When teaching the game of golf and offering professional instruction any level of player is likely to need your instruction. That’s why I and Dr. Rex Chaney feel that having extensive knowledge of every aspect of the game is imperative to being a good golf instructor. Being able to teach a variety of age groups, swing types, and levels of players are all factors that play into golf instruction. Having the ability to effectively instruct a beginner and also a accomplished touring derive from having the cover to cover knowledge of the game, starting with terminology, rules, etiquette, and score keeping.
When it comes to teaching a complete new player to the game, I have researched the it is in the best interest of the player to become familiar with the terminology. However not directly taught by an instructors the terms should be learned so maximum comprehension between instructor and player can be achieved. The number system that orders the clubs goes from nine to one for irons and traditionally five to one on woods. The less the club is lofted the lower the number will be that is on that club. Woods work the same way however the “1wood” is now referred to as a driver. Now to be able to successfully navigate a course and keep proper score a new player must understand the par system. The par of the hole is the number of strokes that a player should have the ball in the cup by. Holes with a larger par are generally higher in difficulty and longer in distance. On a regulation sized golf course there are par three’s, par four’s, and par five’s. The parts of a hole consist of the tee box, fairway, rough, hazards, and the green.
The game of golf has countless rules that map out what to do in almost every possible situation. Touring pros are not even completely familiar with all the rules, therefore there is no sense in extensively study the USGA rule book. Hands on learning is considered to be the best way of learning the rules. General rules to get a player going start on the tee box. A player is allowed to touch the ball and place it on a elevated tee. “Honors” is a term used to give the lowest scoring player of the previous hole the privilege to hit first. Shots are always played one at a time and after all players have hit from the tee box players hit into the green in order of how far way they are. Touching the ball with anything beside the club is prohibitive between the tee and the green and will result in a two stoke penalty added to the players score. If a ball enters a hazard of any kind and the player finds it, they may play it with no penalty but cannot ground their club (touch the ground). Once a ball is on the green it can be marked and then picked up by the player, to be cleaned or re-aligned. Now during the time of playing a hole a ball goes out of bounds it is not allowed to be played even if it is played. A player must re-tee the ball, return to the spot the shot was hit, drop in a drop zone, or play a provisional ball. When a rule is obstructed in any case a player should call themselves out on it and take the penalty. Penalty shots are to be added onto the final score on that hole.
Even though if these unwritten rules of the game are broken a player is not penalized, they are still some of the most important rules to follow. Although it may seem pretty obvious to some, beginners must be aware and cautious to not take practice swings while in striking distance of others. The pace of play is a factor of the game that is extremely important and must be watched by players on all levels. A average course should be completed by a foursome in four hours to four hours and fifteen minutes but the pace of play tends to vary so keeping tight to the group in front of you is the key. The rules of golf state that the ball must be played as it lies so therefore it is proper etiquette to replace the divot (slice of grass removed after swing) so it gives every player a fair opportunity to have a clean hitting surface. Also the putting greens on golf courses are kept in very good condition so any damage created by a player’s ball or equipment should be repaired so others are not disadvantaged. Finally, clothes and behavior are expected to be professional as golf is considered a “gentlemen's game”. A players behavior should be under control, but his is not to say you can not have fun. It is proper to not talk during others shots and to be a overall good sport thought the round. A good understanding of golf etiquette is a key part to learning the game and also having fun with the game.
The setup is referring to the stance a player takes before swinging. The longer the club or the amount of power a player has determines the width between your two feet. A players feet should be slightly open to increase natural balance. A strong and athletic base consistent of bent knees and a ideal torso tilt of forty-five degrees from the waste. When establishing a setup a player should feel natural and not in strain at all. When setup, the back should be straight but still able to flex while a players arms dangle freely from the shoulders. A shoulder slant is somewhat of a unnatural position where the leading shoulder is more elevated due to the players grip. When establishing a good grip the assistance of pro may be necessary. Finally, when finding a good setup position the upper most part of the body including the head and eyes should be concentrated on. The head should be sturdy and in line with the spine angle to insure consistent contact. The proper head angle can be checked if a player has to look out of the bottom of his eyes to see the ball. If a player where to take his/her eyes off the ball or move their head during the course of the swing it would surly result in poor contact or a whiff.
