Bamboo

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This assignment was to introduce the class to the bamboos of family poaceae. Three learning objectives were to be identified at the beginning of the presentation and elaborated on throughout the talk. Presented to Tropical Biology class in Spring 2008

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  • Bamboo

    1. 1. Bamboo Kelly Neale
    2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Structure, characteristics of Tropical Bamboo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Node, internode on cane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhizomes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reprodution: the concept of semelparity </li></ul><ul><li>Uses for bamboo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmentally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economically </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Classification <ul><li>Domain Eukarya cells with nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom Plantae plant </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Magnoliophyta flowering </li></ul><ul><li>Class Liliopsida monocot </li></ul><ul><li>Order Poales grasses </li></ul><ul><li>Family Poaceae </li></ul><ul><li>Subfamily Bambusoideae </li></ul>
    4. 4. Tropical Bamboo Characteristics <ul><li>Cosmopolitan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tropical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Well-drained soils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ranges from lowland regions to ~1600m </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Height ranges from 30cm (1ft) to 20m (65 ft) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diameter up to 20 cm (8in) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grows in clusters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thick root mats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rhizomes </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. New Shoots from Rhizomes <ul><li>Rhizomes on the roots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serve as food storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buds emerge from here to become new shoots </li></ul></ul>Sympodial Monopodial
    6. 6. <ul><li>Comparison: Temperate to Tropical Bamboo </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical Bamboo Clumps </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Mu Keng in the Bamboo Sea, Hunan China </li></ul>Photo: Jian Shuo Wang
    8. 8. Bamboo Anatomy <ul><li>Culm or cane (stem) </li></ul><ul><li>Intranode </li></ul><ul><li>Nodes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strength </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vascular bundles </li></ul><ul><li>Branches, leaves </li></ul>
    9. 9. Growth rates <ul><li>Reaches full height in one year, then begins new canes </li></ul><ul><li>Observed growth from 1ft per day (normal conditions) to nearly 4 ft per day (optimal conditions) </li></ul><ul><li>Rapidly renewable resource </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A 60 ft. tree cut for lumber can take up to 60 years to replace. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A 60ft bamboo cut down only takes up to 59 days to regrow. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Over a lifetime, up to 15km (9mi) may be produced by a single stem </li></ul>
    10. 10. Ornamental breeding <ul><li>Widely used as ornamental plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windbreak </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culm harvested as a material </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Variations have not been extensively bred </li></ul><ul><li>Natural variations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colors: black, gold, white, greens… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variegated patterns </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Synchronous Semelparity <ul><li>Bamboo flowers once every 60-120 years </li></ul><ul><li>Triggers? </li></ul><ul><li>All bamboo in the area of the same spp. flower together (synchronized, gregarious) </li></ul><ul><li>Sudden reproductive stage, then senescence (usually death) </li></ul>
    12. 12. Flowers <ul><li>Flowers grow alternately along the stem </li></ul><ul><li>Florets open or closed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open: female separate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed: female and male together against the stem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pseudospikelet (false spikelet) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Diseases and pests <ul><li>Insects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mites, beetles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not always kill bamboo, but may subtract from aesthetic / market value </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fungus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rots (brown, white, soft) like wood </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. An Agricultural Future? <ul><li>Edible shoots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exports of bamboo shoots from Taiwan amount to US $50 million. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves to wrap traditional pork dumplings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bamboo can be used for purposes similar to cotton, wood, reeds, and others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloth/fiber products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Furniture </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Environmental roles <ul><li>Erosion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bamboo, like all grasses weave roots together in dense mats. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides much litter for ground cover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Erosion is prevented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, some species are better specialized than others </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. A Source of Livelihood <ul><li>6 million people in China work in bamboo and 600 million people worldwide rely on income from it. </li></ul><ul><li>Musical instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Construction </li></ul><ul><li>Materials (Paper, fabrics…) </li></ul>
    17. 17. Construction with Bamboo
    18. 18. Bamboo and the Giant Panda <ul><li>Note that Pandas areTemperate spp, not Tropical </li></ul><ul><li>Repercussions of semelparity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food shortages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Populations below carrying capacity fall further </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Corridor for wild Giant Pandas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different spp. of bamboo may be available elsewhere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pandas’ mobility is limited in developed/deforested areas </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Lucky bamboo? <ul><li>Popular houseplant called “lucky bamboo” is not actually bamboo! </li></ul><ul><li>Dracaena senderiana “dragon’s blood” </li></ul><ul><li>Old world tropical plants </li></ul>
    20. 20. References <ul><li>http://www.americanbamboo.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=13746175 </li></ul><ul><li>http://liveandcreate.blogspot.com/2007/06/sea-of-bamboos.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://home.wangjianshuo.com/archives/20031007_returned_from_huizhou_huang_shan_trip.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.thepeaceofbamboo.com.au/photos.html </li></ul><ul><li>Carter, Jacoby, Azmy S. Ackleh, Billy P. Leonard, and Haibin Wang. &quot;Giant Panda (Ailuropoda Melanoleuca) Population Dynamics and Bamboo (Subfamily Bambusoideae) Life History: a Structured Population Approach to Examining Carrying Capacity When the Prey are Semelparous.&quot; Ecological Modelling 123 (1999): 207-223. Abstract. Science Direct (1999). </li></ul><ul><li>Liese, Walter. The Anatomy of Bamboo Culms . Inbar International. 18 Feb. 2008 <http://www.inbar.int/publication/txt/tr18/default2.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.inbar.int/publication/txt/tr18/default2.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Zuchowski, Willow. Tropical Plants of Costa Rica . Ithaca and London: Zona Tropical, Cornell UP, 2007. 147-149. </li></ul>

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