Antisocial personality disorder
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Antisocial personality disorder Antisocial personality disorder Presentation Transcript

  • Antisocial Personality Disorder and Personality Theories By: Kelsey Coke
  • Definition
    • Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD): “a disorder characterized by a history of continuous behavior in which the rights of others are violated”
    • Symptoms of APD include: aggression, irresponsibility, impulsivity, deceit, lack of regard for other people’s emotions, and not caring about consequences
    • (Bartol, & Bartol, 2008)
  • Antisocial Personality Disorder and Personality Theories
    • This is a look at the different personality approaches and how each one plays a role in the diagnoses and therapy of someone with Antisocial Personality Disorder
    • Involves using the symptoms as guidelines in discovering how we know someone has APD and also different ways in helping someone with APD cope with the symptoms; not making the disorder go away
  • Psychoanalytical Approach
    • The id, ego, and superego determine the unconscious mind
    • People with APD never really move from their id stage
    • They cannot control themselves and their impulses thus reacting however they want which may result in the damage of feelings to those around them
  • Strengths/Weaknesses for Psychoanalytical Approach:
    • Strengths : Freud is deemed father to other theories, created a system of research, and started psychotherapy
    • Weaknesses : Difficult to test theories and have solid evidence, Freud diagnosed people based on ages 5 and 6, and some people speculate Freud is not technically the father to these theories
  • In regards to APD…
    • Although you cannot fully treat someone with Antisocial Personality Disorder, the psychoanalytical approach would be a good theory to use because this could be a good technique to getting to the root of a problem that may have caused APD
  • Trait Approach
    • Analyzes characteristics
    • Must have the trait for a long period of time over many situations
    • People with APD need to be analyzed for traits such as aggression, rationality, and many more
    • The Big Five model would reinforce the diagnoses of APD because these people will score low in every part
  • Strengths/Weaknesses to Trait Approach:
    • Strengths : You can use the trait approach in many different situations to help diagnose many kinds of cases
    • The definition of traits is clear for diagnosing
    • Weaknesses : In some cases, people focus on the traits too much rather than looking at the overall picture
    • There is no exact number of how many traits actually exist
  • In regards to APD…
    • The trait approach and the Big Five Model is very helpful with figuring out levels of traits and how they play a role in the life of someone with APD
    • By learning what traits are hindering someone with APD, there can be some help for them to cope with these
  • Biological Approach
    • These are behaviors and traits that you can inherit from your parents or ancestors
    • This would be a very interesting approach to study to see if something like aggression (such a commonality in APD) could be inherited from a parent or if there is more influence that comes from environment
  • Strengths/Weakness to Biological Approach:
    • Strengths : Helps to connect psychology and biology
    • Gives a window in to genetic makeup and our personalities
    • Tells us about stages to biology and personality
    • More interest to testing/research
    • Weaknesses : There is a difficulty in testing ancestry and history
    • Testing temperaments is tricky especially in children
  • In regards to APD…
    • The biological approach would be a good tool for seeing if there are traits or types of personalities that are inherited more than others
    • It would also be helpful in answering the question of biology versus environment
  • The Humanistic Approach
    • The most optimistic approach using tools of self reflection
    • Reflection of feelings and emotions
    • People make their own choices
    • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
    • People with APD are not equipped to reflect on feelings and emotions because they do not care about feelings
  • Strengths/Weaknesses of Humanistic Approach:
    • Strengths : Optimistic-leads to more positive discussion among therapy
    • Free will used
    • Weaknesses : Too much assumption left in behavior
    • The optimism can be too much for therapy purposes
  • In regards to APD…
    • This approach is the least favorable for people with Antisocial Personality Disorder because of the level of optimism it holds as well as the reflecting techniques used
    • You cannot use free will with APD because their choices are what keep getting them in trouble with the law
