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Lifespan psychology   module 6.3 and 7.3 Lifespan psychology module 6.3 and 7.3 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 6: Early Adulthood Module 6.3 Social and Personality Development in Early Adulthood
  • Developmental Tasks of Early Adulthood
  • Intimacy during Early Adulthood
    • Young adults’ happiness stems, in part, from their relationships, and many worry about whether or not they are developing serious relationships “on time.”
    • Even those who are not interested in forming a long-term relationship typically are focused, to some extent, on connecting with others.
  • Happiness in Early Adulthood
    • Happiest memories = psychological needs rather than material needs satisfied
    • Unhappiest memories = basic psychological needs left unfulfilled
    • Culture influences which psychological needs are most important in determining happiness
    • According to research on young adults, happiness usually is derived from feelings of independence, competence, self-esteem, or relating well to other people.
  • Social Clocks of Adulthood
    • Social Clock - psychological timepiece that records the major milestones in our lives.
    • Social clocks are culturally determined.
    • Research - Ravenna Helson:
      • Found broad patterns of women’s social clocks by studying them at the ages of 21, 27, and 43.
      • She found that women became more self-displayed and committed over the years.
      • They felt greater independence and confidence and could cope with stress more effectively.
      • Many women exhibit traditional feminine behavior from age 21 to 27, finding a spouse, becoming mothers.
      • As children grew up, women took on less traditional roles.
      • Women tend to change positively over time.
      • Helson concluded that the social clock one chooses is not as important as the process of choosing.
  • Erikson - Intimacy versus Isolation
      • Intimacy = Close, intimate relationship with others
      • Isolation = Feelings of loneliness and fearful of relationships
    • It spans post-adolescence into the early 30s.
    • Focus is on developing close, intimate relationship with others.
    • People who experience difficulties at this stage are often lonely and fearful of relationships, perhaps from a failure of the identity stage.
    • Erikson’s view of healthy intimacy was limited to adult heterosexuality and the goal was to produce children, a view not shared by all developmentalists today.
  • Friendship
    • Maintaining friendships is an important part of adult life, filling a basic need for belongingness.
      • How do people become our friends?
        • Proximity – live nearby, work with us.
        • Similarity – hold similar attitudes and values.
        • Most adults have same-race friends.
      • We also choose friends based on personal qualities.
        • Keep confidences
        • Loyal
        • Warm
        • Affectionate
        • Supportive
        • Good sense of humor
  • Falling in Love
    • The Progression of Development of Love
    • Most relationships develop in similar ways:
      • People meet, interact for long periods of time.
      • Seek out each other’s company.
      • Open up more.
      • Share physical intimacies.
      • Share positive and negative feelings.
      • Agree on roles in relationship.
      • Feel psychological well-being tied to success of relationship.
      • Their definition of themselves and their behavior changes.
      • They see themselves and act as a couple, rather than separate individuals.
  • Falling in Love
    • STIMULUS-VALUE-ROLE (SVR) THEORY (Murstein), says that relationships proceed in a fixed order of three stages:
      • Stimulus stage – relationships built on superficial, physical characteristics
      • Value stage – between second and seventh encounter, relationship characterized by increasing similarity of values and beliefs.
      • Role stage – relationship built on specific roles played by participants.
  • Passionate and Companionate Love
    • PASSIONATE (ROMANTIC LOVE) - state of powerful absorption in someone.
    • COMPANIONATE LOVE - strong affection we have for those with whom our lives are deeply involved.
  • LABELING THEORY OF PASSIONATE LOVE
    • (Hatfield and Berscheid) – Combination of intense physiological arousal and situational cues that indicate that “love” is the appropriate label for what they are experiencing.
      • The physiological arousal can be produced by sexual arousal, excitement, or even negative emotions such as jealousy.
      • The theory is particularly useful in explaining why people may feel deepened love even when they experience continual rejection or hurt from their assumed lover. It suggests that such negative emotions can produce strong physiological arousal.
  • Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love
    • Robert Sternberg says that love is made up of three components:
      • Intimacy
        • Feelings of closeness, affection, connection.
      • Passion
        • Motivational drives relating to sex, physical closeness, and romance.
      • Decision/Commitment
        • Thoughts of love and determination to maintain that love.
    • These components can be combined to form eight different types of love depending on which of three components is either present or missing from relationship.
