relationship with this organization for a long time; it still expects something in return whenever it offers us a favor.
      This organization will compromise with people like me when it knows that it will gain something.
      This organization takes care of people who are likely to reward the organization.
      64
    • Communal Relationships
      This organization does not especially enjoy giving others aid. (Reversed)
      This organization is very concerned about the welfare of people like me.
      I feel that this organization takes advantage of people who are vulnerable. (Reversed)
      I think that this organization succeeds by stepping on other people. (Reversed)
      This organization helps people like me without expecting anything in return.
      65
    • Relationship survey techniques
      66
    • Putting your tool to work
      Define your instrument
      Questionnaire
      Reader instructions
      Test your instrument
      Are options mutually exclusive?
      67
    • How to implement relationship metrics
      Step 1: Conduct a benchmark relationship study
      Step 2: Implement PR program
      Step 3: Conduct a follow up relationship study
      Step 4: Look at what’s changed
    • Step 7: Analysis - -Research without insight is just trivia
      Look for failures first
      Check to see what the competition is doing
      Then look for exceptional success
      Compare to last month, last quarter, 13-month average
      Figure out what worked and what didn’t work
      Move resources from what isn’t working to what is
      69
    • Ask for money
      Get Commitment
      Manage Timing
      Influence decisions
      Get Outside help
      Just Say No
      Actionable Conclusions
      70
    • Take action and measure again
      Make sure data is ready when you need it
      Work around regular reporting schedules
      Keep questions and criteria consistent
      71
    • Best Practices:
      Correlations to bottom-line impact
      Donations
      Memberships
      Sign-ups
      Leads
      Using SMM for planning
      Define the time frame, market/topic you want to study
      Use Google News, Technorati or Radian6 to identify the conversations around the topic
      Analyze the conversations for type, tone and positioning
      Look at share of positioning, tone or conversation
      Benchmarking against your peers
      Looking at what the best do
      Setting goals accordingly
      Use data to persuade recalcitrant spokespeople
      Social Media in Crisis
      Listen instantly to a wide range of influencers
      Identify weaknesses in communications, customer service, or in the product
      Improve your reputation
      Listen first, then respond
      Stop doing stupid things
    • Carnegie Mellon’s Coverage is Primarily Neutral
      Page 73
    • But it gets more positive coverage than its peers
      Page 74
    • Stanford dominates fundraising/alumni discussions
      Page 75
    • C-M lags in favorable positioning
      Page 76
    • Internet dominated in 5 out of 6 months
      Page 77
    • Stanford dominates in broadcast coverage
      Page 78
    • Meltzer, Pausch were most visible spokespeople
      Page 79
    • Using SMM for planning
      The environmental scan
      Defining issues in a market
      Selecting a positioning that works
    • Benchmarks put numbers in perspective
      Page 81
    • C-M vs Peer Average on Key Issues
      Page 82
    • Diversity dominates C-M discussions in Social Media
      Page 83
    • MIT Berkeley see highest visibility in Social Media
      Page 84
    • Where people get the content they share on Facebook
      Sources of content
      Genre of content
    • Facebook Recommendations
      Limit engagement with Facebook to contact with group officers
      Do NOT participate in discussions on the network wall or discussion board
      Provide administrators of freshman groups with links to online resources no later than April
      Consider using Facebook to create with other specific audiences like parents, graduating seniors and campus leaders
      Do not consider Facebook an appropriate vehicle for research discussions
    • Understanding brand ownership of online video content
      Use ownership to signal brand participation
      Provide alerts for possible brand management issues
    • YouTube Recommendations
      Use YouTube as a vehicle for strategic message communication
      Tailor materials related to high profile competitions
      Prepare media infrastructure for increased emphasis on online video
      Encourage faculty members to be subjects of videos
    • YouTube Recommendations
      Focus on creating YouTube playlists of thematic content already found on the site
      Best Subjects:
      Inventions
      Faculty – ie “Last Lecture”
      Engineering research – ie DARPA Urban Challenge
      Robotics Instituteof CMU
      Humor – FTRI
      Ads, Homecoming, Robotics also did well
    • Focus on Social Bookmarking
      In the event of a crisis, expect seeding from the AJC and AP
      Thursday & Friday saw the greatest number of seeds.
      Peer 1 saw the most number of seeded elements
      Peer 3 dominates del.icio.us
      GIT’s status as a technical institution is an asset in the social bookmarking environment
      Few strategic messages appeared in social bookmarking sites
    • External Blog Recommendations
      Consider external blogs an opportunity for third-party endorsements
      Treat influential external bloggers as you would industry analysts or key reporters
      Focus efforts on blogs written by more than one person, particularly in engineering and special focus areas
      Avoid local mainstream media blogs
      Focus on top-tier media outlets as key sources of content for bloggers
      Include blogger-friendly features in the FT online newsroom – particularly video
      In a crisis, expect bloggers to collect background from personal web pages, user profiles and/or project sites
    • Focus on Institutional Blogs
      Departments generated the most number of blog postings/ inbound links among peer institutions
      Most blogs are written by individuals
      The location of links played the largest role in driving comments
      Technology drove the largest number of posts, but personal life drove comments
      Most posts consisted of making an observation, most comments asked questions
      Photographs were most frequently used multimedia content
      Institutional bloggers were significantly more likely to be positive toward their home institutions than mainstream journalists
      Currently enrolled students wrote one in five comments
    • Recommendations for Institutional Blogs
      Recruit faculty to blog
      Guide message communications
      Tailor institutional blogs to the audiences looking for more in-depth information
      Encourage bloggers to be opinionated
      Mix in personal subjects
      Leave frequency of posting up to the discretionof the blogger
      Remove abandoned blogs
      Unify blogs with easy-to-find thematic lists of bloggers
      Make it easy to share content from your institutional blogs – ie. lots of music and visuals
    • Factors in budgeting
      Acquiring content can be third of your cost
      Number of competitors tracked
      Number of publications/media outlets
      Size of universe being measured
      Length of survey
      Type of analysis: automated vs. human
      Type of reporting: automated, vs. written; insight and conclusions vs. simple reporting
      Frequency of reporting
      94
    • Budgeting for PR measurement
      Content
      30% of the cost
      Must gather consistently for client and competitors
      Need at least two years worth of data
      $3 a clip -- $300/month
      Analysis
      Do-it-yourself $500 a month
      Automated analysis: $20K - $500K
      Manual: $5K-$500K
      Marketing Mix Modeling: $100K-$500K+
      95
    • Ways to make the budget fit the task
      Reduce the volume
      Sample
      Become a research project for your local university
      96
    • 8 ways to do research without a budget
      Become someone’s research project
      Involve your board of directors and volunteers
      Research something that HAS a budget
      Take advantage of free offers
      Become a case study
      Team up with peer organizations
      Analyze data that already exists
      Use blogs and social networks to listen to conversations
      97
    • Thank You!
      For more information on measurement, read my blog: http://kdpaine.blogs.com or subscribe to The Measurement Standard:
      www.themeasurementstandard.com
      For a copy of this presentation go to: http://www.kdpaine.com
      Follow me on Twitter: KDPaine
      Friend me on Facebook: Katie Paine
      Or call me at 1-603-868-1550