Functional Groups and Biochemistry
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Functional Groups and Biochemistry

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    Functional Groups and Biochemistry Functional Groups and Biochemistry Presentation Transcript

    • Ketones
      Carbon-Oxygen Double bond
      Both R groups contain at least one carbon
    • Carboxylic Acids
      Has a Carbon-Oxygen double bond and an alcohol group on the same Carbon
      R group can be any organic structure
    • Esters
      A Carboxylic acid structure with the acidic Hydrogen replaced with an organic structure
    • Amines
      Any organic structure containing Nitrogen
      Each R group can be any organic structure
    • Amides
      A Carboxylic Acid with the Alcohol group replaced by an Amine structure
      R groups can be any organic structure
    • Important Biological Organic Molecules
      Vitamins
      Carbohydrates
      Lipids
      Proteins
      Nucleic Acids
    • Vitamins
      Vitamin D
      Important features:
      • Can be water soluble or fat soluble
      • Important fat soluble vitamins include: A,D,E, & K
      • Aid in :vision, calcium absorption, blood clotting, and serves as an antioxidant
      • Important water soluble vitamins include: B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B9, B12, C
      • Aids in metabolism and Red blood formation as well as nerve functions
    • Carbohydrates
      Can be broken into two groups
      Polysaccharides
      Complex carbohydrates
      Basically 3 or more sugars
      Simple sugars
      Includes monosaccharides and disaccharides
      Monosaccharides are the most basic units of carbohydrates
      Disaccharides are when two monosaccharides undergo a condensation reaction and form into one molecule
    • Monosaccharides and Disaccharides
      • Are both referred to as simple sugars. These are sweet in taste and are broken down quickly.
      • Important for quick sources of energy
      sucrose
      Monosaccharides Disaccharide
    • Polysaccharides
      Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate structures, formed of repeating units (either mono- or di-saccharides) joined together by glycosidic bonds
      Important for storage and structure
    • Useful for structure and energy storage….
      Starch
      Important for energy storage in plants
      Chitin
      found in the exoskeleton in insects, spiders and crustaceans
    • Lipids
      Large group of naturally occurring organic compounds that are related by their solubility in nonpolar organic solvents
      Contain cholesterols and fatty acids
      Important for energy and for transporting nutrients to various parts of the body
    • Proteins
      Made of amino acids arranged in long linear chains which are then folded into macromolecules
      Present in nearly every process within the cell
    • Nucleic Acids…
      …are linear unbranched polymers of nucleotides
      Include DNA and RNA, which are essential for life
      Found in all living things
    • DNA
      Deoxyribonucleic acid contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all living things (except a few viruses)
      Shaped in a double helix which is stabilized by hydrogen bonding
    • RNA
      • Sometimes used as genetic material instead of DNA
      • Like DNA is a long strand of components called nucleotides
      • Except RNA:
      • is only one strand instead two
      • has uracil instead of the thymine base in the backbone
      • Is composed of ribose instead of deoxyribose
      • There is no hydroxyl group attached to the pentose ring in the 2’ position.