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Atomic Structure

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  • If an atom has 15 protons how many electrons does it have? Where do each subatomic particle reside in an atom?
  • Transcript

    • 1. Review Session
    • 2. conversion
      Given that 1.00cm3= 1.00mL…
      How many Kiloliters of water are in one million cm3???
      Answer?= 1 kL
    • 3. Conversion
      If you have 1000 yen how many euro do you have? (yen to dollar =0.0119, euro to dollar= 1.274)
    • 4. Conversion
      If you run a 5.00 km marathon how many miles are you running? (1.609 km= 1 mile)
      Answer= 3.11 miles
    • 5. Conversion Review
      There are 4840 square yards in every acre. Since there are 1.196 square yards in every square meter, how many square meters are in 4 acres?
    • 6. Predicting atomic structure from the Periodic table
      Atomic # is the number of protons
      Atomic mass is the sum of protons and neutrons
      # of electrons = # of protons in an atom
      # of electrons in ions is larger or smaller than number of protons by the opposite of the charge
    • 7. Predicting Atomic Structure Review
    • 8. Matter
      Matter is a general term for all the substances in which all objects are made.
      Matter is divided into two categories:
      Pure substances
      Mixtures
    • 9. Pure substances
      A pure substance can be defined as a sample of matter that consists of only one component with definite physical and chemical properties and a definite composition.
      Pure substances cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means
      Examples of a pure substance may be an element or a compound
    • 10. Pure Substances
      Nitrogen
      Carbon dioxide
      hydrogen
    • 11. Mixtures
      a combination of two or more phases that are not chemically united and do not exist in fixed proportions to each other.
      Basically two things are mixed together and can be separated
      Mixtures can be either heterogeneous (made of two different compositions )or homogeneous (a mixture of the same composition)
    • 12. Examples of mixtures
      homogeneous
      Air with no clouds
      Sugar water
      Salt water
      Milk
      heterogeneous
      Gravel
      Salt and pepper
      Sand
      Some salad dressings (Italian)
    • 13. Review
      Which are pure subtances and which are mixtures?
      Lemonade
      Helium gas
      Soil
      Deionized Water
      Ammonia
      Ceasar Dressing
    • 14. Chemical vs. physical change
      chemical
      A change in the composition of the elements in the compound.
      A microscopic change
      physical
      Difference in the way that something looks
      A different state of matter
      If the solid is in solution or not
    • 15. Review questions
      What would you consider is the most common physical change in your daily life? What is the most common chemical change?
      If you burn food is that considered a physical change or a chemical change? Why or why not?
    • 16. Review Questions
      As food is digested does it go through a physical change or a chemical change?
      When making Kool aid does a physical or chemical change take place
      What is happening to the atoms on a microscopic level in a physical change and in a chemical change?
    • 17. History of the Atom
      Review Session Tuesday Se
    • 18. The Atomic Theory of Matter – Dalton’s Atomic Theory
      • Each element is composed of extremely small particles called atoms, or the smallest representative part of an element
      • 19. Atoms in a given element are identical to each other
      • 20. Atoms of one element are different from all atoms in other elements
      • 21. Compounds are formed when atoms of different elements combine in whole number ratios
      • 22. A chemical change (reaction) involves rearrangement of atoms BUT no atoms are created or destroyed
    • The Plum Pudding Model
      • 1897 – Discovery of the first subatomic particle, electrons (negative)
      • 23. J.J. Thomson (1856-1940)
      • 24. led to the first model of an atom
      • 25. Atoms have no net charge, or a charge of zero
      • 26. Suggesting there has to be a positive charge (proton)
    • The Nuclear Model
      Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937)
      • Found all of the positive charge was in a very small, very dense central area of the atom, he called the nucleus.
    • The Modern View of Atomic Structure
      • There are three subatomic particles of an atom
      • 27. Neutrons (neutral charge = 0), located in the nucleus
      • 28. Protons (positive charge = +1.602 x1019 C), located in the nucleus
      • 29. Electrons (negative charge = -1.602 x1019 C), located in the electron cloud around the nucleus
      • 30. Every atom has an equal number of electrons and protons creating no net charge
    • Give it Some Thought:
      • What are the three subatomic particles, their charge and where are they located in an atom?
      • 31. When and what was the first subatomic particle founded?
      • 32. Define reaction.
      • 33. What is the charge on an atom?
      • 34. What is the modern view of an atom?
      • 35. Conversion Problem:
      • 36. Your company makes dresses, each dress requires 4 yards of fabric, unfortunately your supplier only sells fabric by the meter. How many meters of fabric do you need to make 39 dresses? (1 yard = 0.9144 meters)
    • Bohr Contributions
      Bohr established the idea of electrons being restricted to certain energy levels that surround the nucleus
      This was based on a experimental observation that atoms only absorb and release specific energies when light energy is added
    • 37. Modern Atomic Theory
      The location of electrons in an atom is given in terms of probably
      This is because we can only predict where an electron will be at a certain time
      The location of highest probably is called an orbital or electron cloud
    • 38. Orbital Trends
      Orbitals that are closer to the nucleus have less energy than ones farther away
      Electrons can only occupy orbitalsand certain energy levels Ex: n=1 or a d orbital
      Electrons can change energy levels if enough energy is added to the atom
    • 39. Review Question
      What idea did Bohr establish?
      What experimental evidence did Bohr have to support this idea?
      What is the most probable area for an electron to be located called?
      Can we ever be sure where an electron is located?
      What kind of energy can be added in order to change the orbital level of an atom?