  • Love and Finding a Mate
    • In the U.S., people emphasize love as a major factor.
    • In other cultures, love may be a secondary consideration (Pakistan, India), although still relatively high on the list of important characteristics according to research.
    • What else matters?
      • Emotional maturity, health, similar education, chastity are among the top 18 in a study by Buss, 1990.
      • U.S.—love and mutual attraction.
      • China---men: good health; women: emotional stability & maturity.
      • South Africa/Zulu—men: emotional stability, women: dependable character.
  • Choosing a Mate
    • Gender differences in preferred characteristics exist.
        • Men prefer physical attraction.
        • Women prefer ambition, industriousness.
      • Why?
      • Psychologist David Buss points out that human beings, as a species, seek out certain characteristics to maximize beneficial genes and reproductive success (evolutionary perspective).
      • Critics of evolutionary approach argue that similarities across cultures relating to gender preferences reflect gender stereotyping and have nothing to do with evolution.
      • They say it is a rational choice for women to prefer a high earning-potential spouse and that men can afford to be concerned only with looks.
  • Filtering Models of Mate Selection
    • Louis Janda and Karen Llenke-Hamel suggest that people seeking mates screen potential candidates:
      • First, we filter for broad determinants of attractiveness, and work our way to specifics:
        • Residential proximity
        • Similarity/complementary
        • Interpersonal attractiveness
      • The end result is choice based on compatibility between two individuals.
  • Janda and Llenke-Hamel Model
  • Principle of Homogamy
      • Homogamy is tendency to marry someone who is similar in age, race, education, religion, and other basic demographic characteristics.
      • Homogamy has traditionally been dominant standard for most marriages in US.
      • Importance of homogamy is declining, particularly among certain ethnic groups.
  • Attachment Styles and Romantic Relationships
    • Infant attachment style is reflected in adult romantic relationships (Shaver):
      • Secure
        • Happy and confident about future of their relationships (over 50%)
      • Avoidant
        • Less invested, higher break-up rates, often feel lonely (25%)
      • Anxious-ambivalent
        • Overly invested, repeated break-ups with same partner, low self-esteem (20%)
    • Attachment style related to nature of care adults give to their romantic partners when they need assistance.
    • Secure adults are more sensitive and supportive.
    • Anxious adults are more compulsive, intrusive.
    • People have relationship difficulties should look back to infant styles for insight into how to be more adaptive in adult relationships.
  • Gay and Lesbian Relationships
    • Research findings suggest that gay and lesbian relationships are quite similar to relationships between heterosexuals:
      • Gay men describe successful relationships in ways similar to heterosexual couple descriptions: needs of couple before individual needs; less conflict, more positive feelings toward partner
      • Lesbian women show high levels of attachment, caring, intimacy, affection, and respect for partner
    • Most seek loving, long-term, and meaningful relationships that differ little qualitatively from those desired by heterosexuals
  • Marriage and Cohabitation
    • Past three decades have seen both a decline in the number of married couples and a significant rise in couples living together without being married, a status known as cohabitation.
    • Married couples now make up a minority of households: as of 2005, 49.7 percent of all U.S. households contained a married couple.
  • Why do people choose cohabitation rather than marriage?
    • Not ready for lifelong commitment
    • “ Practice” for marriage
    • Reject institution of marriage
    • Those who feel that cohabiting increases their subsequent chances of a happy marriage are incorrect.
      • Chances of divorce are higher for those who have previously cohabited, according to data collected in US and Western Europe.
  • Why do people marry?
    • Many see marriage as appropriate culmination of loving relationship, while others feel it is “right” thing to do after reaching particular age in early adulthood.
    • Spouse can play economic, sexual role, and therapeutic and recreational role.
    • Only means of having children that is fully accepted by all segments of society.
    • Marriage offers legal benefits and protections, such as being eligible for medical insurance under a spouse’s policy and eligibility for survivor benefits like Social Security benefits.
  • Age of Marriage in U.S.
  • What makes marriage work?
    • Successful married partners:
      • Show affection
      • Communicate relatively little negativity
      • Perceive themselves as interdependent
      • Experience social homogamy, similarity in leisure activity. and role preferences
      • Hold similar interest
      • Agree on distribution of roles
  • Parenthood
    • Some children are unplanned, but couples cope, because they wanted children eventually; some unplanned children are unwanted.
    • Today most families have no more than 2 children, rate in US today is 2.1 children per woman (in 1957, it was 3.7 children per woman).
