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Citizenship Klagenfurt

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A presentation looking at citizenship and how Geography encouraged a sense of place and belonging

A presentation looking at citizenship and how Geography encouraged a sense of place and belonging


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  • The DfES is continuing to allocate money directly to schools for Citizenship via the School Standards Fund. It is entirely up to the schools to decide how to spend the money. Suggestions include in-service training and resources. Ask your Citizenship coordinator for details or check the DfES guidance. Assessment As of summer 2004, schools have to assess students' attainment in Citizenship at Key Stage 3. Assessment at Key Stage 4 is not statutory. Ofsted will be inspecting Citizenship.
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    • 1. Where does Geography stand? Citizenship in schools Karl Donert, National Teaching Fellow Liverpool Hope University, UK, President, EUROGEO
    • 2. Three questions (and bylines)
      • What is citizenship about? (Are you a citizen?)
      • How can education help create responsible citizens? (Citizenship and learning)
      • Where does Geography stand? (What is spatial about Geography?)
    • 3. Are you a citizen? Citizenship in schools: where does Geography stand? What is citizenship about?
    • 4. Citizenship: meanings ( EC, 2003)
      • Citizenship is said to consist of two aspects:
      • 1. “Until recently, the concept of citizenship has been more commonly understood in rather static and institutionally dominated terms:
      • being a citizen was primarily a question of the legalities of entitlements and their political expression in democratic policies.”
      European Commission (2003), Learning for Active Citizenship, http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/citizen/citiz-en.html, accessed 3/12/2008
    • 5.
      • 2. “…. learning to live positively with difference and diversity is becoming a core dimension of the practice of citizenship in Europe. It equally means that the concept of citizenship itself is shifting to a broader based notion, in which legal and social rights and entitlements continue to furnish an essential element, but in which negotiated and culturally-based understandings of citizenship are becoming more prominent.”
      Citizenship: meanings ( EC, 2003) European Commission (2003), Learning for Active Citizenship, http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/citizen/citiz-en.html, accessed 3/12/2008
    • 6. Social constructionism
      • SC is an approach that emphasises the creative activity of individuals and groups
      • Cultural citizenship and identity, stress the process of spreading certain values and constructing more suitable institutions - constructing our citizenship
      • What are these values?
      Juan M. Delgado-Moreira, 1997, Social constructionism, Electronic Journal of Sociology, 2 (3), http://www.sociology.org/vol002.003/delgado-moreira.article.1997.html, accessed 3/12/2008
    • 7. Some social constructionist values
      • "Unity in diversity" ….. tolerance ...
      • promote the idea of identity BUT ALSO
      • richness of cultural diversity
      • belonging to (being part of) a wider whole (Liverpudlian, British, European)
      • developed through cultural actions i.e. activities demonstrating aspects of culture
      • selection of identity through our sense of place - through our history and our geogaphy
      Juan M. Delgado-Moreira, 1997 Electronic Journal of Sociology, 2 (3), http://www.sociology.org/vol002.003/delgado-moreira.article.1997.html, accessed 3/12/2008
    • 8. What do you identify with?
    • 9. Liverpool European Capital of Culture 2008 Europe
    • 10.  
    • 11. Capital of Culture Years
      • 2003 - Celebrating Learning
      • 2004 - Faith in One City
      • 2005 - Sea Liverpool
      • 2006 - Performance (Sports, Art, Business)
      • 2007 - 800 th Birthday
      • 2008 - Culture
      • 2009 - Environment
      • 2010 - Innovation
    • 12. Becoming a citizen
      • More questions than answers
      • Is it an active or passive process ?
      • Acquired or are we born with it?
      • Is there a process to becoming a citizen?
      • What are the stages involved?
      • What role does – can education play?
    • 13. Image of being a citizen
      • research suggests most young people develop their images through:
        • public opinion and mass culture
        • the individual from his/her direct experiences
        • information presented by education , scientific institutions and teachers
    • 14.
      • music and hamburgers
      • WWW, television, mobile phones and ….. ?
      Popular Youth Culture
      • need active engagement in society
    • 15. Image of being a citizen
      • research suggests most young people develop their images through:
        • public opinion and mass culture
        • the individual from his/her direct experiences
        • information presented by education , scientific institutions and teachers
      Who has the responsibility? Where does the burden lie?
