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  1. 1. Study of Biology copyright cmassengale
  2. 2. What is Biology? <ul><li>Biology is the study of all living things </li></ul><ul><li>Living things are called organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms include bacteria, protists, fungi, plants, & animals </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  3. 3. All Living Things Share Common Characteristics <ul><li>Basic Unit is the Cell </li></ul><ul><li>They Reproduce </li></ul><ul><li>All Based On Universal Genetic Code (DNA) </li></ul><ul><li>Grow & Develop </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  4. 4. Common Characteristics <ul><li>Obtain & Use Materials & Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Respond To Their Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain A Stable Internal Environment </li></ul><ul><li>AS A GROUP , Living Things Evolve , That Is They Change Over Time </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  5. 5. Characteristics of Organisms copyright cmassengale
  6. 6. All Organisms are made of Cells copyright cmassengale
  7. 7. Facts About Cells <ul><li>Cells are the smallest living unit of an organism </li></ul><ul><li>All cells contain living material called cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>All cells are surrounded by a cell membrane that controls what enters & leaves the cell </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  8. 8. More Cell Facts <ul><li>Cells are complex & highly organized </li></ul><ul><li>Cells have parts called organelles that do different jobs </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Chloroplasts in plants make sugars </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  9. 9. More Cell Facts <ul><li>The simplest cells are called Prokaryotes </li></ul><ul><li>These cells DO NOT have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria are examples </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  10. 10. More Cell Facts <ul><li>More complex cells are called Eukaryotes </li></ul><ul><li>These cells DO have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Plants, animals, protists, & fungi are examples </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  11. 11. Organisms are Grouped by their Number of Cells <ul><li>Unicellular Organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Living Organism Made Up Of One Cell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multicellular Organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Living Organism Made Up Of Many, Specialized Cells </li></ul></ul>copyright cmassengale
  12. 12. Organisms Reproduce to Pass on their Genetic Traits copyright cmassengale
  13. 13. Two Types of Reproduction <ul><li>Sexual Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Involves 2 parents </li></ul><ul><li>Egg fertilized by sperm to make a ZYGOTE </li></ul><ul><li>Offspring DIFFERENT from parents </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  14. 14. Two Types of Reproduction <ul><li>Asexual Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Involves a single organism or cell </li></ul><ul><li>Cell divides </li></ul><ul><li>Offspring IDENTICAL to parent </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  15. 15. Cells Have a Genetic Code copyright cmassengale
  16. 16. Genetic Code <ul><li>DNA ( deoxyribose nucleic acid ) carries the genetic code for all organisms </li></ul><ul><li>All organisms contain DNA </li></ul><ul><li>DNA codes for the proteins that make up cells & do all the work </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  17. 17. Organisms Grow & Develop copyright cmassengale
  18. 18. Growth & Development <ul><li>Organisms grow by producing MORE CELLS & by cell ENLARGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms develop as they mature into an adult organism </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  19. 19. Cells Require Food & Energy copyright cmassengale
  20. 20. Food Requirements <ul><li>Autotrophs can make their own food </li></ul><ul><li>Photoautotrophs use sunlight to make food (photosynthesis) </li></ul><ul><li>Chemoautotrophs use chemicals such as iron & sulfur as their energy </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  21. 21. Food Requirements <ul><li>Heterotrophs can NOT make their own food </li></ul><ul><li>They must consume other organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Herbivores eat plants </li></ul><ul><li>Carnivores eat meat </li></ul><ul><li>Omnivores eat plants & animals </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  22. 22. Metabolism <ul><li>Sum of all the chemical reactions in an organism </li></ul><ul><li>All require energy </li></ul><ul><li>Sunlight is the ultimate energy for life on Earth </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  23. 23. Metabolism <ul><li>Cellular Respiration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells releasing the chemical energy stored in foods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>6O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  24. 24. Organisms Respond to Stimuli <ul><li>Organisms Respond to stimuli (Temperature, Water, Food Supplies, etc.) In Order To Survive & Reproduce </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  25. 25. Homeostasis <ul><li>Keeping The Internal Environment (Homeostasis) Of The Cell or Organism Within The Ranges Required For Life </li></ul><ul><li>Stable internal conditions of pH, temperature, water balance, etc . </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  26. 26. Living Things Evolve <ul><li>Groups Of Organisms (Not Individuals) Change Over Time In Order To Survive Within Changing Environments. </li></ul><ul><li>Fossil records show changes in groups of organisms </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  27. 27. Life is Organized on Several Levels copyright cmassengale
  28. 28. Levels <ul><li>Atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Cells – life starts here </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><li>System </li></ul><ul><li>Organism </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  29. 29. Levels <ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>Biosphere </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  30. 30. copyright cmassengale
  31. 31. copyright cmassengale