    • Women are having children later today, into their late 30s and older.
    • A middle-class family with two children will spend about $233,000 for each child before the child reaches the age of 18.
    • People have children for psychological reasons.
      • Pleasure of watching them grow.
      • Hope children will provide for them in old age or offer companionship.
      • Most married couples have at least one child .
  • What produced the decline in the US fertility rate?
    • Availability of more reliable birth control methods
    • Increasing numbers of working outside the home
    • Choosing to have children later
    • Cost of raising and educating children
    • Fear of not being good or accessible parent
  • Dual-Earner Couples
    • Working Parent Statistics and Distribution of Chores
  • Gay and Lesbian Parents
    • About 20% of gay men and lesbian women are parents
      • No difference in psychological adjustment from children raised in heterosexual homes
      • Specialization of roles develop
    • For children, no differences in terms of eventual adjustment from those raised in heterosexual households
  • Singlehood
    • About 20% of women and 30% of men in U.S. choose singlehood, living alone without partner for varying reasons:
      • View marriage as negative
      • View marriage as restrictive
      • Don’t find anyone they want to spend the rest of their lives with.
      • Value independence, autonomy, and freedom.
    • Society stigmatizes single individuals, particularly women.
  • Gender and Career Choices
    • Today women’s options for careers are unlimited. It has not always been that way.
    • Traditionally, women were considered most appropriate for COMMUNAL PROFESSIONS, associated with relationships (like teachers) and men were thought to be better at AGENTIC PROFESSIONS (getting things accomplished)
    • Today, women are less likely to be found in male-dominated professions like engineering and computer programming.
    • Women’s wages still lag behind those of men, even though opportunities are greater.
    • Women seem to hit the “glass ceiling,” an invisible barrier that prevents promotions beyond a certain level.
  • The Gender-Wage Gap
    • More women are working outside the home than ever before despite status and pay that are often lower than men’s.
    • Between 1950 and 2003, the percent of the female population (aged 16 and over) in the U.S. labor force increased from around 35 percent to over 60 percent, and women today make up around 55 percent of the labor force, a figure comparable to their presence in the general population.
    • Almost all women expect to earn living, and almost all do at some point in their lives. Furthermore, in about one-half of U.S. households, women earn about as much as their husbands.
    • Wages still lag behind those of men.
  • Why Do People Work?
    • Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
      • EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION drives people to obtain tangible rewards, such as money and prestige.
      • INTRINSIC MOTIVATION drives people to work for its own reward.
    • Sense of personal identity.
    • Central element in one’s social life.
    • Work is factor in determining STATUS, the evaluation by society of role person plays.
  • Satisfaction on the Job
    • Satisfaction related to job status
    • Worker satisfaction also associated with:
      • Nature of job
      • Amount of input one has into one’s duties
      • Influence employees have over others
  • Chapter 7: Middle Adulthood Module 7.3 Social and Personality Development in Middle Adulthood
  • Two Perspectives on Adult Personality Development
    • Normative-Crisis
    • The traditional approach to adult personality development is the NORMATIVE-CRISIS MODEL, which views personality development in terms of fairly universal stages, tied to a sequence of age-related crises .
    • Erikson, Gould, and Levinson’s models are stage models.
    • Critics argue that normative-crisis models are outdated.
    • They came from a time when gender roles were more rigid.
  • Two Perspectives on Adult Personality Development
    • Life Events
    • Revenna Helson
      • Suggest that timing of particular events in adult's life, rather than age per se, determine course of personality development
      • According to this model, a woman having her first baby at 21 would experience the same psychological forces as a woman having her first baby at 39.
  • Erikson – Generativity vs. Stagnation
    • Generativity
      • Guiding and encouraging future generations
      • Leaving a lasting contribution to the world through creative or artistic output
      • Looking beyond oneself to the continuation of one's life through others
    • Stagnation
      • Focusing on the triviality of their life
      • Feeling they have made only a limited contribution to the world, that their presence has counted for little
      • People consider their contributions to family, community, work, and society.
