I SPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods
    and Tools towards a Single Information Space
          in Europe for the E...
UDK 62:001(082)
                                                                   In 660
Editors:
Dr. Karel Charvat
Wirel...
Preface



The book “INSPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards
a Single Information Space in Europe fo...
Content


INTRODUCTION
Karel Charvat, Maris Alberts                                         6


PLAN4ALL      - INTEROPERA...
EARTHLOOKCZ - GMES DATA PUBLICATION, COMBINATION AND
SHARING ON THE WEB
Petr Horak, Sarka Horakova, Karel Charvat, Martin ...
Introduction

                               Karel Charvat1, Maris Alberts2
              1
                 Wirelessinfo,...
Shared Environmental Information Systems – Peeling the Onion [3]


The final vision of SISE was defined by the workshop of...
Data Interoperability &Web Communities

    •     Web 2.0 Technologies
    •     Data Provision in the Semantic Web
    • ...
•   Making environmental information accessible to enable comparisons at
        the appropriate geographical scale
    • ...
Lehmann et al. (The Black Sea Catchment Observation System built on a Grid-
Enabled Spatial Data Infrastructure) show the ...
PLA 4ALL - Interoperability of Spatial Planning
Information in the Context of the Infrastructure for Spatial
   Informatio...
planning, especially when talking about digital data. We cannot make any high-
quality results without taking all the inpu...
At the European level, the term territorial cohesion is also becoming more widely
used. It is mentioned in the Lisbon Trea...
2.5 Interoperability and Harmonisation

Interoperability and harmonisation - two terms that are essential for the integrat...
environment. The most significant general rules are summarised in the following
INSPIRE principles:
    •   The infrastruc...
compliant systems. The development of the draft Implementing Rules continued
in this phase.
The Implementation Phase (2009...
in the EU Member States and the structure of qualitative reports are
          outlined.


4       I SPIRE & Spatial Plann...
5    Heterogeneity in Spatial Planning

The heterogeneity in spatial planning is well known. A planner from one region
has...
Fig. 1. Structogram of the levels and instruments of the spatial planning system in the CR
                               ...
Fig. 2. Structogram of the levels and instruments of the spatial planning system in France.



                           ...
Planning systems in each country and sometimes federal states in Europe have a
lot of common instruments and levels. The m...
8.    Deliverable D2.4 User Analysis Report. [Online].Available: http://www.plan4all.eu/wi
      ki/Deliverables:public
9....
GMES eeds Described Spatial Data

                                       Otakar Cerba

     University of West Bohemia in ...
information used and produced by GMES are related to specific locations we can
talk about spatial data. Defining the term ...
•    Data provided in various data formats
    •    Data acquired in various ways (satellite imagery, photogrammetry, publ...
3    Spatial data components and properties

What is it mean to describe spatial data sets? The description should be base...
Table 1: Spatial data description methods

Standard                                               Level of model

Controll...
•    On demand data – user will get only necessary data to make the all
         process more faster
Harmonisation of spat...
4.   Quality of technical support and development of new technologies
          supported standards.


References

1.  Ann...
GMES – The European ambition to bring Earth
             Observation capacities in daily use



                          ...
decisions makers on the other hand. Thus, in 1998 in Baveno (Italy)
representatives of numerous institutions in this field...
Fig. 1. Sentinel 1 (source ESA)

In-situ infrastructure
The in situ component is based on an observation infrastructure ow...
Fig. 2. GMES architecture (source EC)



4    GMES services

Bringing GMES into reality of daily life involves sets of ser...
project is now running to cover security GMES services. Core of activities is in
the provision of geo-spatial information ...
References

1.   COM (2004) 65, COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE
     EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL, Global ...
Spatial Observation Services and Infrastructure in the
                 Czech Republic – SOSI CZ


     Lukas Brodsky1, Mi...
streamline, and connect environmental information systems in Europe and world-
wide (see Ref. EEA, 2008). From the Europea...
processing services as well as access and distribution at multiple levels, languages
and content granularities.