Your hands are the only parts of your body that transfer power directly to the club, so a proper grip is critical to the setup. All grips, like all swings, are not the same however the three major grip types are what all touring professionals use. The ten finger grip is similar to a baseball grip and is the most natural to beginning golfers. Although very natural feeling the ten finger grip is the least effective out of the three because is disables wrist movement. The interlocking grip is commonly used by high handicap golfers but was made famous by the great Tiger Woods. This grip involves the interlocking of the left index finger with the right pinky finger. Last and the most commonly seen grip on tour is the overlapping grip. Robert Craw (teaching professional) said in an interview “I like to teach the overlap to golfers with serious intentions because the most success can be found with it.” This grip involves the left index finger and right pinky finger overlapping with the pinky on top. This is the most effective grip because the compact hand cluster offers maximum shot shaping ability. Which ever grip a golfer chooses needs to be taught correctly involving the following factors.
The four easy steps to correct or establish a good grip are somewhat simple but need to be taught correctly. 1)To get a good grip with the left hand, place the club in the right hand and hold it at a degree angle. Then take the grip with the left hand placing it at the base of the fingers (almost in the palm) and close your hand, and your thumb pointing down the shaft. 2) Teachers all around the world use the analogy of “shaking hands with the club”. Take the right hand, and with an open hand place the grip in it aligning it so the right index finger looks like a trigger finger on a gun. 3)To sure the integrity of your grip and to have the correct distance away from the ball stand in a regular setup position and hang the arms vertically down from your shoulder sockets with palms facing each other. Take the grip. 4)Finally, establish a good grip pressure. Too firm will restrict wrist movement and power, while too soft will result in uncontrollable shot patterns. One method to check proper grip pressure used by Jim Suttie is to have the instructor hold the club head while the play leans back. The grip should have some give or it is to strong, if it is too weak then the player grip will slip.
The full swing starts with taking the setup position along with a appropriate grip. When starting the backswing the player should start the club on line. This means that it should be on your swing plan, no too far inside which would produce a slice or not too far outside of the swing plan which would produce a hook. Low and slow is a expression used to get player to think to take the club back low created extended arms and maximum potential, and slow which promotes control. As the backswing progresses, a small wrist cock should establish itself and it will also open the face and allow more upper body motion. That wrist cock should be maintained till the top of the backswing where the left arm is straight and the players weight is on the back side. When maximum body turn is established it is time to start he down swing. This is the transition of backward motion to forward motion. The down swing should start with the hips turning back toward the target and followed immediately after by the upper torso and arms. The essential factor to a good downswing relies on the movement of weight and different body parts to be in sync and arrive at the ball at the same time. Progressively through the downswing the wrist cock should straighten out and arm should be fully extended at the time of impact. The follow through is the part of the swing that occurs after impact. Although impact has already been made, the follow through is a critical part of the swing. The club needs to stay on line with the target and the player needs to keep long extended arms as long as possible. All of the power that the back/down swing created needs to be released or if the swing was stopped immediately after impact the player maximum power would be greatly impacted. All the weight that was moving toward the ball need to flow through to the left side, thus why golfers finish on there toe.
Off the tee the rules give the player the advantage to tee up the ball which helps when hitting larger woods like drivers. The best way to hit a raised ball is with the same type of swing a player would usually use for a ball on the ground, but with an important difference. Instead of using hitting the ball at or just before the swing’s low point, a player must hit the ball just after the low point. This is key to produce a high ball flight with maximum distance. Ball position is a key factor when playing from the tee box, when hitting driver a players ball position should be off the left foot or just inside of it. Adjusting ball position can influence ball flight, forward would produce a higher flight, while moving the ball back can produce a lower ball trajectory. Weight transference is where almost all the power of the golf swing comes from. With a standard setup, a persons weight is primarily centered or slightly favoring the leading side. In a good golf swing this power producing move occurs during the back swing when the players core weight shifts toward the right or back side. When the downswing is initiated and the weight is transferred back, this weight must be synchronized with the swing speed so it reaches the ball at the same time. When this moving core weight is combined with good mechanics it can result in explosive power.
