POLITICAL HISTORY Viking Age During the Viking Age, c. 800-1100, a strong royal power developed, as is demonstrated for instance by several strategically placed circular fortresses of impressive size. 1015-1034 England under Danish rule The Kalmar Union The main political event of the period was the establishment of the Kalmar Union in 1397, combining Denmark, Norway and Sweden in a personal union under the Danish Queen Margrete I Absolutism In 1660-1661, by coup-like means, the old elective monarchy dominated by the aristocracy was replaced by a hereditary monarchy. The new hereditary king, Frederik III, and his successors gained absolute power. Democracy and the Schleswig Issue As the national movements developed, the duchies‟ position within the monarchy became a key issue until 1864. Almost a third of the nation‟s population was German.
Abolition of Absolutism and First liberal constitution Frederik VII declaring himself constitutional king, thereby paving the way for a democratic constitution which was codified in The Constitution of the Kingdom of Denmark of 5 June 1849. The ceding of the duchies In 1863, the Danish parliament passed the November Constitution which in practice separated Holstein and Lauenburg from the kingdom while incorporating Schleswig, This triggered a war with Germany and the outcome was a humiliating Danish defeat in 1864 and the ceding of all three duchies The Hope of Regeneration With the loss of the duchies, Denmark had become smaller than ever. From this nadir the work of national regeneration started with the motto ‘outward losses must be compensated by inward gains’ Neutrality and Occupation Denmark remained neutral during World War I Hitler seized power in Germany in 1933. On 9 April 1940, German troops „peacefully‟ occupied Denmark. Unicameral From 1849 to 1953 the Folketing was one of the two houses in the bicameral parliament known as the Rigsdag; the other house was known as the Landsting. n 1953 the people by popular vote adopted a revised constitution. Among the changes was
FACTS ABOUT DENMARK Population: 5.564.219 (2011) Area: 43.098 square kilometers Gross domestic product: DKK 1.656 billion (2009) Capital: Copenhagen 1.702.388 (2011) Language: Danish Religion: Danish National Evangelical Lutheran Church 80.7%, Currency: Danish Kroner, DKK. 1 Krone = 100 Øre (5.3 DKK = 1 USD, 2011) Member of: UN, OECD, EU, Nato, Schengen, OSCE, IMF, WTO and others
GOVERNMENT• The Kingdom of Denmark has two autonomous provinces, Faroe Islands and Greenland.• Government: Constitutional monarchy Follows a multi-party system Constitution: June 5, 1953• Executive: Head of the State – Queen Margrethe II Head of Government – Statsminister Helle Thorning-Schmidt (Social Democrat) Cabinet Ministers• Legislative: Unicameral Parliament – Folketing
• Judiciary: • Election – Every 4 years; Supreme Court Proportional Representation Two high courts Voting age is at least 18 years Seceral special courts old. Election participation is 80-85 24 local courts percent• Political Parties: Venstre (Liberal) • Administrative region: Social Democratic Danish People‟s Hovedstaden Social Liberal Midtjylland Socialist People‟s Nordjylland Unity List Sjælland Liberal Alliance Syddanmark Conservative
QUEEN MARGRETHE II • Head of the State • Official representative of Denmark • Purely ceremonial power • No political power
Statsminister Helle Thorning-Schmidt • First Female Statsminister (Prime Minister) • Elected in October 2011 • From the Social Democrat Party • Has been leader of the Danish Social Democrats since April 2005 • Served as a Member of the European Parliament from 1999 to 2004
FOLKETING 179 seats – 135 seats from constituencies, 40 supplementary seats, and two from Faroe Islands and another two from Greenland The Danish electoral system comprises a threshold rule which means that parties which obtain less than 2 per cent of the valid votes cast do not have a share in the supplementary seats.
Party % Seats Liberals (B) 24.8% 47 Social Democrats (R) 12.3% 44 Danish Peoples Party (B) 9.5% 22 Social Liberal Party (R) 9.2% 17 Socialist Peoples Party (R) 6.7% 16 Red-Green Alliance (R) 5.0% 12 Liberal Alliance (B) 4.9% 9Conservative Peoples Party(B) 0.8% 8 Christian Democrats (B) 0.1% 0Red Alliance (R) Helle Thorning-Schmidt 50.2%Blue Alliance (B) Lars Løkke Rasmussen 49.8%
JUDICIAL SYSTEM SUPREME COURT (Højesteret)SPECIAL COURTS The High Court of Western The High Court of Denmark (Vestre Landsret) Eastern Denmark (Østre Landsret) 24 LOCAL COURTS
ECONOMY Denmark‟s economy mainly focused on its human resources. It has Europe‟s most flexible market Denmark has a highly developed welfare safety net, which ensures that all Danes receive free health care and social benefits. The large public sector (30% of the entire workforce work for the state) is financed by the one of the worlds highest taxes. A Value Added Tax of 25% is levied on the sale of most goods and services (including groceries). The income tax in Denmark ranges from 42% to 63% progressively. With its economy open to global trade and investment, Denmark benefits from high degrees of business freedom, investment freedom, and financial freedom.
THE DANISH MODEL Flexicurity Compound words of flexible and security Golden Triangle Flexible Security Active Labour Market • Flexible rules for hiring and firing – easy for employers to dismiss employees during downturns and hire new staff when things improve • Unemployment security in the form of a guarantee for a legally specified unemployment benefit at a relatively high level ‐ up to 90% for the lowest paid workers. • Labour Market Policy - An effective system is in place to offer guidance, a job or education to all unemployed.
TRADITION Not one but two National Anthems1. „Der er et yndigt land‟ (There is a lovely land) is the civil national anthem of Denmark.2. The other, „Kong Christian stod ved højen mast‟ (King Christian stood by the lofty mast) has equal status but is mainly used for royal and military occasions.
LIFESTYLE Sustainable City Mayors, town planners and politicians from all over the world have visited Copenhagen often in recent years to study its bicycle traffic, district heating system or its waste management.
GREENLIFE Danish Biking Culture Copenhagen is world famous for its biking culture and now officially the first Bike City in the World. Last year, it was also voted the „Best city for cyclists‟ and the „World‟s most livable city. It really is biking heaven for the cyclist in Copenhagen with over 390 kilometers of designated bike lanes.
INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT DENMARK• Faroe Islands used to belong to Norway, but not any more - Norway lost the islands after the King of Norway has lost drunken poker game with King of Denmark.• In 1989 Denmark become the very first European country to legalize same-sex marriages and offer for gay partnership the same rights as for heterosexual couples.• Copenhagens Tivoli amusement park is one of biggest and popular in Europe. Actually it is one of the oldest amusement parks in the world.• Among other things Danish people have invented the widely known children playthings LEGO.• Most Famous Danes is writer Hans Christian Andersen, whose fairy tales have been translated into more languages then any other book in the whole world
DENMARK AND THE EU Since joining the EEC/EU in 1973 after a referendum where 63.3% voted in favour of membership,. Denmark has worked for transparency in the EU decision- making, the inclusion of environmental concerns in all decisions, the creation of more jobs in Europe and the opening up of the EU to, among others, Central and Eastern Europe so that it does not become “a club for the rich”. With more than 1000 UN employees, Copenhagen is the world‟s sixth largest UN city. On the 9th of November, Danish Minister for Development Cooperation will cut the first sod for the new UN building that will bring together all UN staff members in the Danish capital under the same roof. Faroe Islands and Greenland is not included in the EU