SOSI is ...
Fig. 1. SOSI Servers in Member States and at European Agencies.

In addition, the SOSI system offers on-line access to the...
In the course of analysing the contributions from the mentioned Member States a
proposal to tackle also specific national ...
required. Also the performance and behaviour of the MEEO classification engine
shall be assessed.
All in all, it is hoped ...
The Black Sea Catchment Observation System built on a
       grid-enabled Spatial Data Infrastructure


 Anthony Lehmann1,...
1       Introduction

The enviroGRIDS project aims at building capacities in the Black Sea region on
new international sta...
2    Background

The core environmental problem of the Danube River Catchment can be described
as “ecologically unsustaina...
pathway and launched the UN Water Program [6] that aimed at bringing a greater
focus on water-related issues at all levels...
scale uses of SWAT in recent years for instance across the entire African
continent or in Iran. The University of Barcelon...
Soresma n.v.                                          SORESMA       Belgium
 St. Petersburg State University              ...
Commission and the International Commission for the Protection of the Danube
River, to improve their web portal for their ...
An example of the use of SWAT can be found in the “Lake Balaton Integrated
Vulnerability Assessment, Early Warning and Ada...
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment
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ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment

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Book describes how INSPIRE, GMES and GEOSS could be integrated into Single European Information Space. The paper deals with the main task of INSPIRE, GMES and GEOSS and also with tools which could integrate all the three initiatives. The document gives an overview of single contributions in the book and how Theky explain the roles of single initiatives and their integration into the vision. The paper also explains the role of Earthlook technologies in the concept of integration of INSPIRE, GEOSS and GMESS into SISE.

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ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment

