The purpose of this powerpoint is to point out main concepts and definitions related to curriculum and instruction in relation to how we will deal with the definitions this semester. Make sure you view this powerpoint after doing the three readings.
In this week’s readings, you should have read many theoretical discussions about the definition of “curriculum”. According to Goodland and Su, curriculum occurs at different levels when broadly defined as the sum of a student’s experiences in a school. In this course we will be dealing with the first two levels of curriculum…. societal and institutional.
As you can see, the level of curriculum according to Goodland and Su is really based on how far the learner is from the source of the decision making. The further the student is from the decision making the higher the level of the curriculum decision.
If you have read all the readings from this week’s lesson, you know there are a lot of definitions of the word “curriculum”. For our purposes in this course, we will define curriculum as “what” is taught to the students. The “what” however can be broadly defined as one course or all the learning activities and experiences a student has in a school.
In North Carolina, state staff usually create the course blueprints which is the process of curriculum development that we will focus on this semester.
You never know when you might be asked to serve on a curriculum committee or you might even create your own specialized course one day.
When we refer to instruction or instructional design in this course we will be referring to the development of “how” the content of the course will be taught. In Goodland and Su’s levels of curriculum the last two are what we will call instructional design. In the structure of this course, unit and lesson plans are instructional outlines. In North Carolina our curriculum outlines are called instructional outlines which makes it a little confusing. They do in fact break the content down but they don’t give instructions for how the new content should be taught. My understanding that the new blueprints using the new Bloom’s taxonomy will do that so they will be true instructional outlines.
As you can see there are aspects and processes in both curriculum development and instructional development that require the same steps (in the overlap of the circles), however each development process is unique.
Ok now that we know the differences between curriculum development and instructional development …..let’s move forward. Curriculum development takes place differently in agricultural education depending on the approach of the state or district the school is located in. In North Carolina, we use the technical approach using the rational logical process. State staff, with the help of teachers and industry experts, determine the content that will be taught in a course and students are assessed on that content using “end of the course” tests.
In some states, teachers work individually or in teams to determine the student goals and the content that will be taught using the technical approach and non-rational process.
Some private schools that do not give grades develop curriculum using this approach. This approach is not commonly used in public schools because of accountability and staffing issues.
These terms will help us get through the semester.
Definition and Relationship of Curriculum and Instruction
Levels of Curriculum <ul><li>Societal- political </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional- local educators and laypeople </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional- teachers plan and deliver </li></ul><ul><li>Experiential- perceived and experienced by students </li></ul><ul><li>Goodlad and Su (1992) </li></ul>
Levels of Curriculum <ul><li>Based on how far the learner is from the source of the decisions made about the curriculum. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>President Obama makes decisions at the societal level- he is currently influencing the future of No Child Left Behind. </li></ul><ul><li>State staff make decisions at the institutional level by deciding what courses are taught in agricultural education. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers make instructional decisions when they create instructional plans. </li></ul>
WHAT is taught to students. What is curriculum? There are many definitions that are correct…………. but for our purposes we define curriculum as :
What is curriculum development? ( sometimes called macrocurriculum) <ul><li>In this course when we refer to curriculum development, we are assuming the process involves a number of professionals and the curriculum that is produced will be used by multiple instructors. </li></ul>
So why are you here? <ul><li>Because you may want to serve on a curriculum team one day or create your own modified course or program for adoption by the state. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Instruction is HOW the curriculum is delivered to students. </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional design typically occurs when an instructor is preparing to teach his or her courses or program….hopefully you already know how to do this. </li></ul>What is instructional design? (sometimes called microcurriculum)
Shared Aspects and Unique Aspects of Each Finch, C.R. and Crunkilton,J.R. (1999). Curriculum Development in Vocational and Technical Education ,p.13. Write a Lesson Plan Plan a Unit Obtain Student Instructional Resources Develop Learning Experiences Select Media Select Equipment Obtain Supplies Prepare Teacher-made Instructional Materials Develop Curriculum Goals Make Curriculum Planning Decisions Obtain School-related Data Obtain Community – Related Data Determine Curriculum Content Make Curriculum Content Decisions Write Objectives Sequence Objectives Determine Student Needs and Interests Develop Curriculum Materials Evaluate Curriculum Materials Effectiveness Instructional Development Curriculum Development
Technical Approach <ul><li>The traditional approach </li></ul><ul><li>Typically a committee of state leaders, teachers and industry personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Assumes the teacher will accept the revisions </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation is based on the faithfulness of the implementers </li></ul><ul><li>Use is called implementation </li></ul>Rational Logical Process
Technical Approach <ul><li>Implementers (teachers) collaborate with developers </li></ul><ul><li>This adaptation gives the teachers a feeling of ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation is based on meeting the intended purposes of the curriculum and the implementers actual use of the curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Use is called implementation </li></ul>Non-rational Process
Non-technical Approach <ul><li>Based on the individual needs of the student or society </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher makes the decisions as the subject is taught </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation is based on meeting its intended purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Use is called enactment </li></ul>
Curriculum Terms <ul><li>Curriculum products include course blueprints, courses of study, resource units, list of goals and objectives, and in NC- instructional outlines. These include any documents produced by curriculum developers that deal with the content to be taught. </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum guides usually include the content to be taught and instructional strategies to be used (lesson plans). In NC, our new courses being developed using Bloom’s new revised taxonomy will have a curriculum guide (we will discuss this more later in the course) not just a course blueprint. </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum resources usually include things such as textbooks, content brochures ( think of a 4-H project book), videos, and computer software or internet sites that instructors use to support the course. </li></ul>