Personality  - Chapters 3 and 4
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Personality - Chapters 3 and 4






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    Personality  - Chapters 3 and 4 Personality - Chapters 3 and 4 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 3
      The Psychoanalytical Approach
    • Why is Freud Important?
      Profound influence on psychology and modern ideas about the mind
      Developed first comprehensive theory of personality – remains most comprehensive today!
      Developed first Psychotherapy – 75% (or more) of today’s practitioners rely on Freud’s ideas in some way
      Huge influence on Popular Culture
      Stressed the importance of the influence of the environment and early development
      Described the Defense Mechanisms
      Discovered Unconscious thought
    • basic ideas that govern Psychoanalytical Approach:
      1. Psychic Determinism – Everything happens for a reason
      2. Internal Structure of Personality (includes the topographic model and the structural model)
      3. Psychic Conflict – Describes how the structural model works (healthy personality and unhealthy personality)
      4. Mental Energy – Libido and Thanatos
      Doctrine of Opposites - everything contains it’s opposite
    • Psychic Determinism
      Everything in the mind, behavior, and the thought processes of an individual has a cause and this cause can be identified
      There are no accidents, miracles, or free will
      Usually the reason for thoughts feelings and behavior lies in the unconscious
    • Topographic Model
      Unconscious – you do not have access to unconscious thoughts, desires, impulses at all
      Preconscious – just at the tip of consciousness – sometimes have access, usually do not
      Conscious – you have access to all of this information, what you are aware of
      Modern research supports this theory
    • Structural Model
      Three parts of the mind:
      (It) (I) (Over-I)
      Irrational, Rational Moral
      * In parentheses are the literal German translation of what Freud called the three parts of the mind
    • Psychic Conflict
      The mind can be in conflict with itself, the id, ego, and superego are often in conflict with each other. For example; the Id wants you to go to the big party tonight, the superego does not want you to go to a party ever because it may be dangerous – the “healthy” ego may satisfy both urges by making the decision to go to some parties but not all parties.
      This is called: Compromise Formation – when the mind is in conflict with itself– a “compromise” is made, a healthy compromise is the example above. An unhealthy compromise according to Freud is revealed in symptoms of psychological disorders such as anxiety, depression, and obsessive compulsive behavior.
    • Mental Energy
      Psychological apparatus of the mind needs energy to make it go…
      This energy is called: Psychic energy or libido
      Conservation of energy – the mind needs to conserve energy for cognitive tasks and emotional drains. If the emotional drains become too much not enough energy is left for cognitive tasks (like homework)
    • Mental energy – libido and thanatos
      Begins with Motivation – what do people want?
      Two motives are fundamental:
      Toward Life Toward Death
      Libido Thanatos
      (AKA: Sex drive) (Instinctual desire for death)
      Sex = Life Duality of nature
    • Mental Energy (cont.)
      Can neither be created or destroyed – it merely exists in all human minds
      Modern Research supports:
      Psychic energy used for one purpose is not available for another purpose – using previous example…if too much energy is used in managing anxiety, you fail to have enough mental energy to complete cognitive and other life tasks.
      Modern Research disputes:
      “venting” out energy – in other words, expressing negative emotion (as in yelling at children or punching a pillow) actually makes you feel worse yet modern research supports positive release of energy, such as exercise and talking about problems
      Must “follow the energy” – to determine how to help people
    • Freud’s Doctrine of opposites
      Everything contains it’s opposite
      (Happiness – Sadness)
      Extremes seem to be more like one another than either is with the middle – those that have psychological “trouble” are often living in one extreme or the other – a healthy personality is somewhere in the middle of the continuum, we are both happy and sad but rarely in the extremes of either (unless it is appropriate such as when we are first in love or because of the death of a loved one).
    • Freud’s theory of Psychosexual human Development
      Each stage has three areas of focus:
      1. Physical Focus
      2. Psychological Focus
      3. Adult Character Type
      (Outlined in detail in the following slides)
    • Oral Stage (Birth – 18 months)
      Physical Focus:Mouth
      First place psychic energy is focused
      Psychological Focus:Dependency
      If needs are filled, psychic energy and attention move to next stage.