  1. 1. I SPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment Dr. Karel Charvat • Dr. Maris Alberts • Sarka Horakova Editors Tehnoloģiju attīstības forums Wirelessinfo Riga 2009
  2. 2. UDK 62:001(082) In 660 Editors: Dr. Karel Charvat Wirelessinfo Cholinska 19, 784 01 Litovel, Czech Republic charvat@wirelessinfo.cz Dr. Maris Alberts Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Latvia 29 Rainis blvd., Riga LV - 1459, Latvia alberts@latnet.lv Sarka Horakova Wirelessinfo Cholinska 19, 784 01 Litovel, Czech Republic horakova@wirelessinfo.cz Reviewers: Prof. Juris Miklesons University of Latvia, Faculty of Computing 19 Rainis blvd., Riga, Latvia juris.mikelsons@lu.lv Dr. Zuzana Boukalova Regional Environmental Center Senovazna 2, 110 00 Prague, Czech Republic ZBoukalova@cz.rec.org Publishers: Tehnoloģiju attīstības forums Wirelessinfo Kr.Barona iela 32-7 Cholinska 19 Rīga, LV 1011 Litovel, 784 01 Latvia 2009 Czech Republic 2009 www.tdf.lv www.wirelessinfo.cz This book has been published within the EarthLookCZ project (OK488) supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports within the frame of OK – EUPRO Programme. All rights reserved. This work may not be translated or copied in whole or in part without the written permission of the publisher. ISB 978-9934-8105-1-0 2
  3. 3. Preface The book “INSPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment” was prepared by EarthLookCZ (project EUPRO OK488) in cooperation with Tehnoloģiju attīstības forums, Latvia. The contents of the book are based not only on the results of the EarthLookCZ project, but also on the results of the following ones: • Plan4all (eContentplus project) • Humboldt (6.FP project 030962) • SOSI CZ ( ESA project) • enviroGRIDS (7.FP project 226740) • GE ESI-DR (7.FP project 212073) • WI SOC (6.FP project 033914) 3
  4. 4. Content INTRODUCTION Karel Charvat, Maris Alberts 6 PLAN4ALL - INTEROPERABILITY OF SPATIAL PLANNING INFORMATION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE INFRASTRUCTURE FOR SPATIAL INFORMATION IN THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY – INSPIRE Tomas Mildorf 11 GMES NEEDS DESCRIBED SPATIAL DATA Otakar Cerba 23 GMES – THE EUROPEAN AMBITION TO BRING EARTH OBSERVATION CAPACITIES IN DAILY USE Ondrej Mirovsky 30 SPATIAL OBSERVATION SERVICES AND INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC – SOSI CZ Lukas Brodsky, Milan ovacek, Jan Kolomaznik, Vaclav Vobora, Lubos Kucera 36 THE BLACK SEA CATCHMENT OBSERVATION SYSTEM BUILT ON A GRID-ENABLED SPATIAL DATA INFRASTRUCTURE Anthony Lehmann, Gregory Giuliani, icolas Ray, Karin Allenbach, Karel Charvat, Dorian Gorgan, Mamuka Gvilava, Tamar Bakuradze, Seval Sozen, Cigdem Goksel and the enviroGRIDS consortium 42 EMERGING INFRASTRUCTURES FOR MANAGING EARTH SCIENCE DATA: EXPERIENCE AT ESA Roberto Cossu and Luigi Fusco 59 A NOVEL APPROACH TO ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING SYSTEM FOR LANDSLIDES AND FIRE DETECTION Paolo Capodieci and Fabio Mengoni 84 4
  5. 5. EARTHLOOKCZ - GMES DATA PUBLICATION, COMBINATION AND SHARING ON THE WEB Petr Horak, Sarka Horakova, Karel Charvat, Martin Vlk 102 USING GEOHOSTING PRINCIPLES FOR PUBLICATION OF USERS’ GMES DATA WITHIN THE EARTHLOOKCZ PROJECT Petr Horak, Sarka Horakova, Karel Charvat, Martin Vlk 110 GEOPORTAL FOR EVERYONE Premysl Vohnout, Jachym Cepicky, Stepan Kafka 133 SENSORS AND ANALYSIS IN WEB ENVIRONMENT Karel Charvat, Jan Jezek, Jachym Cepicky 140 MONITORING OF AIR POLLUTION DAMAGE TO FOREST Vladimir Henzlik, Josef Fryml 148 CONCLUSION Karel Charvat 167 5
  6. 6. Introduction Karel Charvat1, Maris Alberts2 1 Wirelessinfo, Cholinska 1048/19, 784 01 Litovel, Czech Republic, charvat@wirelessinfo.cz 2 Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Latvia; Raina bulvaris 29, Riga, LV-1459, Latvia, alberts@latnet.lv Abstract: The paper explains the purpose of the publication which is to describe how INSPIRE, GMES and GEOSS could be integrated into Single European Information Space. The paper deals with the main task of INSPIRE, GMES and GEOSS and also with tools which could integrate all the three initiatives. The document gives an overview of single contributions in the book and how they explain the roles of single initiatives and their integration into the vision. The paper also explains the role of Earthlook technologies in the concept of integration of INSPIRE, GEOSS and GMESS into SISE. Keywords: GMES, GEOSS, GMES, SEIS, SISE. 1 Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment In 2005 European Commission launched the i2010 strategy: A European Information Society for Growth and Employment. The Commission defines three pillars for i2010 [1]: • Single European Information Space • Innovation and Investment • Inclusive European Information Society The Objectives of Single European Information Space are to offer high-bandwidth communications, rich content and digital services with a market-oriented regulatory framework. The concept of Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment (SISE) was also for the first time formulated in 2005. The basic idea is that the environmental institutions, service providers and citizens can collaborate or use available information without technical restraints [2]. The following scheme defines the relation of SISE and other ongoing European initiatives. 6