  •  
  • Psychiatrist Roger Gould
    • Adults pass through series of seven, age-related stages
    • People in late 30s and early 40s begin to feel sense of urgency in attaining life’s goals
    • Descriptions not research supported
  • Gould’s Approach
  • George Valliant
    • Keeping meaning versus rigidity
      • Occurs between the ages of 45 and 55
    • Adults seek to extract meaning from their lives by accepting strengths and weaknesses of others
      • Those who are rigid become increasingly isolated from others
  • Levinson - Seasons of Life Theory
    • * Interviewed males
    • Beginning stages have to do with leaving one’s family and entering the adult world.
    • Early 40s are a period of transition and crisis.
    • Around age 40 or 45, people move into a period that Levinson calls the midlife transition. The midlife transition is a time of questioning. People begin to focus on the finite nature of life, and they begin to question some of their everyday, fundamental assumptions.
    • This period of assessment may lead to a midlife crisis , a stage of uncertainty and indecision brought about by the realization that life is finite. Facing signs of physical aging, men may also discover that even the accomplishments of which they are proudest have brought them less satisfaction than they expected.
      • Despite widespread acceptance, evidence for midlife crisis does not exist
  •  
  • Non-Midlife Life Crisis
    • For majority of people, transition is smooth and rewarding
    • Many middle-aged people find their careers have blossomed
    • They feel younger than they actually are
    • We may just pay more attention to the few who exhibit a midlife crisis.
  • Happiness
    • Sense of subjective well-being or general happiness remains stable over life span
    • Although specific events may temporarily elevate or depress a person’s mood (for example, a surprisingly high job evaluation or being laid off from work), people eventually return to their general level of happiness.
    • Regardless of where they stand economically, residents of countries across the world have similar levels of happiness
  • Marriage in Middle Adulthood
    • Most frequent pattern of marital satisfaction is U-shaped
    • Marital satisfaction begins to decline after marriage and falls to its lowest point following the birth of children
    • Marital satisfaction begins to grow after children leave adolescence and reaches its highest point when kids leave home:
      • Many couples state that their spouse is their "best friend.“
      • They also view marriage as a long-term commitment.
      • They believe their spouse has grown more interesting over the years.
      • Most feel their sex lives (although frequency goes down) are satisfying.
  • Marriage in Middle Adulthood
  • Struggling Marriages
    • Why do marriages unravel?
    • People are more individual, spending less time together
    • Many feel concerned with their own personal happiness and leave an unhappy marriage
    • Divorce is more socially acceptable
    • Feelings of romantic, passionate love may subside over time
  • Divorce
    • Divorce can be especially hard for traditional women over 40 who stayed home with kids and never worked outside the home:
      • 90 percent of women under 25 remarry
      • While 75 percent of white women remarry, less than half of African American women remarry
      • Less than 33 percent of women over the age of 40 remarry
        • The marriage gradient pushes men to marry younger women.
        • Older women are victims of the harsh societal standards regarding physical attractiveness.
      • A major reason many remarry is that being divorced carries a stigma.
      • 75 percent to 80 percent of divorced people eventually remarry
  • Second Time Around
    • Older couples are more mature and realistic
    • Roles are more flexible
    • Couple looks at marriage less romantically and is more cautious
    • Divorce rate is higher for second marriages
    • More stress especially with blended families
    • Once divorce experienced it is easier to walk away a second time
  • Empty Nest Syndrome
    • When parents experience feelings of unhappiness, worry, loneliness, and depression resulting from their children's departure from home
    • More myth than reality
  • When children leave home…
    • Parents can work harder
    • More time alone
    • House stays cleaner
    • Phone doesn't ring as often
  • Boomerang Children
    • Young adults who come back to live in homes of their middle-aged parents
      • Men are more likely to do it than women
      • Parents tend to give sons more freedom than daughters
      • Unable to find a job
      • Difficulty making ends meet
  • Sandwich Generation
    • Fulfill needs of both their children and their aging parents
    • Couples are marrying and having children later
    • Parents are living longer:
      • This can be difficult because of role reversal.
      • The care of parents ranges from financial aid to having parents live in their home.
      • Most of the burden falls on the wife.
      • This can be a rewarding situation for both children and parents.
  • Becoming a Grandparent
    • Involved grandparents are actively engaged in grandparenting and have influence over their grandchildren's lives.
    • Companionate grandparents are more relaxed, and act as supporters and buddies to their grandchildren.
    • Remote grandparents are detached and distant, and show little interest in their grandchildren.
      • Grandmothers tend to be more involved than grandfathers.
      • African-American grandparents are more involved with their grandchildren than white grandparents.