  • Behavioral/Social Learning Approach
    • Classic conditioning
    • Operant conditioning
    • This is also where we determine if environment plays a role in the shaping of personality (with APD, the forming of aggression)
  • Strengths/weaknesses of Behavioral/Social Learning Approach
    • Strengths : Amount of evidence that can be collected is abundant through observing people’s behaviors
    • Study of learned behaviors
    • Weaknesses : Hard to be creative with research/studying using this approach
    • Not everything can be observed or studied in this manner
    • Also difficult because conditioning was learned from studying animals and humans are more complex than animals
  • In regards to APD
    • This approach has its up and downs but would be a good tool for measuring how environment and learned behaviors affects aggression and other parts of APD especially since aggression is such a key point in diagnosing Antisocial Personality Disorder
  • Cognitive Approach
    • Reaction to stimuli from the environment, how we sort out the stimuli, and how we will react to that stimuli
    • Schemas to situations
    • Self schemas
    • The schemas for people with APD are negative
    • Their sorting and reaction to stimuli are going to be very different from normal functioning social people (lack of emotions or consequences to people APD)
  • Strength/weaknesses to Cognitive Approach:
    • Strengths : There has been an overabundance of testing to this approach leading to a lot of evidence
    • A modern approach
    • Weaknesses : There are so many questions that can be asked while testing that sometimes it is overwhelming
    • Not everything can be measured as well as other things
    • No major model to follow like the other approaches have
  • In regards to APD…
    • Since there are already so many questions that surround Antisocial Personality Disorder this approach lacks the methods and research needed to help these people
  • Conclusions
    • When it comes to Antisocial Personality Disorder, the different approaches all have something that could help diagnose or benefit some form of treatment for the disorder. In the overall picture of both diagnosing and treating APD, the Psychoanalytical Approach and Freud’s theories hold the most promise of figuring out what and when the disorder came about as well as what psychotherapy can do to help the individual
  • References:
    • Bartol, C.R., & Bartol, A. M. (2008). Criminal behavior: a psychological approach . (8 th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
    • Burger, J. M. (2009). Personality . (8th ed.). Wadswoth, Cengage Learning.
    • Decuyper, M., De Pauw, S., De Fruyt, F., De Bolle, M., & De Clerco, B.J. (2009). A Meta-analysis of psychopathy-, antisocial pd- and ffm associations. European Journal of Personality , 23 (7), 531-565, <www.ebscohost.com> doi: 10.1002/per.729
    • Ferguson, C. J. (2010). Genetic contributions to antisocial personality and behavior. Journal of Social Psychology , 150 (2), 160-180, <www.ebscohost.com>
    • Freedman, L., & Verdun-Jones, S. (2010). Blaming the parts instead of the person: understanding and applying neurobiological factors associated with psychopathy1. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice , 52 (1), 29-53, <www.ebscohost.com> doi: 10.3138/cjccj.52.1.29
    • Furr, M. R. (2009). Personality psychology as a truly behavioural science. European Journal of Personality , 23 (5), <www.ebscohost.com> doi: 10.1002/per.724
    • Hare, R., & Neumann, C.S. (2009). Psychopathy: assessment and forensic implications. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry , 54 (12), 791-802, <www.ebscohost.com>
    • Larochelle, S., Diquer, L., Lavierdiere, O., Gamache, D., & Greenmen, P.S. (2010). Psychological dimensions of antisocial personality disorder as predictors of psychotherapy noncompletion among sexual offenders. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic , 74 (1), <www.ebscohost.com>
    • O'Connor, K. (2009). Cognitive and meta-cognitive dimensions of psychoses. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry , 54 (3), 152-159, <www.ebscohost.com>
    • Parrish, M.S., Stanard, R.P., & Cobia, D.C. (2008). Using Existential--humanistic approaches in counseling adolescents with inappropriate sexual behaviors. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development , 47 (1), 26-41, <www.ebscohost.com>
    • Sadeh, N., Verona, E., Javdani, S., & Olson, L. (2009). Examining psychopathic tendencies in adolescence from the perspective of personality theory. Aggressive Behavior , 35 (5), 399-407, <www.ebscohost.com> doi: 10.1002/ab.20316
    • Zinbarg, R.E., Uliaszek, A.A., & Adler, J.M. (2008). The Role of personality in psychotherapy for anxiety and depression. Journal of Personality , 76 (6), 1649-1688, <www.ebscohost.com> doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2008.00534.x