Swinging inside-out technically is the correct swing path that will have the club on the correct swing plane. However, most players over think the concept and take it too far inside from address. This results in the club being out of position on the downswing and in order to correct it players come over the top. Over the top is a term that refers to the movement a player makes at the top of the backswing that resembles a loop. The Inside-out swing can result in loss of power, noticeable loss of accuracy, and a slice. The average golfer battles with the inside-out swing. The outside-in swing is just the opposite, it starts by starting off on the outside of the ideal swing path and then comes through the ball at the wrong angle. This causes inconsistency, power loss, accuracy loss, and a hook (ball movement from left to right) When the club face is open it is angled away from the golfer at address. This has its advantages and disadvantages but not having control of the clubs face and leaving it open can result in a slice or push (ball flight to the right) When the club face is open it is angled toward the golfer at address. Again, the closed club face has its advantages and disadvantages but a golfer must first learn to hit the ball straight down the target line. The result of a uncontrolled closed club face is a hook or pull (ball flight to the left)
Once a consistent mechanically sound swing is formed, then it is time to improve on a players power. It is important to not try and build a powerful swing on a mechanically weak foundation, just like building a house. However, players that are ready to increase their power should follow the following key steps. The first factor to good power is a balanced setup and base. This means that the stance should be wider but still with good 60 40 balance ratio. For more power a more athletic knee bend and the majority of the weight on the balls of your feet. The muscle coil is a hard concept to perfect but when used correctly can result is massive power. The term muscle coil refers to the concept of not the actual muscles coiling but it means the muscles are alternately contracting and stretching in a way where potential energy is created. On the backswing the torso muscle should “coil” around the spine, the triceps coil in the arm, and the stored power in the legs should be able to be felt in the back of the legs. This stored power is released during the beginning of the downswing, this creating turning speed.
The average player carries a three iron to a nine iron, each one increasing three to four degrees from the previous one. Each iron carries about 10 to 13 yard longer then the previous iron however the players swing can be adjusted to make up for the gap I yardage. Ball position is a extremely important factor when playing irons and unlike the driver, there are multiple possible ball positions. The nine iron should be played in the center of the stance while the three iron progressively is played about five to six inches up toward the left foot. The key to hitting solid and consistent iron shots starts off with taking advantage of the irons natural swing low point.. The correct place to make contact with a iron is directly behind the ball with the club face de-lofted. This produces a trapped impact zone where the ball compresses and in result, very solid contact is made with the ball.
The term chipping and pitching are used when a player plays a shot from within fifty yards of the green. A full shot is not necessary, but a increase in touch is, and this is why there is a new set of rules to be followed when chipping and pitching the ball. The player can use multiple clubs to execute a shot and the basic rule on carry is changed to a wedge producing two-thirds carry, one third run. While a less lofted club such as a six irons would produce one third carry, two thirds run. Because there is such a variety of ways to play these shots, players need to get creative, however there are a basic set of rules to follow. Almost every club in the bag is eligible to be played on a chip or pitch but the players swing needs to adjust along with the club. When it comes to setting up for a stance, because it is a much shorter shot a strong base is less important. Players should narrow their stance to half or less of their full swing stance, and the front foot should be open (facing way from your body) to add loft to some shots. It is a whole new set of rules when talking about ball position, traditionally the ball is played off the center of the players stance but now with the smaller stance, it can be played anywhere from the back foot to the front foot depending on desired trajectory. In a full swing to produce more power and flexibility with the swing a player should cock the wrists on the backswing. However the secrete is held in the wrist for good chipping, this is not the case for the full shot. In order to slow the motion of chipping and as a end result produce a more consistent shot, the wrists should remain stiff throughout the swing.