  7. 7. Shared Environmental Information Systems – Peeling the Onion [3] The final vision of SISE was defined by the workshop of European experts in February 2008 [4]. The main objectives of SISE are as follows: SISE Context • Complexity Management • Environmental Legislation in Europe Application/Services • SISE Services • Process Chaining & Uncertainties • Real-time Mapping & Modelling • Thesauri • Open Standards & Open Source Software SISE Open Semantics & Standards • Standardisation & Framework Projects • Standardisation & Community Knowledge • Semantic Web Technologies for the SISE • Ontologies 7
  8. 8. Data Interoperability &Web Communities • Web 2.0 Technologies • Data Provision in the Semantic Web • SOA/Web Services & Model Driven Communities • Social SISE Data Visualisation & Modelling including Risk Assessment • Visualisation of Environmental Data • SOA & Semantic Web Services • Simulation & Modelling • Complex 3D/4D Models • Chained Web Services & Legacy Systems SISE Deployment Models • From Framework Projects to Market Deployment • Project’s Knowledge Loss • Regional Application of European Interoperability Standards • SISE & Business Models • Environmental Information Service Economy (EISE) 2 SEIS, I SPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Shared Environmental Information System (SEIS) will be based on a set of principles [5]: • Managing all environmental information as closely as possible to its source • Collecting environmental information once, and sharing it with others • Making environmental information available to public authorities • Making environmental information readily accessible to end-users to enable them to assess the state of the environment in a timely fashion 8
  9. 9. • Making environmental information accessible to enable comparisons at the appropriate geographical scale • Making environmental information fully available to general public INSPIRE is a Directive 2007/2/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 March 2007 establishing the Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community[6]. INSPIRE addresses mainly such policy and activities that may have direct or indirect impact on environment; there are also implications and overlaps with other activities, policies and initiatives with complementary objectives. The Directive applies to spatial data and services held by or on behalf of public authorities and used in the performance of their public tasks. The Directive does not require collecting of new spatial data; it foresees that data should be collected only once and then stored, made available and maintained at the most appropriate level; the infrastructure should ensure the possibility of combining data from different sources in a consistent way and sharing them among users and applications. The vision for Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is to “realize that the originators of future decisions and activities for the benefit of humankind are well informed thanks to coordinated, comprehensive and sustained Earth observations” [7]. GEOSS must provide access and improved interoperability both for the existing and future observation systems. GEOSS is based on voluntary contribution of governments and international organizations. GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) is the European Initiative for the establishment of European Capacity for Earth Observation. The main objective of GMES is to monitor and better understand our environment. GMES provides decision-makers who rely on strategic information with regard to environmental and security issues with an independent and permanent access to reliable data [8]. Roles of single contributions Tomas Mildorf in his contribution PLA 4ALL - Interoperability of Spatial Planning Information in the Context of the Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community – I SPIRE demonstrates the implementation of INSPIRE principles in the area of spatial planning. In the contribution by Ota Cerba GMES eeds Described Spatial Data the same case is used to demonstrate how principles of INSPIRE have to be implemented for GMES. Ondrej Mirovsky (GMES – The European Ambition to Bring Earth Observation Capacities into Daily Use) explains basic principles of GMES. The objective of Lukas Brodsky et al. (Spatial Observation Services and Infrastructure in the Czech Republic – SOSI CZ) demonstrates how GMES activity could be integrated into SEIS. Anthony 9
  10. 10. Lehmann et al. (The Black Sea Catchment Observation System built on a Grid- Enabled Spatial Data Infrastructure) show the advantage of using GRID technology in the frame of SDI and GEOSS. Roberto Cossu and Luigi Fusco (Emerging Infrastructures for Managing Earth Science Data: Experience at ESA) demonstrate on the base of ESA experience the advantage of GRID technologies for GMES. New sensor technology and new approach of sensor monitoring are presented by Paolo Capodieci and Fabio Mengoni (A ovel Approach to Environmental Monitoring System for Landslides and Fire detection). The next four chapters are dedicated to the Earthlook project. Petr Horak et al. (EarthLookCZ - GMES data publication, combination and sharing on the web) explain basic principles of integration of GMES and INSPIRE principles into the Earthlook project. In Petr