Lifespan psychology lecture   chapter 1, module 1.2
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Lifespan psychology lecture   chapter 1, module 1.2 Lifespan psychology lecture chapter 1, module 1.2 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 1: Introduction Module 1.2 The Start of Life
  • The Beginning of Life
      • Gametes (male and female reproductive cells) from male (sperm) and female (ovum) join, these fused gametes create a zygote
    • In humans, the male sex cell (sperm) and the female sex cell (the ovum) provide the developing baby with 23 chromosomes each.
    • Each Zygote carries 46 chromosomes, all of the genetic instructions to create a human being
  • Period of the Zygote
  • Multiple Births
    • Multiple births:
    • Monozygotic (one zygote) Identical Twins
    • Dizygotic (two zygotes) Fraternal Twins
    • What causes multiple births?
      • Fertility drugs, age of mother
      • Racial, ethnic, and national differences
  • The Code of Life
    • Genes-basic unit of genetic information
      • DNA
    • Chromosomes
      • Rod-shaped DNA portions in 23 pairs
      • Contain genetic blueprint for individuals
      • Replicate through mitosis
  • Mixing and Matching of Genes
    • Basics of genetics:
      • DOMINANT TRAITS – expressed traits
      • RECESSIVE TRAITS – not expressed, but still there
  • Genotype and Phenotype
    • A genotype is the underlying combination of genetic materials present in an organism, but invisible; a phenotype is the visible trait, the expression of the genotype.
    • Genotype can be:
      • Homozygous - allele contains similar genes from each parent
      • Heterozygous - allele contains different forms of genes from parents
  • Cracking the Genetic Code
    • The Human Genome
    • National Human Genome Research Institute
    • ( http://www.genome.gov/ )
    • The field of behavioral genetics , a combination of psychology and genetics, studies the effects of genetics on behavior.
  • When Development Deviates…
    • Causes:
      • Genetics
      • Spontaneous mutation
      • Environmental insult
  • When Development Deviates…
    • Consequences:
      • Down Syndrome - extra chromosome on 21 st pair; 1 in 500/higher in older mothers
      • Fragile X Syndrome -Fragile X syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental retardation in males and a significant cause in females. The inheritance is different from common dominant or recessive inheritance patterns. A fragile area on the X chromosome (called FMR1) has repeats in the genetic code. The more repeats, the more likely there is to be a problem. Boys and girls can both be affected, but because boys have only one X chromosome, a single fragile X is likely to affect them more severely.
      • Sickle-cell Anemia - Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disease in which the red blood cells, normally disc-shaped, become crescent shaped. As a result, they function abnormally and cause small blood clots . These clots give rise to recurrent painful episodes called "sickle cell pain crises." Sickle cell anemia is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait , which means it occurs in someone who has inherited hemoglobin S from both parents. Sickle cell disease is much more common in certain ethnic groups, affecting approximately one out of every 500 African Americans.
  • When Development Deviates…
      • Tay-Sachs Disease - Tay-Sachs disease is a familial disorder (it affects more than 1 member of a family) that results in early death. It is found predominantly in Ashkenazi Jewish families. An enzyme deficiency that interferes with metabolism of crucial nerve tissue chemicals. Tay-Sachs disease is inherited as a recessive gene, and 1 in 25 members of the Ashkenazi Jewish population carries the gene.
      • Klinefelter’s Syndrome - Klinefelter syndrome is a chromosome disorder in males. People with this condition are born with at least one extra X chromosome. Klinefelter syndrome is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities . About one in every 500 to 800 males is born with this disorder. Approximately 3% of the infertile male population have Klinefelter syndrome.
  • Prenatal Testing
    • Potential tests for deviation in development:
    • Amniocentesis
    • CVS
    • Embryoscopy
    • FBS
    • Sonoembryology
    • Sonogram
    • Ultrasound sonography
    • Important to remember : Majority of babies born healthy!!
