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CPD in HE - Research project information

CPD in HE - Research project information



A presentation given at the University of LIncoln Symposium July 2007 about a research project in progress.

A presentation given at the University of LIncoln Symposium July 2007 about a research project in progress.



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    CPD in HE - Research project information CPD in HE - Research project information Presentation Transcript

    • Continuing Professional Development in Higher Education Challenges and Opportunities Karin Crawford University of Lincoln [email_address] http://webpages.lincoln.ac.uk/kcrawford
    • Overview of presentation
      • Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in Higher Education (HE)
      • Context
        • A little about me and my interest in CPD
        • The national and local context of CPD in HE
      • My ‘desk research’ and initial investigations
        • Challenges and tensions
        • Opportunities and good practice
      • About me
      • An academic; a researcher; a teaching fellow; a student
      • Personal journey from professional and managerial experience to academia
      • CPD and lifelong learning – earlier research
      • Current research project
      • Developing an understanding of the influences on the CPD practices of academics in HE
      • Multi-case study - qualitative research
      • Set in context of change, competing demands and expectations
      • Offers a voice for academics and staff developers
      • Opportunity to influence approaches to CPD in institutions
    • National context of CPD in HE
      • A focus on CPD and the enhancement of the quality of teaching
      • Professional Standards Framework for teaching and supporting learning in HE (HEA 2006)
      • The Higher Education Academy Professional Recognition Scheme
      ‘… good-quality teaching for everyone…(by)…staff that are trained to teach and continue to develop professionally…’ (DfES 2003: 49)
    • National context of CPD in HE /continued. . .
      • New ‘Professional Standards for teachers, tutors and trainers in the lifelong learning sector’
      • The 14-19 agenda (DfES 2005) and the Leitch Review (2006)
      • Quality audit processes – Quality Assurance Agency ( www.qaa.ac.uk )
      • Higher Education Funding Council (HEFCE) supporting ‘institutions in enhancing the quality of their learning and teaching’ ( www.hefce.ac.uk )
      ‘ Reflection and evaluation of their own practice and their continuing professional development as teachers’ (LLUK 2007: 3)
    • Local context of CPD in HE
      • Historical institutional context
      • The University of Lincoln mission
      • Policies and strategies
      • A range of partnerships – meeting a range of needs and demands
      ‘ To be recognised as a university of quality and distinction’
    • Challenges and tensions
      • Contradictions; ‘dualisms’; ‘fault lines’ (Clegg 2003: 37)
      • Dual role of HE as providers and consumers
      • What constitutes CPD?
      • Academic identity
          • Teaching-Research
          • Competing loyalties and priorities
      • Complexity of academic role
      • The rhetoric and the reality
    • Dual role of HE (with regard to CPD)
      • HE as established providers of CPD for others …….BUT
      • … HE is less developed in provision of CPD for own staff (Clegg 2003)
      • Staff development organised very differently in different institutions
          • Issues of location
          • Issues of status
      • There is seemingly no one way of facilitating or providing CPD in HE
      • Complex range of approaches; cultures; priorities; beliefs; and actions – impacting on staff developers, institutions and individual academics
    • What constitutes CPD?
      • Formal or informal learning? The iceberg analogy - ‘ not all professional knowings are explicit ’ (Knight 2006: 31)
      • As well as accredited courses - CPD can be seen as arising from personal scholarship and normal working activities (Becher 1999, Clegg 2003)
      • How will arguably increasing external demands, e.g. implementation of the standards frameworks impact on this debate?
    • Academic identity – ‘academic tribes’
      • Research – Teaching Nexus
      • Traditionally perceived disproportionate status
      • Professional standards focus on teaching and learning
      • University of Lincoln
        • drive to embed research informed teaching
        • revised structures to enhance the status of quality teaching and learning in the institution
      • Significant implications for CPD – for institutions and individuals
      ‘’ . . .two academic tribes – those who prioritize research within their career, and those who tend to prioritize teaching’ (Ramsden cited in Trigwell and Shale 2004: 523)
    • Academic identity – loyalties and priorities
      • Academics situated in many ‘communities of practice’ (Wenger 1998) therefore potentially different . . . .
        • discourses
        • understandings of CPD
        • CPD requirements
        • professional histories
        • priorities
        • approaches to teaching and learning
    • The academic role ‘… the academic role is in flux’ (Blackmore and Blackwell 2003: 19)
      • Traditional role of teaching, researching and administration
      • Changing expectations – a wider range of tasks and responsibilities
      • Subject ‘expert’? Teaching and learning ‘expert’ Both? Something else?
      • Many different forms of ‘tenure’ – part-time, hourly, ‘guest’, ‘visiting’…