Horak et al. (Using Geohosting Principles for Publication of Users’ GMES Data within the EarthLookCZ Project) the idea of Geohosting as the method of public particpation on SDI building is presented. Premysl Vohnout et al. (Geoportal for Everyone) then describes innovative solution of GeoPortal, which is a basic component for Earthlook data discovery and visualisation. The last presentation by Karel Charvat et al. (Sensors and analysis in Web Environment) describes Earthlook technologies for in situ monitoring and analysis. The last part of the book by Vladimir Henzlik and Josef Fryml (Monitoring of Air Pollution Damage to Forest} descibes one of the Czech information sources for GMES and GEOSS. References 1. COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS “i2010 – A European Information Society for growth and employment” {SEC(2005) 717} Brussels, 1.6.2005 COM(2005) 229 final 2. http://ict-ensure.tugraz.at/en/index.php/ensure/Content2/SISE 3. Thomas Pick, Reinhard Schmalz, Fred Kruse, Martin Klenke Information for the People: PortalU, an environmental information service for the communal level in Lower Saxony, http://www.epma.cz/Docs/EEEGD08/Pick.pdf 4. John J O’Flaherty WP Session on Objective ICT-2009.6.4: ICT for environmental services and climate change adaptation, Brussels 27 Nov 2008 5. J. Hřebíček and W. Pillmann Shared Environmental Information System and Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment: Antipodes or Associates? European conference of the Czech Presidency of the Council of the EU TOWARDS eENVIRONMENT, 6. ECP-2008-GEO-318007, Plan4all, INSPIRE Requirements Analysis 7. Eva Klien, Alessandro Annoni, Pier Giorgio Marchetti The GIGAS project – an action in support to GEOSS, INSPIRE, and GMES, European conference of the Czech Presidency of the Council of the EU TOWARDS eENVIRONMENT, 8. http://www.gmes.info/ 10
  11. 11. PLA 4ALL - Interoperability of Spatial Planning Information in the Context of the Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community – I SPIRE Tomas Mildorf University of West Bohemia in Pilsen, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Department of mathematics, Section of Geomatics, Univerzitni 22, Pilsen, 306 14, Czech Republic mildorf@centrum.cz Abstract. Spatial planning has a crucial role in the context of social, political, economic and environmental issues. There is a big diversity in data collection, storing, processing and provision. The legal situation incorporates similar problems. The heterogeneity in spatial planning limits its use in decision-making in transboundary context, including impact assessment and evaluation of plans. Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE) can significantly contribute to support spatial planning processes by increasing transparency and developing shared methodologies. Keywords: Spatial planning, Harmonisation, Interoperability, INSPIRE, Infrastructure for spatial information 1 Introduction Human activity is a term that is very often declined in conjunction with social, political, economic and environmental issues. Spatial planning is one of the most important areas that strongly influence these issues on all levels. Sustainable planning addresses the environment where people live and work, the location of social and economic activities, the way in which the resources we possess are exploited, etc. Spatial planning acts in bottom-up and top-down directions between all levels of government. National, regional and local authorities face important challenges in the development of territorial frameworks and concepts every day. The situation is complicated by the diversity and overall complexity of spatial planning. Spatial planning is a holistic activity. All the tasks and processes must be solved comprehensively with input from many various sources. Several authorities are in charge of single spatially relevant topics (e.g. water management, transport, cadastre, geology, etc.). There is a big diversity in data collection, storing, processing and provision. To combine these sources, to perform an analysis and to ensure valuable results are big challenges in spatial 11
  12. 12. planning, especially when talking about digital data. We cannot make any high- quality results without taking all the inputs into account. It is necessary to make the inputs interoperable and therefore comparable. This will allow the user to search the data and services, view them, download them and use them with help of IT technologies. The definitions of spatial planning and related terms are described in section 2. Section 3 focuses on the building of the infrastructure for spatial information in Europe (INSPIRE) [4] and its requirements. Section 4 combines spatial planning and the INSPIRE initiative with a focus on the similarities between them. Heterogeneity in spatial planning is addressed in section 5. This chapter is concluded by challenges for spatial planning in section 6. The main sources of information are the European eContentplus project Plan4all [3] and the INSPIRE initiative [4]. 