Bunkers are the beginner’s or high handicapper’s nightmare, they are some of the shortest shots in the game but prove to be the most difficult. The key to playing well out of the bunker starts in a players base. A solid supportive base should be built by digging your feet into the ground in combination with a wide stance. Your stance should be open and pointing left of the target because your club face will also be open to produce a more lofted shot. Wedges are designed with “bounce” this part of the club is designed to smack the sand and not dig into it. Now when the bounce is paired with a open club face and a intentional outside-in swing it will encourage a large swing for such a short distance. A ¾ swing is appropriate but the player should not make direct contact with the ball, the impact zone should be 2 inches behind the ball. To finish this swing a large follow through in necessary to insure the ball to come out of the bunker and to come out with spin.
Now like the full swing, the putting stroke can be tailored to a individual thus not stroke or grip is right of wrong. After the ball is on the green, a player must observe and survey the line on which the ball has to enter the cup. This is called reading a green and it can be helpful if thought of like this, if the green was concrete and a bucket of water was spilt on it, where would the water go? Reading greens is in fact a skill and it is just judging the natural path a ball will travel when given speed by a player. A pre-shot routine has almost nothing to do with hitting the shot but is practiced by every single tour pro. It is more useful in developing confidence and relaxing the player then it is in actually hitting the put. Controlling the speed of the putt is the only absolute the golfer can control while putting. The perfect speed is considered to be if the ball was to miss it would travel a foot and a half past the cup. The most important concept about speed is getting it to the whole, slimily because it cannot go in if it does not get to the hole.
Golf is and always will be described as a huge mental game along with be physically demanding. Visualization is a key attribute that should be taught and encouraged to every student of the game (Jim Suittie). The concept of visualization is to “see the shot”, and this means to mentally play through each shot in your head before you hit it. On tee boxes, if you want to but a draw spin on the ball making it go left to right, visualize that swing motion and ball flight to put that mental image in your head. Visualization is said to be extremely effective on the putting green. Many teaching professionals preach to there student to see the ball go into the hole. This creates a mental image of the line the ball will have to travel to make it into the hole. Another reason visualization is incredibly effective is because it puts a positive mental image in your head. Positive thoughts are key when playing and practicing golf, this is true because with a negative image you will more likely follow through with that action. Teaching professional Dave Pelz encourages his students to talk to themselves before a shot so that they have good goals and mental images before they follow through with their swing action.
There are professionals who devote all of their time and effort to teaching and promoting strength training and stretching exercises, and this is for a good reason. If a routine is developed, there are many positive outcomes that can help golfers improve there health and golf skills. The number one reason for strength training is to add distance to golfers shot, which every golfer wants. Mayoclinic.com/health/golf-stretches/SM00089 says that golfers can add 10 to 15 yards to there shots just by regularly involving themselves in strength training and stretching exercises and without changing there swing motion at all. Other benefits that stretching promote are loosed muscles for easier motion during swinging. Stretching also promotes a fluid and full swing motion. Thus a golfer can improve his/her swing just by stretching and without messing with there mechanics. Last and most importantly, stretching is the best way to prevent injuries on the course.
The PGA tour holds 50 tournaments each calendar year and is truly a worldwide business. These tournaments feature the world’s best professional golfers on the best venues in the world. Each week there is a multi million dollar purse and the PGA tour and tournaments have created a worldwide industry. Charity golf tournaments are tournaments that are held to raise money for a specific cause and can generate a large amount of money. Popular types of charity tournaments include Pro-am’s and Celebrity-am’s. A Pro-am is a tournament where professional golfers are paired with amateurs and they usually compete together. A celebrity-am tournament is groups of celebrity golfers paired with regular amateurs.Private tournaments are where the “business of golf” really comes into play. They are great profit producers for private industries. Many different factors go into hosting and setting up a tournament but a successful outcome is always worth the effort. To come out with polished and successful tournament a large amount of staff and planning is necessary, which I will go into more detail with later. Also privately held golf tournaments serve as great promotional events.
