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State Sponsored Starvation
State Sponsored Starvation
State Sponsored Starvation
State Sponsored Starvation
State Sponsored Starvation
State Sponsored Starvation
State Sponsored Starvation
State Sponsored Starvation
State Sponsored Starvation
State Sponsored Starvation
State Sponsored Starvation
State Sponsored Starvation
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State Sponsored Starvation

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  • 1. An analysis of famine caused by political policies
  • 2.  Potatoes were staple crop of the poor Blight wiped out large amounts of the crop from 1845-1848 British Parliament was slow to react to the loss of the food staple Exports of corn and livestock continued during this time despite the widespread starvation
  • 3.  British policies caused the landlords to evict large numbers of Irish poor tenants from their land exacerbating the problem British relief programs were short lived or ineffective and politically unpopular Resulted in the deaths of 1.1-1.5 million Irish Also resulted in drastically higher emigration rates
  • 4.  Period of extreme hunger from 1931-33 due to government policies Experts divided on cause  Partially socioeconomic – policies of industrial expansion, shift from traditional crops, redistribution of all farmers crops  Holodomor or “terror by famine”- active propagation of hunger by authorities to prevent social revolution
  • 5.  Socioeconomic factors  Collectivization-combining villages into large “collective farms”  Redirection of crop land from grain to sugar beets, cotton, and other crops  Procurement policy required all farms to provide large amounts of harvest to the government Holodomor  All food declared state property-youth organizations were enforcers  Elimination of wealthy or uncooperative peasants Estimated population loss of 6-7 million Severe malnutrition-even reports of cannibalism
  • 6.  Severe reduction in food production in China from 1958-61 Collectivization of farming into communes at beginning of period Shift to unsuccessful agricultural techniques Forced shift of farmers to iron and steel production Continued export of grain despite widespread famine
  • 7.  Occurred on top of several natural disasters that affected crop production Death toll estimates vary wildly; estimates range anywhere from 15 million to 36 million Estimates of total population loss are as high as 76 million Severe hunger-Reports of cannibalism, consumption of tree bark
  • 8.  All three famines caused by government policies Rights-citizens have a right to access to the food the produce  All three famines partially caused by government appropriating food produced by starving for other uses
  • 9.  Categorical imperative-People should not be treated as a means to an end  Irish grain production exported for profit of British landowners  Ukrainian grain production appropriated for urban areas  Chinese exported grain while citizens starved
  • 10.  Gray, Peter. 2006. Famine and Land in Ireland and India, 1845-1880: James Caird and the Political Economy of Hunger. The Historical Journal 49:1, pp. 193-215. Retrieved February 28, 2013 http://www.jstor.org/stable/4091745 Donnelly, Jim (BBC). February 2011. The Irish Famine. Retrieved February 28, 2013. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/victori ans/famine_01.shtml
  • 11.  Lim, Louisa (NPR). November 2012. A Grim Chronicle Of Chinas Great Famine. Retrieved February 28, 2013. http://www.npr.org/2012/11/10/164732497/a- grim-chronicle-of-chinas-great-famine Grada, Cormac. 2008. The ripple that drowns? Twentieth-century famines in China and India as economic history. The Economic History Review 61:s1 pp 5-37 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.proxy.lib.iastate.ed u/doi/10.1111/j.1468-0289.2008.00435.x/pdf
  • 12.  Fawkes, Helen (BBC). November 2006. Legacy of famine divides Ukraine. Retrieved February 28, 2013 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6179818. stm Kulchytsky, Stanislav (Kiev Day). February 2007. Holodomor of 1932-33 as genocide: gaps in evidential basis. Retrieved February 28, 2013 http://www.day.kiev.ua/en/article/day- after-day/holodomor-1932-33-genocide-gaps- evidential-basis

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