    • 16. Active participation in society involves more than we realise
    • 17.
        • Silva Yakali (14 years old)
    • 18. Citizenship and Learning Citizenship in schools: where does Geography stand? How can education help create responsible citizens?
    • 19. Citizenship education in the UK
    • 20. Citizenship Advisory Group (DfEE, 1997)
      • Recommendations:
      • citizenship education statutory entitlement
      • framework of specific learning outcomes
      • no more than 5% of curriculum time
      • phased introduction - In-Service and Inital training
      • Commission on Citizenship Education to monitor progress
      DfEE (1997). Blunkett announces schools’ group to boost citizenship, DFEE News , 19.11.97. London: DfEE .
    • 21. Citizenship Education (Kerr 1999)
      • report on national developments
      • huge gaps in knowledge about citizenship in schools, particularly secondary schools
      • and strategies , resources employed in the classroom
      • and outcomes of citizenship education on knowledge, attitudes and behaviour
      Kerr, (1999), The national case study report for England, KERR, D. (1999) ‘Re-examining citizenship education in England.’ in Torney-Purta J, Schwille J and Amadeo J-A. (Eds) Civic Education Across Countries: 22 Case Studies from the Civic Education Project. Eburon Publishers, Amsterdam.
    • 22. NC aims to help young people to:
      • play an effective and active role in society in relation to their local, national and international communities – political literacy
      • become informed citizens aware of their rights, responsibilities and duties – social and moral responsibility
      • realise that they can have influence and make a difference in their communities – community involvement
      Citizenship National Curriculum UK (2001), Dept for Education and Skills, http://www.nc.uk.net/servlets/NCFrame?subject=Ct, accessed 3/12/2006
    • 23. Where and how does citizenship education happen?
      • Everywhere. schools must plan the delivery of Citizenship :
        • Through a whole-school approach in curriculum time
        • Via dedicated Citizenship lessons
        • Through existing subjects , e.g. PSHE, History, Geography, RE and Science
        • Through the National Healthy School Standard Initiative
        • Through the Key Stage 3 Strategy (11-14 years)
        • In extra-curricular activities and special events
        • In the community, at home, through volunteering
    • 24. Learning and Citizenship
      • teacher provides tools for learning and for approaches to knowledge creation
      • communication provides opportunities for students to express and share ideas with others
      • students relate ideas to their own experiences and establish their own needs
      • students in control of their own approach to learning – individual – also global in nature
    • 25. Self-Reflection (learner)
      • the process of thinking about knowledge
      • assessment of knowledge and skills and
      • thinking about how one learns
      • metacognitive - thinking about thinking
      • individualise needs of the learner
      • improved problem solving skills
      • self-assessment abilities (Bonk and Reynolds, 1997)
      Bonk, C. J., & Reynolds, T. H. (1997). Learner-centered web instruction for higher-order thinking, teamwork, and apprenticeship. In B. H. Kahn (Ed.), Web-based instruction (pp. 167-175). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications, Inc.
    • 26. Citizenship education UK: the reality
      • Part of statutory NC since September 2002.
      • Focus on an active conception of political literacy as opposed to a knowledge based paradigm.
      • End of key stage 3 (14 years old) assessment required since June 2004 (but with only one level descriptor) – i.e. not assessed
      • Subject has a low status in schools
      • Ofsted noted that where schools teach GCSE (as a qualification), Citizenship tends to be better taught.
    • 27. How schools approach citizenship (Kerr, 2008) Kerr D (2008), Citizenship in schools in England: longitudinal study, London, National Foundation for Education Research Student centred Education centred Involvement centred Qualification centred Citizenship driven – students show high levels of efficacy and participation with citizenship education strong in the curriculum Student efficacy driven – high level of student efficacy in school, but weak on extra-curricular activities and citizenship education in the curriculum Curriculum driven – firm on citizenship education in the curriculum, but less strong on participation and inconsistent levels of student efficacy Participation driven – high levels of student participation but students have low levels of efficacy and lack of emphasis on citizenship education in the curriculum Citizenship in the curriculum Citizenship in the curriculum Active citizenship in the school and the wider community
    • 28. Citizenship topics – student views
      • High relevance
      • Government and politics
      • Rights and responsibilities
      • Community
      • Religious and ethnic groups
      • Low relevance
      • Voting
      • Europe
      • Conflict resolution
      • Volunteering
      Kerr D (2008), Citizenship in schools in England: longitudinal study, London, National Foundation for Education Research Problems?