Only professionals compete on the PGA tour circuit which means it is a very official and organized operation. Each tournament is well planned and organized using a huge amount of staff to pull it off. The Professional Golfers Association has tuned into as much of a business as it is a association. The association has a board of directors who oversee everything going on in each tournament each week. This board contains six directors and one chairman who direct and run each tournament. The people who are more hands on during the proceedings of the tournament are the featured course superintendent and his large staff along with a PGA rules official who regulates play. The superintendent was many responsibilities during the tournament and the weeks leading up to a tournament.
The host of the tournament serves as the face of tournament, or they can also be replaced by cause. The host gives a name to the tournament and is usually done for promotional purposes.The chairperson of any given tournament his most definitely the most busy person with the most responsibilities,. Their responsibilities include originally setting the goals for the tournament. Setting up the budget and also managing the budget/accounts throughout the tournament. The chairperson should get and also land sponsors for the event.The course superintendent will be in charge of management of all on site golf activities, Preparing the course and assembling and managing a staff is among his responsibilities.The planning director has a extremely important role in the outcome of the tournament. They should be in charge of all primary specifications along with the responsibility of originally performing on site inspection. Panning directors should hold or reserve the golf course site. Indentifying the attending celebrities along with developing a volunteer job list. After creating the volunteer job list they should finalize the volunteer committee to be sure of the staff and help they will have. The planning director is in charge of preparing and publishing the registration list. Lastly a planning director should finalize all course arrangements in the days following up to the event.
The marketing director for a tournament is mainly in charge of advertising for the tournament. The golf tournament website should be made and published under the supervision of the marketing director. Designing of a logo is a marketing director’s job. The marketing director should stay on top of press releases and overall advertising. Sending a conformation notice to all attendees.
Planning is a necessity and this should be taken seriously and given lots of time and effort. If planned properly then there will be less unexpected variables that will need to be dealt with throughout the proceedings of the tournament. Originally the main goals of the tournament should be set and planned out so you have guidelines to follow. The staff needs to be arranged and managed as far as jobs the need to be done and time spent. The attendees will need to be managed as they will essentially determine your whole tournament.
Professional Golf Management<br />Keith Clawson<br />Period 1<br />Oren<br />
Thesis<br />The exploration and research of teaching golf along with the other main factors of professional golf management will presented. <br />
Learning the Game<br />Golf Course Terminology <br />Familiarization of the golf language.<br />Rules to get you going<br />Obtaining the basic rules of the game.<br />Golf Etiquette<br />Following the “unwritten rules of the game” <br />Keeping Score<br />Keep up with your stroke count <br />Know how to add penalty strokes <br />
Terminology<br />Equipment<br />Clubs<br />Woods, Irons, Wedge, Putter <br />The number scale clubs are ordered in.<br /> Terrain Terminology <br />The par of the hole<br />The parts of a hole<br />
General Rules of the Game<br />Many extensive rules and regulations<br />The best way to learn is to play! <br />Teeing off and Fairway rules<br />Hazards<br />Putting Green Rules<br />Out of Bounds and Penalty Strokes <br />
Etiquette <br />The unwritten rules of the game<br />Practice Swings and Honors<br />Pace of play<br />It is important to keep a fast steady pace<br />Average round time (foursome) 4 hours to 4 hours 15 minutes (Brent Kelly, Golf Guide)<br />Repair of divots and damage on greens<br />Proper Clothes and Behavior <br />
Basic Swing Setup <br />The Setup<br />Positioning your body for the set up. <br />A natural athletic stance is key<br />The Grip<br />One of the most important aspects to be successful.<br />Eyes on the Prize<br />Eyes should always be on the ball<br />