2 Spatial Planning Terms and their definitions play a crucial role in all activities where cooperation between several sectors is essential. Spatial planning is an example of such cooperation. Terms like spatial planning, land use planning, regional planning and urban planning are often used interchangeably depending on the country. Moreover they do not always have the same meaning between users. Their definitions might be disjointed even within one country. In Europe the preferred term covering all the above mentioned terms is increasingly spatial planning or territorial cohesion. Several concepts are therefore defined in this section. 2.1 Spatial Planning – Territorial Cohesion Spatial planning refers to the methods used by the public sector to influence the distribution of people and activities in spaces of various scales. There are several definitions of spatial planning. One of them is mentioned in the European Regional/Spatial Planning Charter (1983) that was adopted by the European Conference of Ministers responsible for Regional Planning (CEMAT). This definition is wide enough to cover the complexity of spatial planning. Regional/spatial planning gives geographical expression to the economic, social, cultural and ecological policies of society. It is at the same time a scientific discipline, an administrative technique and a policy developed as an interdisciplinary and comprehensive approach directed towards a balanced regional development and the physical organisation of space according to an overall strategy. 12
  13. 13. At the European level, the term territorial cohesion is also becoming more widely used. It is mentioned in the Lisbon Treaty, in the Green Paper on Territorial Cohesion [11], where the following sentence describing this term is stated, and other documents and initiatives. Territorial cohesion is about ensuring the harmonious development of all diverse territories and about making sure that their citizens are able to make the most of inherent features of these territories. As such, it is a means of transforming diversity into an asset that contributes to sustainable development of the entire EU. [11] 2.2 Regional Planning Regional planning is a branch of land use planning dealing with the organisation of infrastructure, settlement growth and non-built areas at the scale of a region. Regional planning generally contributes to regional development, but may also fulfil additional objectives, such as sustainability in the environmental sense. Regional planning is generally understood as the spatial planning activities at regional scale. [12] 2.3 Urban, City and Town Planning Urban, city or town planning is the planning discipline dealing with the physical, social, economic and environmental development of metropolitan regions, municipalities and neighbourhoods. The expression of urban planning consists in elaborating land-use and building plans as well as local building and environmental regulations. ote: Historically (nineteenth century) urban planning was influenced by the newly formalised disciplines of architecture and civil engineering which began to codify both rational and stylistic approaches to solving city problems through physical design. During the twentieth century, the domain of urban planning was expanded to include economic development planning, community social planning and environmental planning. [12] 2.4. Land Use Planning Land use planning is a branch of public policy which encompasses various disciplines seeking to order and regulate the use of land in an efficient way. It means the scientific, aesthetic and orderly disposition of land, resources, facilities and services with a view to securing the physical, economic, social and environmental efficiency, health and well-being of urban and rural communities. [12] 13
  14. 14. 2.5 Interoperability and Harmonisation Interoperability and harmonisation - two terms that are essential for the integration of spatial planning information. Interoperability means the possibility for spatial data sets to be combined, and for services to interact, without repetitive manual intervention, in such a way that the result is coherent and the added value of the data sets and services is enhanced. [4] Data harmonisation - providing access to spatial data through network services in a representation that allows for combining it with other harmonised data in a coherent way by using a common set of data product specifications. [9] In other words, interoperability means that each country maintains their own infrastructure but adopts a framework that enables existing datasets to be linked up from one country to another. Interoperability may be achieved by either changing (harmonising) and storing existing data sets or transforming them via services for publication in the INSPIRE infrastructure. Harmonisation means that all countries use a common set of coordinate reference systems, data models, classification systems, etc. Harmonised data help to get better consistency and comparability of data across information systems. Consistency can be achieved through the deletion of redundant or conflicting data. The harmonization process makes information available for the integration of data systems and improves meaning and format across different systems. This result can be obtained by means of a data mapping process that compares the meanings and formats of involved data elements belonging to a specific area (for example GIS information). The harmonisation process therefore applies transformation rules and definitions to the existing heterogeneous data elements in order to have a common representation of the same elements with an improved quality and consistency [10]. 3 I SPIRE This section describes what is the INSPIRE and what are its principles and requirements. The main source of information are INSPIRE documents [13]. Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (hereinafter referred to as INSPIRE) was established by the Directive 2007/2/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14th March 2007 (hereinafter referred to as INSPIRE Directive) [4]. INSPIRE lays down general rules to establish an infrastructure for spatial information in Europe for the purposes of Community environmental policies, and policies or activities which may have an impact on the 14
