Population Composition & Structure - Food Supply

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  • 1. Population Composition & Structure Pt 2 Food Production
  • 2. Population Composition & Structure
    • World Patterns
      • Youngest populations
        • Africa, Asia and Latin America
      • Oldest populations
        • Europe
  • 3. Population Composition & Structure
    • Elderly in the US
      • 1 in 8 Americans are elderly
      • Elderly population has increased since 1900
      • Increase is due to
        • High fertility rates in late 1800s and early 1900s created a large cohort of elderly now
        • A marked decline in mortality in the past 75 years
        • A high level of immigration prior to WWI
          • Young people were the migrants
  • 4. Population Composition & Structure
    • Elderly in the US
      • See Census Map for census region designations
      • Northeast Region and North Central Division States have larger % of elderly than the South and West regions
      • In metropolitan areas, elderly tend to be concentrated in central cities
      • Concentrated in rural areas
      • More affluent elderly have moved to the Sunbelt
  • 5. Population & Food Supply
  • 6. Trends in Food Production
    • 2/3 world cropland planted in cereals and grains
      • Provides ½ energy intake
      • Wheat & rice
    • US agriculture
      • More productive
        • Mechanization
    • Between 1950 and 1990 world food production increased 2.6 times
    • BUT since 1984 grain production per capita has fallen
  • 7. Trends in Food Production
    • China
      • Accounts for 35% of 3 rd world food output
      • Has 30% of 3 rd world’s population
      • Sub-Saharan Africa
        • Deteriorating diets
        • Increase in hunger
  • 8. Strategies for Increasing Food Supply
    • See Table 10-4
    • Increasing yields is most practical solution
    • How do we increase yields?
      • Chemical fertilizers
        • Increase yields dramatically
        • 3 rd world farmers can’t afford them
        • Environmental impacts
      • Pesticides and herbicides
        • ½ of global food is lost to pests
        • Environmental impacts
  • 9. Strategies for Increasing Food Supply
    • How do we increase yields?
      • Irrigation
        • Plays an important role in world food supply
        • Pakistan
          • 65% of its farmland is under irrigation
            • 80 % of food
        • India
          • 30% of its farmland is under irrigation
            • 55% of food
        • Global water deficit may present a problem
  • 10. Strategies for Increasing Food Supply
    • How do we increase yields?
      • Genetic improvement of plants
        • Green Revolution
          • Hardier, pest resistant plants
          • Produced great increases in grain yields
            • Pitfall
            • Gains not equally distributed
            • 3 rd world farmers could not afford the necessary technology
            • Tropical crops were neglected
  • 11. Strategies for Increasing Food Supply
    • How do we increase yields?
      • Genetic improvement of plants
        • Genetically Modified Foods (GMOs)
          • Highly controversial in Europe
  • 12. Reading on Your Own
    • Read the sections on Triage and Life Boat Ethics on your own in preparation for small group discussions.