  • Nature and Nurture
    • Virtually all traits, characteristics, and behaviors are joint result of the combination and interaction of nature and nurture.
    • Genetic and environmental factors work in tandem, affecting and being affected by the other, creating the unique individual that each of us is and will become
  • Nature (Genetics)
    • Genetic influences have been identified in physical characteristics, intelligence, personality traits and behaviors, and psychological disorders.
    • There is some speculation that entire cultures may be predisposed genetically toward certain types of philosophical viewpoints and attitudes.
  • Nurture (environment) includes…
    • Social/Culture
    • Geographical location
    • Family
    • Media
    • Peers
    • World events
    • And everything else!
  • Nature and Nurture - Physical Similarities
    • Family resemblances:
    • More genetically similarity  more likely to share physical characteristics
      • Monozygotic twins: best example of relationship between genetic similarity and shared physical characteristics
  • Nature and Nurture - Intelligence
    • Relative contributions of nature and nurture highly researched
    • Closer genetic link = greater correspondence of overall IQ scores
      • Intelligence (as measured) by IQ score) is central human characteristic that differentiates humans from other species
      • IQ scores of identical twins become increasingly similar over time
      • This does not discount importance of environmental influence on intelligence
  • Nature and Nurture - Personality
    • Research evidence indicates some of most basic personality traits have genetic roots
    • Two of “Big Five” personality traits linked to genetic factors:
      • Neuroticism
      • Extroversion
  • Nature and Nurture - Personality Research Suggests…
    • Examination reveals specific gene very influential in determining risk-taking (novelty-seeking gene affects production of dopamine)
    • Twins reared apart studies: certain traits reflected contribution of genetics considerably more than others
    • Some less basic personality trait links: political attitudes, religious interests and values, attitudes toward human sexuality
  • Fundamental Principle
    • Relative influence of nature and nurture:
      • Role of genetics is often to produce tendency toward future course of development
      • Role of environment affects when and whether a certain behavioral characteristic will actually be displayed
  • Theory about Nature/Nurture:
    • Sandra Scarr suggests three ways child’s genetic predisposition may influence his or her environment:
      • Active
      • Passive
      • Evocative
  • Let’s have a baby! Fertilization
    • Moment of conception:
      • Joining of sperm and ovum = zygote
      • Fertilization joins the sperm and ovum to start the journey of prenatal development.
  • Stages of Prenatal Development
    • The prenatal period consists of three stages: germinal, embryonic, and fetal.
      • Germinal
      • Embryonic
      • Fetal
  • Germinal Stage
    • Fertilization  two weeks:
      • Shortest stage
      • Fertilized egg now called blastocyst
      • Travels to and implants in uterus
      • Characterized by methodical cell division
      • With division comes cell specialization
  • Embryonic Stage
    • 2 weeks  8 weeks:
      • Organism firmly secures to uterus and called an embryo
      • Development of major organs and basic anatomy
    • Three distinct layers that ultimately form different set of structures:
      • Ectoderm - form skin, hair, teeth, sense organs, brain, spinal cord
      • Endoderm - inner layer forms digestive system, liver, pancreas, respiratory system
      • Mesoderm - sandwiched between other two and forms muscles, bones, blood, circulatory system
  • Embryonic Stage (cont.)
      • At end of embryonic stage:
        • One inch long, gills and tail-like structure; rudimentary eyes, lips, teeth, stubby bulges that become arms and legs; head grows rapidly and begins to represent significant portion of body (50% of total length); rapid growth of nerve cells (100,000 neurons produced EVERY MINUTE); nervous system begins to function at 3 weeks and at 5 weeks weak brain waves detected
  • Fetal Stage
    • 8 weeks  Birth:
      • Formally starts when differentiation of major organs has occurred
      • Organism now called fetus
      • Characterized by rapid development
        • Organs become more differentiated and begin working
        • Interconnections between body parents become more complex and integrated
        • Brain becomes more sophisticated
  • Fetal Stage (cont.)