      Two things can go wrong: (Doctrine of Opposites)
      1. Needs might not be met
      2. Needs met to an extreme
      Adult Character Type: Oral Character
      (One extreme or the other)
      1. Fiercely independent
      2. Passive
    • Anal Stage (18 months – 3 years)
      Physical Focus: Anus(and related eliminative organs)
      Energy is focused on controlling bowels/emotions
      Psychological Focus: Self-Control/Obedience
      If needs are filled and receive the appropriate amount of support to learn self-control, psychic energy and attention move to next stage.
      Two things can go wrong:(Doctrine of Opposites)
      1. Too much control can be traumatic
      2. Never demand that child control urges
      Adult Character Type: Anal Character
      1. Too much control, OCD or subservient
      2. Little or no self-control – compulsive need to disobey authority
    • Phallic Stage (3 – 7 years)
      Physical Focus: Penis
      Gender is where psychic energy is focused
      Psychological Focus: Gender Identity
      If needs are filled, child establishes secure gender identity by identifying with same sex parent, psychic energy and attention move to next stage.
      Two things can go wrong: (Doctrine of Opposites)
      1. Identify too much with same sex parent
      2. Identify too little with same sex parent
      Adult Character Type: Confused Identity
      (One extreme or the other)
      1. Overly sexual (promiscuous)
      2. Asexual or prudish
    • Latency stage (7-11 years)
      Latent – means underneath, hidden, Freud would say sexual energy (libido) is put towards learning, there is no physical or psychological focus during this stage – most children are relatively free from worry during this stage because they do not have to deal with psychic conflict
      Get a break from Psychological development to focus on Cognitive development
    • Genital Stage (12 – Adulthood)
      Physical Focus: Genitals/Reproduction
      Psychic energy remains focused in this stage, strive to attain adulthood
      Psychological Focus: Creation and enhancement of life
      If needs are filled, psychic energy and attention focus on maturity
      Adult Character Type: Ability to
      love and work
      (these are the goals of adulthood; work - find meaningful work and love – find a partner)
    • Putting it all together:Freud’s Theory of Personality Development
      Id Ego Superego
      Physical Cognitive Ethical
      Follows pleasure Reality principle Personal Identity
      Principle and adherence to
      Begin with Primary Process Thinking:
      Immediate gratification of every desire – Unconscious mind – Id
      Move towards Secondary Process Thinking:
      “THINK” Conscious part of ego, rational, practical, prudent
    • Freud’s development of “Talk therapy”: Psychoanalysis
      First system of psychotherapy
      Goal: Free up psychic energy for help with daily living by removing neurotic energy drains (anxiety, depression…)
      Original process is lengthy and time consuming (three – four hours per week for many years)
      When client begins to “resist” therapeutic suggestions it means therapy is working because the therapist has found the uncomfortable and forbidden feelings!!!
    • Why you may need psychoanalysis: Anxiety
      There is a lot going on in your mind that you do not know about!
      Anxiety from Psychic conflict (Id/Ego/Superego): “I feel bad and I don’t know why”
      Realistic Anxiety:
      Too much or too little is the problem; balance is the key (Doctrine of opposites)
      See the anxiety in parapraxes, dreams
      Use defense mechanisms to achieve balance
      The daily use of defense mechanisms is not conscious! (They are deployed by the unconscious part of the ego)
    • Goal of Psychoanalytical Therapy
      Make the unconscious conscious!!
      Cause of problematic thoughts, feelings, and behavior is mysterious and hidden
      Best Therapy includes:
      Therapeutic Alliance (transference/not counter transference)
      Dream Analysis
      Free Association
    • Psychoanalysis: The “Talking Cure”
      Bring thoughts and fears to conscious mind
      Therapist provides emotional support
      According to Freud:
      “Psychoanalysis is the cure through love”
      “Journey begins with knowing oneself”
      Humanists share this viewpoint – as do most psychotherapists today
    • Projective Tests: Rorschach Ink blot test – what do you see?