    • 29. Assessing Citizenship (QCA, 2002)
      • Can we assess Citizenship? Can you fail your Citizenship classes? Standards-driven …..
      • Should we be rated as “citizens”? (HMI, 2005)
      • Does assessment go against the aims and principles of Citizenship education?
      • How can assessment help us in becoming citizens? (HMI, 2006)
      QCA (2002) Citizenship at Key stages 1-4: Guidance on assessment, recording and reporting : London: QCA HMI (2005) Ofsted subject reports 2003/04: citizenship in secondary schools , London, HMI] HMI (2006) Towards Consensus: Citizenship in secondary schools, London, HMI
    • 30. The state of Citizenship in schools
      • evidence suggests that citizenship is the worst-taught subject in secondary schools. (Ofsted, 2006)
    • 31. The place of Citizenship in Education?                   
    • 32. What is spatial about citizenship? Citizenship in schools: where does Geography stand? Where does Geography stand?
    • 33. Citizenship: some Geo-definitions Society Economy Environment present future global local POWER RESOURCES HUMAN RIGHTS
    • 34. Global warming Refugees and asylum seekers Racism GM foods International conflict Trade Poverty Aids Dwindling resources Citizenship: Geo-education topics Is this important to you? Population Democracy
    • 35. 1. Constructivist principles
      • learner actively constructs representations of knowledge - interact with material
        • situated cognition (Streibel, 1991)
        • problem-based learning (Savery and Duffy, 1995)
        • social and physical interaction
      • focus shifts to more complex , and interactive learning activities (Prawat and Floden, 1994)
      • stresses active participation and interaction
      Four features
    • 36. 2. Building educational dialogue
      • empowerment - participate in the debate about what kind of future society we need to create
      • education needs to:
        • develop critical thinking skills to accurately assess our present situation and with stimulating creative thought in which alternatives can be imagined
        • be aimed at producing not global consumers, but global citizens
        • equip citizens to make choices on the basis of accurate information
      Four features
    • 37. 3. Intercultural dialogue
      • not only factual knowledge - skills to interact
      • not what people think (factual knowledge), but how they arrive at their thoughts
      • exposed to different ideas, values and behaviours (diversity)
      • Three components in this:
      • learners feel safe but also challenged
      • recognise everyone can contribute
      • actions must be clearly defined
      Four features
    • 38. Citizenship Theories in Education
      • Critical analysis by Andrews and Lewis (2000) led to four theories of citizenship:
      • active citizenship (participation)
      • cultural citizenship (tradition, heritage)
      • global citizenship (responsibilities)
      • comprehensive citizenship (involving all the above)
      Andrews R and Lewis G (2000), Citizenship education in Wales: community, culture and the Curriculum Cymreig, Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association Conference, Cardiff University, 7-10 September 2000
    • 39. European Dimension
    • 40. European Citizenship and Identity
      • European identity necessary to avoid fragmentation, chaos and conflict
      • identity has to crystallise
      • Europeans must feel they belong together ….sharing a destiny to take part in the development of the European Union
      • significance of co-operation between the EU and other countries of Europe and of the world
      Juan M. Delgado-Moreira, 1997 Electronic Journal of Sociology, 2 (3), http://www.sociology.org/vol002.003/delgado-moreira.article.1997.html
    • 41.  
    • 42.