    • Rapid development
      • Increases in length 20 times and proportions change dramatically
      • See Figure 2.13
      • At 4 months = 4 ounces; at 7 months = 3 pounds; at birth = 7 pounds
    • Brain waves indicate several different stages of sleep and wakefulness; hear and feel vibrations
    • Hormones released between 8 and 24 weeks that lead to gender differentiation
    • No two fetuses are alike; broad similarities in sequence of development
      • Differences due to genetics and the environment of womb
  • Pregnancy Problems
    • Infertility - 15% of couples; inability to conceive after 12 to 18 months
      • Maternal infertility influenced by age; hormone imbalance, damaged fallopian tubes or uterus, stress, abuse of alcohol or drugs
      • Paternal infertility influenced by illicit drugs, tobacco, STDs
        • Artificial insemination; IVF; GIFT; ZIFT; ethical issues
    • Miscarriage - spontaneous abortion; 15-20% pregnancies ends in miscarriages; many times genetic abnormality
    • Abortion - voluntary termination pregnancy; aftereffects; may contribute to increase in future pregnancies
  • Threats to Development
    • The prenatal environment significantly influences the development of the baby. The diet, age, prenatal support, and illnesses of mothers can affect their babies’ health and growth
    • Prenatal environment
      • Teratogen - environmental agent or other factor that produces a birth defect
      • Timing and quantity of exposure crucial; sensitivity to specific teratogen related to racial and cultural background; different organ systems vulnerable at different times during development (e.g., brain development)
  • Teratogen Sensitivity Timeline
  • Parent’s Prenatal Influence
    • Mothers’ use of drugs, alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine can adversely affect the health and development of the unborn child. The behavior of fathers and others can also affect the child.
  • Mother’s Prenatal Influence
      • Diet - Mother’s diet supports development of fetus; global concern; postnatal enrichment of prenatal undernourishment can sometimes overcome some of effects
      • Age - More older women giving birth due to societal transformations; mothers over 30 at greater risk for variety pregnancy and birth complications; condition of ovum; Down syndrome; adolescent mothers more likely to deliver premature babies
      • Prenatal support - Young mothers often face adverse social and economic factors which can affect infant health; social support and poverty contribute to lack of resources for prenatal support
  • Mother’s Prenatal Influence (cont.)
      • Health - Rubella prior to 11 th week of pregnancy; mumps increase miscarriage risk; syphilis directly transmitted to fetus; STD (gonorrhea) transmitted; AIDS (AZT during pregnancy reduces transmission to around 5%)
      • Drug use - Poses serious risk to unborn child (legal, illegal, OTC drugs), Thalidomide, DES: diethylstilbestrol to prevent miscarriage later raised daughter risk of vaginal/cervical cancer, Birth control: fetal damage, Illicit drugs: marijuana, cocaine (crack babies)
      • Alcohol use: even small amounts can disrupt development of fetus; FAS; FAE
      • Tobacco use - Reduces oxygen content and increases carbon monoxide in mother’s blood  fetus respiration slows and heart beat increases and increases miscarriage risk (100,000 miscarriages caused by smoking); low birth weight; shorter; 50% more likely to have mentally retarded or disruptive child
  • Father’s Prenatal Influence
    • Relatively little research
    • Tobacco use - secondhand smoke may influence mother’s health
    • Drug & Alcohol use - alcohol and drug use may impair sperm leading to chromosomal damage
    • Treatment of mother - physical and emotional abuse can cause maternal stress
  • Becoming an Informed Consumer Optimizing the Prenatal Environment
    • Avoid X-rays and birth control pills; get rubella vaccination
    • Eat well and take prenatal vitamins
    • Avoid alcohol use and other drugs
    • Monitor caffeine intake.
    • Avoid smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke
    • Exercise regularly