The DfES is continuing to allocate money directly to schools for Citizenship via the School Standards Fund. It is entirely up to the schools to decide how to spend the money. Suggestions include in-service training and resources. Ask your Citizenship coordinator for details or check the DfES guidance. Assessment As of summer 2004, schools have to assess students' attainment in Citizenship at Key Stage 3. Assessment at Key Stage 4 is not statutory. Ofsted will be inspecting Citizenship.
Where does Geography stand? Citizenship in schools Karl Donert, National Teaching Fellow Liverpool Hope University, UK, President, EUROGEO
2. “…. learning to live positively with difference and diversity is becoming a core dimension of the practice of citizenship in Europe. It equally means that the concept of citizenship itself is shifting to a broader based notion, in which legal and social rights and entitlements continue to furnish an essential element, but in which negotiated and culturally-based understandings of citizenship are becoming more prominent.”
Citizenship: meanings ( EC, 2003) European Commission (2003), Learning for Active Citizenship, http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/citizen/citiz-en.html, accessed 3/12/2008
huge gaps in knowledge about citizenship in schools, particularly secondary schools
and strategies , resources employed in the classroom
and outcomes of citizenship education on knowledge, attitudes and behaviour
Kerr, (1999), The national case study report for England, KERR, D. (1999) ‘Re-examining citizenship education in England.’ in Torney-Purta J, Schwille J and Amadeo J-A. (Eds) Civic Education Across Countries: 22 Case Studies from the Civic Education Project. Eburon Publishers, Amsterdam.
self-assessment abilities (Bonk and Reynolds, 1997)
Bonk, C. J., & Reynolds, T. H. (1997). Learner-centered web instruction for higher-order thinking, teamwork, and apprenticeship. In B. H. Kahn (Ed.), Web-based instruction (pp. 167-175). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications, Inc.
Focus on an active conception of political literacy as opposed to a knowledge based paradigm.
End of key stage 3 (14 years old) assessment required since June 2004 (but with only one level descriptor) – i.e. not assessed
Subject has a low status in schools
Ofsted noted that where schools teach GCSE (as a qualification), Citizenship tends to be better taught.
How schools approach citizenship (Kerr, 2008) Kerr D (2008), Citizenship in schools in England: longitudinal study, London, National Foundation for Education Research Student centred Education centred Involvement centred Qualification centred Citizenship driven – students show high levels of efficacy and participation with citizenship education strong in the curriculum Student efficacy driven – high level of student efficacy in school, but weak on extra-curricular activities and citizenship education in the curriculum Curriculum driven – firm on citizenship education in the curriculum, but less strong on participation and inconsistent levels of student efficacy Participation driven – high levels of student participation but students have low levels of efficacy and lack of emphasis on citizenship education in the curriculum Citizenship in the curriculum Citizenship in the curriculum Active citizenship in the school and the wider community
What is spatial about citizenship? Citizenship in schools: where does Geography stand? Where does Geography stand?
Citizenship: some Geo-definitions Society Economy Environment present future global local POWER RESOURCES HUMAN RIGHTS
Global warming Refugees and asylum seekers Racism GM foods International conflict Trade Poverty Aids Dwindling resources Citizenship: Geo-education topics Is this important to you? Population Democracy
Critical analysis by Andrews and Lewis (2000) led to four theories of citizenship:
active citizenship (participation)
cultural citizenship (tradition, heritage)
global citizenship (responsibilities)
comprehensive citizenship (involving all the above)
Andrews R and Lewis G (2000), Citizenship education in Wales: community, culture and the Curriculum Cymreig, Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association Conference, Cardiff University, 7-10 September 2000
Donert K (2008), Examining the relationship between Citizenship and Geography Education, 73-92, in Lambrinos N and Reliou M (Eds.), European Geography Education: the challenges of a new era, Arlington, W Virginia, National Council for Geographic Education
spatial literacy – constructing meanings of place and space – making the “right” decisions
access to and use of geoinformation
exploring futures - possible, probable, and preferred futures - for us and our environment
empowerment to deal with uncertainty
Geographical citizenship (Donert, 2008) Donert K (2008), Examining the relationship between Citizenship and Geography Education, 73-92, in Lambrinos N and Reliou M (Eds.), European Geography Education: the challenges of a new era, Arlington, W Virginia, National Council for Geographic Education
“ Citizenship through Geography is about enriching lives by considering the wonders of our world, its environments and its peoples ….. ”
“… an emphasis on deep learning and not the coverage of content”
“… to establish a more holistic personal view”
Conclusions Donert K (2008), Examining the relationship between Citizenship and Geography Education, 73-92, in Lambrinos N and Reliou M (Eds.), European Geography Education: the challenges of a new era, Arlington, W Virginia, National Council for Geographic Education