  15. 15. environment. The most significant general rules are summarised in the following INSPIRE principles: • The infrastructures for spatial information in the Member States should be designed to ensure that spatial data are stored, made available and maintained at the most appropriate level; • It is possible to combine spatial data from different sources across the Community in a consistent way and share them between several users and applications; • It is possible for spatial data collected at one level of public authority to be shared between all the different levels of public authorities; • Spatial data are made available under conditions that do not restrict their extensive use; • It is easy to discover available spatial data, to evaluate their fitness for purpose and to know the conditions applicable to their use. Infrastructure for spatial information means metadata, spatial data sets and spatial data services; network services and technologies; agreements on sharing, access and use; and coordination and monitoring mechanisms, processes and procedures, established, operated or made available in accordance with the I SPIRE Directive. [4] INSPIRE should be based on the infrastructures for spatial information that are created by the Member States. To ensure that the infrastructures are compatible and usable in a Community and transboundary context, the INSPIRE Directive requires that common Implementing Rules are adopted in a number of specific areas. INSPIRE addresses mainly policy and activities that may have a direct or indirect impact on the environment. The INSPIRE Directive applies to spatial data sets and services held by or on behalf of public authorities and used in the performance of their public tasks. Data must be in electronic format and must relate to one or more of the themes listed in Annexes I, II or III of the INSPIRE Directive. The development and implementation of INSPIRE follows a programme of work consisting of three phases. These are the Preparatory (2005-2006), the Transposition (2007-2009) and the Implementation (2009-2019) phases. The Preparatory Phase (2005-2006) started with the Commission’s proposal for INSPIRE and was successfully finished with its entry into force. The Implementing Rules begun to be drafted with involvement of key stakeholders. During the Transposition Phase (2007-2009) Member States focused on transposing the INSPIRE Directive's requirements into their own legislative systems. Member States are therefore engaged in implementing the technologies, policies and institutional arrangements that will form the basis for their INSPIRE 15
  16. 16. compliant systems. The development of the draft Implementing Rules continued in this phase. The Implementation Phase (2009-2019) should cover the implementation of the Implementing Rules by Member States and monitoring of the implementation through reporting according to the road map of the INSPIRE. The Implementing Rules are for the following INSPIRE elements: • Metadata – INSPIRE metadata profiles for spatial datasets, spatial datasets series and for services are outlined through set of metadata elements. It includes the minimum set of metadata elements necessary to comply with the INSPIRE Directive. It should ensure that all geospatial information resources and data produced and made available by Member States and their constituent organisations are catalogued in a standard way to support a consistent means of discovery, understanding and access across the Community. • Data Specifications – Data Specifications pertain to the content of a basic set of data themes that each Member State is required to maintain and also the technological standards for communication of those data themes for use. The set of spatial data themes is listed in Annexes I, II and III to the INSPIRE Directive. These rules will enable full data use and interoperability across the INSPIRE network. • etwork Services – Member States are required to establish and operate a network of services for the spatial data sets and services. In order to ensure the compatibility and usability of such services on the Community level, it is necessary to lay down the technical specifications and minimum performance criteria for those services with regard to the themes listed in Annexes I, II and III to the INSPIRE Directive. In order to ensure that public authorities and the third parties are given the technical possibility to link their spatial data sets and services to the Network Services, it is necessary to lay down the appropriate requirements for those services (including services that enable discovery, viewing, downloading and data transformation). • Data and Service Sharing - The INSPIRE Directive requires the development of implementing rules to regulate the provision of access to spatial data sets and services from Member States to the institutions and bodies of the Community. • Monitoring and Reporting - In order to have a solid basis for decision making related to the implementation of the INSPIRE Directive and to the future evolution of INSPIRE, continuous monitoring of the implementation of the Directive and regular reporting are taking place. Quantitative indicators for assessing the progress of SDI implementation 16
