Functional Groups and Biochemistry


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Functional Groups and Biochemistry

  1. 1. Ketones<br />Carbon-Oxygen Double bond<br />Both R groups contain at least one carbon<br />
  2. 2. Carboxylic Acids<br />Has a Carbon-Oxygen double bond and an alcohol group on the same Carbon<br />R group can be any organic structure<br />
  3. 3. Esters<br />A Carboxylic acid structure with the acidic Hydrogen replaced with an organic structure<br />
  4. 4. Amines<br />Any organic structure containing Nitrogen<br />Each R group can be any organic structure<br />
  5. 5. Amides<br />A Carboxylic Acid with the Alcohol group replaced by an Amine structure<br />R groups can be any organic structure<br />
  6. 6. Important Biological Organic Molecules<br />Vitamins<br />Carbohydrates<br />Lipids<br />Proteins<br />Nucleic Acids<br />
  7. 7. Vitamins<br />Vitamin D<br />Important features:<br /><ul><li>Can be water soluble or fat soluble
  8. 8. Important fat soluble vitamins include: A,D,E, & K
  9. 9. Aid in :vision, calcium absorption, blood clotting, and serves as an antioxidant
  10. 10. Important water soluble vitamins include: B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B9, B12, C
  11. 11. Aids in metabolism and Red blood formation as well as nerve functions</li></li></ul><li>Carbohydrates<br />Can be broken into two groups<br />Polysaccharides <br />Complex carbohydrates<br />Basically 3 or more sugars<br />Simple sugars<br />Includes monosaccharides and disaccharides<br />Monosaccharides are the most basic units of carbohydrates<br />Disaccharides are when two monosaccharides undergo a condensation reaction and form into one molecule<br />
  12. 12. Monosaccharides and Disaccharides<br /><ul><li>Are both referred to as simple sugars. These are sweet in taste and are broken down quickly.
  13. 13. Important for quick sources of energy</li></ul> sucrose<br /> Monosaccharides Disaccharide<br />
  14. 14. Polysaccharides<br />Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate structures, formed of repeating units (either mono- or di-saccharides) joined together by glycosidic bonds<br />Important for storage and structure<br />
  15. 15. Useful for structure and energy storage….<br />Starch<br />Important for energy storage in plants<br />Chitin<br />found in the exoskeleton in insects, spiders and crustaceans<br />
  16. 16. Lipids<br />Large group of naturally occurring organic compounds that are related by their solubility in nonpolar organic solvents <br />Contain cholesterols and fatty acids<br />Important for energy and for transporting nutrients to various parts of the body<br />
  17. 17. Proteins<br />Made of amino acids arranged in long linear chains which are then folded into macromolecules<br />Present in nearly every process within the cell<br />
  18. 18. Nucleic Acids…<br />…are linear unbranched polymers of nucleotides<br />Include DNA and RNA, which are essential for life<br />Found in all living things<br />
  19. 19. DNA<br />Deoxyribonucleic acid contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all living things (except a few viruses)<br />Shaped in a double helix which is stabilized by hydrogen bonding<br />
  20. 20. RNA<br /><ul><li>Sometimes used as genetic material instead of DNA
  21. 21. Like DNA is a long strand of components called nucleotides
  22. 22. Except RNA:
  23. 23. is only one strand instead two
  24. 24. has uracil instead of the thymine base in the backbone
  25. 25. Is composed of ribose instead of deoxyribose
  26. 26. There is no hydroxyl group attached to the pentose ring in the 2’ position.</li>