    • Rorschach Ink blot test
      Client is shown a series of ink blots – psychoanalyst looks for patterns of healthy responses or unhealthy responses
      The test is “scored” using one of a few developed scoring booklets which detail possible interpretations based on the answers a person gives the therapist
      Widely used in forensic diagnosis today
      Not widely used as a therapeutic tool
    • Projective Tests: Thematic Apperception test – tell me a story about this picture
    • Thematic Apperception test (or tat)
      Client shown a series of ambiguous drawings and asked to tell the therapist a story about each one
      The unconscious is revealed in the content of the stories because the images are ambiguous – the person put their own life meaning into the stories
      Used primarily as an “ice breaker” currently, not a diagnostic tool in therapy
      Sometimes used in forensic diagnosis
    • Chapter 4
      The Freudian Approach
    • Dream Analysis/Interpretation
      “Royal Road to the Unconscious” – Freud
      2 Parts:
      1. Manifest Content
      What you remember about a dream
      2. Latent Content
      What is hidden in the dream, the unconscious intent, this is why you tell the psychoanalyst – so they can interpret the hidden meaning
      A dream must by analyzed in the context of the dreamer’s life!
      Important to remember that dreams are individual and there are not universal symbols, as Freud said, “Sometimes a cigar is just a cigar”!!
    • Dream Analysis/Interpretation
      Modern research supports the individuality of dreams and that the content of our dreams are not random
      REM sleep is filled with dreams and if you have the “right” amount of REM sleep you are more likely to be healthy – mentally and physically !!! (even if you don’t remember those dreams)
      Modern research does not support dreams as a way to deal with psychic conflict (as Freud defined it) because babies dream as well as animals
    • Defense Mechanisms
      Release of neurotic anxiety by revealing unacceptable unconscious thoughts in the form of:
      Repression – Push threatening material out of consciousness – most important defense mechanism
      Sublimation – Ego puts threatening unconscious impulses into socially acceptable behavior – you become more productive - only truly successful defense mechanism
      Displacement – Unconscious impulses are not aimed at real source but displaced to another – example: kick the dog when you are really mad at your spouse
    • Defense Mechanisms (cont.)
      Denial – Refuse to accept that certain facts exist despite evidence to the contrary – the more we use denial the more we lose touch with reality
      Reaction Formation – Hide a threatening unconscious impulse by acting in a manner opposite of our unconscious desire – example: homophobia – those that are hiding same sex attraction often are vehement opponents to gay rights while at the same time engaging in hidden, dangerous sexual liaisons – many examples in the media of such stories
      Intellectualization – Remove all emotional content in description of emotional events, only discuss intellectual elements
      Projection – Attribute unconscious impulses to someone else rather than to ourselves – example: “everyone is having affairs” –this is not true, demonstrates this person unconsciously may have hostility or lack of desire towards spouse or partner
    • Parapraxes (Slips) and Humor
      Leakage of the unconscious mind manifesting itself in a mistake, accident, omission or memory lapse
      Failure of ego:
      Leaving someone or something out (unconsciously)
      Slips: Examples below(Cut and paste in browser or just click):
      (Often sexual in nature as demonstrated in the two clips you just watched!)
    • Humor
      Can be a healthy release of tension and bring psychological health, or…
      Jokes that are sexual in nature or aggressive in nature are found funny because they release forbidden impulses – especially in children – think “potty humor”
      Some people that find these types of jokes particularly funny as adults may be more likely to imitate the aggressive humor in real life (such as name calling, fighting, sexism, racism…all isms)
    • Hypnosis
      Many agree with Freud that hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness
      Critics state that the person is overly compliant with suggestions, expects to be hypnotized, is motivated to comply, is really in a relaxed state, and feels happy to comply
      Hypnotic responsiveness is individual. Some people are “highly” hypnotizable, others are not. People who have high degrees of concentration may be more likely to be hypnotized (for example, people who do not hear their name called when they are reading)