State Sponsored Starvation


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State Sponsored Starvation

  1. 1. An analysis of famine caused by political policies
  2. 2.  Potatoes were staple crop of the poor Blight wiped out large amounts of the crop from 1845-1848 British Parliament was slow to react to the loss of the food staple Exports of corn and livestock continued during this time despite the widespread starvation
  3. 3.  British policies caused the landlords to evict large numbers of Irish poor tenants from their land exacerbating the problem British relief programs were short lived or ineffective and politically unpopular Resulted in the deaths of 1.1-1.5 million Irish Also resulted in drastically higher emigration rates
  4. 4.  Period of extreme hunger from 1931-33 due to government policies Experts divided on cause  Partially socioeconomic – policies of industrial expansion, shift from traditional crops, redistribution of all farmers crops  Holodomor or “terror by famine”- active propagation of hunger by authorities to prevent social revolution
  5. 5.  Socioeconomic factors  Collectivization-combining villages into large “collective farms”  Redirection of crop land from grain to sugar beets, cotton, and other crops  Procurement policy required all farms to provide large amounts of harvest to the government Holodomor  All food declared state property-youth organizations were enforcers  Elimination of wealthy or uncooperative peasants Estimated population loss of 6-7 million Severe malnutrition-even reports of cannibalism
  6. 6.  Severe reduction in food production in China from 1958-61 Collectivization of farming into communes at beginning of period Shift to unsuccessful agricultural techniques Forced shift of farmers to iron and steel production Continued export of grain despite widespread famine
  7. 7.  Occurred on top of several natural disasters that affected crop production Death toll estimates vary wildly; estimates range anywhere from 15 million to 36 million Estimates of total population loss are as high as 76 million Severe hunger-Reports of cannibalism, consumption of tree bark
  8. 8.  All three famines caused by government policies Rights-citizens have a right to access to the food the produce  All three famines partially caused by government appropriating food produced by starving for other uses
  9. 9.  Categorical imperative-People should not be treated as a means to an end  Irish grain production exported for profit of British landowners  Ukrainian grain production appropriated for urban areas  Chinese exported grain while citizens starved
  10. 10.  Gray, Peter. 2006. Famine and Land in Ireland and India, 1845-1880: James Caird and the Political Economy of Hunger. The Historical Journal 49:1, pp. 193-215. Retrieved February 28, 2013 Donnelly, Jim (BBC). February 2011. The Irish Famine. Retrieved February 28, 2013. ans/famine_01.shtml
  11. 11.  Lim, Louisa (NPR). November 2012. A Grim Chronicle Of Chinas Great Famine. Retrieved February 28, 2013. grim-chronicle-of-chinas-great-famine Grada, Cormac. 2008. The ripple that drowns? Twentieth-century famines in China and India as economic history. The Economic History Review 61:s1 pp 5-37 u/doi/10.1111/j.1468-0289.2008.00435.x/pdf
  12. 12.  Fawkes, Helen (BBC). November 2006. Legacy of famine divides Ukraine. Retrieved February 28, 2013 stm Kulchytsky, Stanislav (Kiev Day). February 2007. Holodomor of 1932-33 as genocide: gaps in evidential basis. Retrieved February 28, 2013 after-day/holodomor-1932-33-genocide-gaps- evidential-basis