The Grip<br />The only part of your body that is in contact with the club.<br />Types of Grips<br />Ten Finger Grip<br />Interlocking Grip<br />Overlapping Grip<br />“You cannot develop a good swing without a good grip” (Jim Suittie, 35)<br />Volunteer to establish a grip…<br />
How To Grip a Club<br />Four steps to a proper grip.<br />45 degree angle with right hand<br />“Shake hands with the club”<br />Stand with hanging arms<br />Establish a good grip pressure<br />
Basic Swing Motion<br />Start with your setup and correct grip<br />No two swings are the same, but basic mechanics should be applied<br />Back swing<br />Low and slow<br />Down swing<br />Should be a swift synchronized motion<br />Follow through <br />Follow through toward target and release the power<br />
Improving Accuracy<br />Common accuracy improvement areas<br />Swing Inside-out<br />Results in a slice<br />Swing Outside-in<br />Results in a hook<br />Open club face<br />Closed club face<br />
Swinging with Power<br />Built off of basic swing mechanics <br />Keys to power<br />Balance<br />Muscle Coil<br />Turning Speed <br />
Playing your irons<br />The difference it clubs<br />Each iron has a degree increase of 3-4 degrees<br />Ball position<br />One for a driver, many for irons <br />The trap concept<br />How to take advantage of the swing’s low point <br />
Chipping and Pitching<br />The short game is the scoring zone <br />Professionals focus a lot of time on bettering their “scoring”<br />New set of rules<br />Carry <br />Club usage <br />Stance <br />Ball position<br />The secrete to good pitches. <br />
Playing from bunkers<br />Short shot, but extremely difficult<br />Can not ground the club<br />The keys to playing good bunker shots<br />Solid base<br />Feet dug into the sand for support<br />Open face <br />Use of the bounce of the club<br />A intentional outside-in swing<br />
Putting<br />Majority of strokes are taken on the green<br />Many different putting styles <br />What a putting stroke should contain<br />A good read of the green <br /> A pre shot routine<br />Controlled speed <br />Controlled direction <br />
Mental Coaching <br />Large Mental Game<br />Its all in your head<br />Visualization<br />“See each shot”<br />Positive Thoughts<br />
Strength Training and Strething<br />Added Distance <br />Loosens Muscles<br />Stretching promotes a fluid and full swing <br />Prevents injuries <br />http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/golf-stretches/SM00089<br />
Professional Tournaments<br />Held on the PGA circuit<br />Qualified tour members compete only<br />The Professional Golfers Association <br />Board of Directors<br />On Site Directors <br />Course superintendent<br />PGA rules official representative <br />
Charity Tournaments<br />Held for a cause<br />non-profit event<br />Contributing Factors<br />Sponsors<br />Volunteers<br /> Lots of publicity and exposure<br />Large scale charity tournaments are hosted all around the world.<br />
Private Tournaments<br />Privately planned and operated<br /> High income event<br />Golf tournament generally produce high income<br />Popularity<br />Extremely popular events<br />Industries developed around privately hosted events <br />
Necessary Staff <br />Host<br />Face or cause of a tournament<br />Chairperson<br />Sets goals for the tournament<br />Budget<br />Course Superintendent<br />On site management <br />Planning Director <br />Organization and planning<br />
Planning <br />Planning is essential part of any tournament<br />Key to a smoothly ran tournament<br />Organization <br />Goals <br />Staff <br />Attendees <br />Budget <br />
Finance <br />Sponsors provide a large amount of finance<br />Necessary fund for exposure <br />Budget <br />Any tournament effort and bust without a budget<br /> Volunteers<br />Free help!!<br />
Sponsors <br />How to attract sponsors<br />Meetings and proposals <br />How to land sponsors<br />Solid plans <br />Proper execution<br />How to represent sponsors<br />On site representation<br />Proper name exposure <br />
Hospitality <br />Please the people<br />Pre Round Orientation<br />Represent the cause<br />Explain Format of play and rules<br />Give-a-ways<br />Awards Ceremony<br />Conclusion <br />Winner Recognition <br />
Marketing<br />Get the name and info out!<br />Make it available to possible attendees<br /> Advertising the tournament<br />Make it seem appealing and fun<br /> Demographic<br />Identify your target and advertise accordingly <br />