      • Changing meaning of the term ‘academic’ - different meanings across different institutions and functions
    • CPD – whose goals and needs?
      • Relationship between needs of the institution and needs of the academic;
      • Tension in whose goals are to be met and who is responsible;
      • Potential disparity between policy rhetoric and policy achievement (Field 2002);
      • A lack of consensus on meaning and scope of CPD
        • the core tension in this relationship is that between those needs for the continuity of the work practice and individuals’ needs to realise their personal or vocational goals’
        • (Billett 2002: 56)
    • A local investigation
      • Very small scale, early ‘test-bed’
      • Qualitative questionnaire
      • Purpose – to explore understandings of CPD and perceived links to teaching quality enhancement
      • Respondent profile:
        • fourteen respondents –
        • 9 departments,
        • academics, learning resources, one person was a manager, individuals working in relevant central functions supporting teaching and learning
        • 57% (8) male – 43% (6) female
        • Average years working in HE = 12
        • Average years at University of Lincoln = 8
    • Summary of findings – defining CPD CPD in HE is ‘ subject development, updating, scholarly activity, and research and/or pedagogical development updating, innovation, and/or development opportunities for management/leadership ’ (Academic, female) CPD in HE is ‘in a constantly changing environment, the process whereby you ensure that the skills and knowledge required to teach your subject and support student learning are up to date ‘ (Staff member in a role that supports teaching and learning (male) ‘ different approaches and understanding across faculty and departments, therefore different arrangements’ (Academic female)
    • Summary of findings – whose goals and needs? CPD in HE is ‘ support in making progress in line with the objectives of the university, faculty, department and personal aspirations for career development’’ (Academic manager, male) ‘ ..addressing the needs of the individual member of staff’ (Academic male) ‘… advancing one’s own work’ (Academic, male)
    • Summary of findings – content and focus of CPD
    • Opportunities
      • New policies, structures and strategies at the University of Lincoln
      • The opportunity to ‘take ownership’ as academics drive ‘a combination of top-down and bottom-up strategies…’ (Zuber-Skerritt 1992: 192 italics in original).
      • Considering how to involve the students of the university in CPD for staff (Leeds Met. University)
      • Acknowledge and value difference across disciplines – but share good practice – ‘mainstream’ CPD
    • Opportunities
      • Explore and learn from the practices of other institutions (nationally and internationally)
      • A shift to a focus on learning – then being inclusive across the institution – everyone involved in student learning working together on common projects (Clegg 2003)
    • Presentation Summary
      • Challenges and opportunities
      • Reflection on own practices
      • Opportunity for debate
      ‘ .. problematising our conceptions of continuing professional development can open up space for debate’ (Clegg 2003: 37)
    • For any further information – visit my web pages at http://webpages.lincoln.ac.uk/kcrawford or email me [email_address] Thank you for listening !
    • References
      • Becher, T. (1999) Professional Practices: Commitment and capability in a changing environment New Jersey: Transaction Publishers
      • Billett, S. R. (2002) ‘Critiquing workplace learning discourses: Participation and continuity at work’ Studies in the Education of Adults 34 (1) 56-67
      • Blackwell, R. and Blackmore, P. (2003) ‘Rethinking strategic staff development’ in R. Blackwell and P. Blackmore (Eds) Towards Strategic Staff Development in Higher Education’ pp3-15
      • Clegg, S. (2003) ‘Problematising Ourselves: Continuing Professional Development in Higher Education’ International Journal for Academic Development Vol 8, No. 1/2 pp.37-50
      • Department for Education and Skills (DfES) (2003) The future of higher education The Stationery Office
      • Department for Education and Skills (DfES) (2005) 14-19 Education and Skills Nottingham: DfES publications
      • Field, J (2002) ‘Governing the ungovernable: why lifelong learning policies promise so much yet deliver so little’ in R. Edwards, N. Miller, N. Small and A. Tait (Eds) Supporting Lifelong Learning Volume 3, Making Policy Work . London: Routledge
    • References Continued/….
      • Higher Education Academy (HEA) (2006) The UK Professional Standards Framework for teaching and supporting learning in higher education www.heacademy.ac.uk
      • Knight, P. (2006) ‘Quality Enhancement and Educational Professional Development’ Quality in Higher Education Vol 12 (1) p.29-40
      • Leitch, S. (2006) Leitch Review of skills – Prosperity for All in the Global Economy: World Class Skills Norwich: HMSO
      • LLUK (2007) New overarching professional standards for teachers, tutors and trainers in the lifelong learning sector www.lifelonglearninguk.org
      • Trigwell, K. and Shale, S. (2004) ‘Student learning and the scholarship of university teaching’ Studies in Higher Education Vol 29, No.4. pp524-525
      • Wenger, E. (1998) Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identify Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
      • Zuber-Skerritt, O. (1992) Professional Development in Higher Education London: Kogan Page