  • Family Violence
    • Some form of violence happens in one-fourth of all marriages.
    • More than half of all women murdered are murdered by a partner.
    • Between 21 and 34 percent of women will be slapped, kicked, beaten, choked, or threatened or attacked with a weapon at least once by a partner.
    • Close to 15 percent of marriages in the U. S. are characterized by continuing, severe violence.
    • Violence occurs across social strata, ethnic groups, and religions.
    • Mostly it is men abusing women, but 8 percent of the cases involve the wife physically abusing the husband.
  • Factors in Family Violence
    • Low SES
    • Growing up in a violent home
    • Families with more children have more violence
    • Single parent families with lots of stress
  • Neil Jacobson and John Gottman
    • Husbands who abuse fall into two categories:
      • “ Pit bulls” confine violence to those they love and strike out against their wives when they feel jealous or when they fear being abandoned
      • “ Cobras” are likely to be aggressive to everyone, are more likely to use weapons, and are more calculating, showing little emotion or arousal
  • Lenore Walker
    • Marital abuse by a husband occurs in three stages:
      • Tension-building stage where a batterer becomes upset and shows dissatisfaction initially through verbal abuse
      • Acute battering incident when the physical abuse actually occurs
      • Loving contrition stage where the husband feels remorse and apologizes for his actions
  • Why Women Stay
    • Wife feels somewhat at fault
      • This explains why women stay in abusive relationships
    • Some stay out of fear
    41
  • Cycle of Violence Hypothesis
    • Abuse and neglect of children leads them to be predisposed to abusiveness as adults
    • About one-third of people who were abused or neglected as children abuse their own children
    • Two-thirds of abusers were not abused as children
  • Cultural Differences
    • Wife battering is particularly prevalent in cultures in which women are viewed as inferior to men.
      • Original English law allowed husbands to beat their wives.
      • Law was amended to permit beating only with a stick that was no thicker than his thumb (where the phrase "rule of thumb" comes from).
      • Wife beating was not removed from law until the late 1900s.
    • When women have low status they become easy targets; when they have high status they are threatening to their husbands.
      • Apparently, relatively low status makes women easy targets of violence. Conversely, unusually high status may make husbands feel threatened and consequently more likely to behave abusively.
  • Work and Leisure Time
    • Middle age may be the period when work and leisure activities are balanced most easily.
    • No longer feeling that they must prove themselves on the job, and increasingly valuing the contributions they are able to make to family, community, and—more broadly—society, middle-aged adults may find that work and leisure complement one another in ways that enhance overall happiness.
  • Jobs in Middle Adulthood
    • For many, middle age is the time of greatest productivity, success, and earning power.
    • The factors that make work satisfying undergo a transformation during middle age.
    • Middle-aged workers care more about the here-and-now qualities of work
    • The older workers are, the more overall job satisfaction they experience.
    • Job satisfaction is not universal in middle adulthood.
  • Burnout
    • When highly trained professionals experience dissatisfaction, disillusionment, frustration, and weariness from their jobs
    • Workers may feel indifference and lack of concern about how well they do their job.
    • Idealism with which a worker may have entered profession is replaced by pessimism and attitude that it is impossible to provide any kind of meaningful solution to problem.
  • Unemployment in Middle Adulthood
    • Causes economic and psychological consequences
      • Feeling anxious, depressed, and irritable
      • Self-confidence and concentration may plummet
      • Sometimes depression and/or suicide
      • Middle-aged adults tend to stay unemployed longer than do young workers.
  • Seeking Work After Job Loss in Middle Adulthood
    • Employers may discriminate because of age and not hire older applicants
    • Such discrimination is not only illegal, but is based on misguided assumptions:
      • Research shows that older workers have less absenteeism, hold their jobs longer, are more reliable, and more willing to learn new skills
  • Switching and Starting Careers
    • Some people change or seek jobs voluntarily in middle adulthood
      • Old job gave little satisfaction
      • Mastery of the old job's challenges achieved
      • No longer enjoy what they do
      • Need employment after raising children, divorce, or death of spouse
  • Leisure time
    • Most middle-aged adults have 70 hours a week for leisure time.
    • Average middle-aged person watches 15 hours of TV per week.
    • Adults spend about 6 hours a week socializing.
    • Some turn to charity, or community organizations.
    • Life is faster-paced in the U.S. than in many other countries, with the exception of Japan and Western European countries.