      • empowerment in learning to excite and fascinate us
      • technology provides potent tools , solutions to complex problems, global communication
      • need sound pedagogy and good classroom practice
      • must enhance learning processes
      4. ICT and Citizenship: the future - now? Four features
    • 43. Competencies learners will need
      • navigate information space(s)-how not what
      • handling online information and eCommunications in a changing society
      • reflection (individual and collective)
      • critical citizenship - making decisions as part of the democratic process, responsibility
      • creativity and imagination - building futures
      Matache M and Donert K (2002), Environmental Education in Europe, Proc. 3 rd European Conference E-COMM-LINE 2002, Bucharest, September 26-27, 2002
    • 44. Integrating citizenship in the learning process (Matache and Donert, 2002)
      • gather, sort and sift information
      • share and collaborate
      • reflection in appropriate learning situations
      • search for knowledge and understanding
      • critical opinions and ideas develop
      • communicate to express views with others
      • promote actions of responsible citizens
      Matache M and Donert K (2002), Environmental Education in Europe, Proc. 3 rd European Conference E-COMM-LINE 2002, Bucharest, September 26-27, 2002 DEGREE OF Active Citizenship Enquiry Skills
    • 45. Ethnokids http://www.ethnokids.net
    • 46. Friendship Schools http://www.life-link.org/
    • 47.
      • ENO - global virtual school managed by Eno School District, Finland since August 2000
      • environmental data is shared with participants
      • 4 different environmental themes studied in a school year (Social, Natural, Cultural Environment and Sustainable Development)
      • special curriculum with weekly tasks
      Environment OnLine (ENO) http://eno.joensuu.fi/
    • 48. Environment OnLine (ENO) http://eno.joensuu.fi/
      • ENO schools study together, submit data from local environments and analyse it together
      • 73 schools in 43 countries
      • January 2002 – started collecting information about sustainable development and consumption - shared all over the world.
      • For example: schools reporting on consumption of paper, water and energy
    • 49. Environment OnLine (ENO) http://eno.joensuu.fi/
    • 50. For more information Creative Partnerships London East Raw Skills Dance project Photographer: Dee Conway
    • 51. Where does Geography stand?
      • Geography provides:
      • many clear links to learning for life
      • skills for living in a world where the critical decisions of citizens have major impacts
        • cultural understanding
        • sustainable management of resources
      • local, national and global perspectives (Osler and Starkey, 2005)
      Osler A and Starkey H (2005), Changing Citizenship: democracy and inclusion in education, Maidenhead, Open University Press
    • 52. Where does Geography stand?
      • Geography is special because :
      • of the way students examine and think about the world
      • it offers specific transferable skills
        • spatial analysis,
        • visualisation and
        • critical thinking
      • it prepares students to explore, discover and make responsible decisions
    • 53. Where does Geography stand?
      • learning about places
        • local project work
        • linking schools and students
        • fieldwork studies and visits
        • ‘ a European dimension’
      • environment and sustainability
      • ICT and geoinformation
      • global awareness
      Donert K (2008), Examining the relationship between Citizenship and Geography Education, 73-92, in Lambrinos N and Reliou M (Eds.), European Geography Education: the challenges of a new era, Arlington, W Virginia, National Council for Geographic Education
    • 54. Spatial Citizenship – enquiry-based methodology - deeper learning
      • discover
      • research
      experience thinking about places, people, environments, cultures Donert K (2003), EURO.GEO Project, http://www.eurogeo.org, accessed 23/11/2005 conceptualise and reflect analyse and evaluate
    • 55.
      • from abstract concepts to the real world
      • orientated towards your “ place in society ”
      • experiences in and beyond the classroom
      • spatial literacy – constructing meanings of place and space – making the “right” decisions
      • access to and use of geoinformation
      • exploring futures - possible, probable, and preferred futures - for us and our environment
      • empowerment to deal with uncertainty
      Geographical citizenship (Donert, 2008) Donert K (2008), Examining the relationship between Citizenship and Geography Education, 73-92, in Lambrinos N and Reliou M (Eds.), European Geography Education: the challenges of a new era, Arlington, W Virginia, National Council for Geographic Education
    • 56.
      • “ Citizenship through Geography is about enriching lives by considering the wonders of our world, its environments and its peoples ….. ”
      • “… an emphasis on deep learning and not the coverage of content”
      • “… to establish a more holistic personal view”
      Conclusions Donert K (2008), Examining the relationship between Citizenship and Geography Education, 73-92, in Lambrinos N and Reliou M (Eds.), European Geography Education: the challenges of a new era, Arlington, W Virginia, National Council for Geographic Education