  17. 17. in the EU Member States and the structure of qualitative reports are outlined. 4 I SPIRE & Spatial Planning INSPIRE is fundamental to support the Community policies, including environmental policy, and to fulfil environmental protection requirements. It is necessary to establish coordination in order to combine high quality information and knowledge from different sectors on different levels (administrative, cultural, etc.) and to underpin policy-making in an integrated way. This is important to help in understanding the complexity and interactions between human activities and environmental impacts. Spatial planning as a holistic activity of public administration, matches the Communities policies that are the core of the INSPIRE initiative. Spatial planning is not directly addressed by INSPIRE, but indirectly, in a complex way through its technical documents. There are many similarities between the character of spatial planning and the INSPIRE initiative: • The innovative aspects of INSPIRE include the cooperation of different actors within the involvement of both public and private sector. The spatial planning continuously sees the involvement of different stakeholders (public, private, citizens, associations, etc.). • The INSPIRE Directive does not require collection of new spatial data. Spatial planning generally utilises data already produced and is not in charge of producing new reference data. • The main objective of INSPIRE is to establish a European Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI). Existing Spatial Data Infrastructures are valuable means to support spatial planning processes, especially in transboundary contexts, to enhance exchange of strategic data, to improve the use of impact assessment and evaluation of plans and provisions in spatial planning, with transparency and shared methodology. • The devolution applied by each Member State to the sub-national planning creates different situations in each country. Measures provided by INSPIRE aim to overcome the differences that may limit the coherence of Spatial Data Infrastructures. • Almost all the spatial data themes listed in the INSPIRE Annexes, for their general character, are valuable for spatial planning. 17
  18. 18. 5 Heterogeneity in Spatial Planning The heterogeneity in spatial planning is well known. A planner from one region has difficulties to combine data from neighbouring region and vice versa. Current spatial planning laws are disjointed and even experts from one country might have difficulties to understand the planning regulations of a neighbouring country. For investors and decision makers it is almost impossible to compare planning regulations across Europe. The preliminary results from the Plan4all project show the heterogeneity in Europe in terms of spatial planning systems, spatial data infrastructures, terminology, processes in spatial planning, data formats, quality and quantity of content, standards, data models, data availability, user requirements and other aspects [5,6,7,8]. An example is shown by the heterogeneity of levels and instruments of the spatial planning system in the Czech Republic – CR (Fig. 1) and France (Fig. 2). The figures describe the different functional levels in comparison with the administrative levels. The differences in spatial planning between various administrative units and between different levels of government will remain. Therefore it is not feasible to eliminate the heterogeneity by the harmonisation on local level over entire Europe. Harmonisation on the European level is one of the approaches to make spatial planning interoperable across Europe. 6 Challenges for Spatial Planning A sustainable resource management (with direct and indirect impact on the environment) improves coordination of spatial development and urban planning as well as investments. An integrated strategy of the European Community policy- making can only be achieved by the establishment of an infrastructure for spatial information (INSPIRE Directive). By using this instrument, and through land use management with Spatial Data Information, municipalities, regions and nations can benefit from the ongoing regional competition to overcome their lack of attractiveness and gain competitive territories. Therefore, the INSPIRE Directive and the use of Spatial Data Infrastructure relates directly to spatial planning and helps for better decisions in policy making. 18
  19. 19. Fig. 1. Structogram of the levels and instruments of the spatial planning system in the CR 19
  20. 20. Fig. 2. Structogram of the levels and instruments of the spatial planning system in France. 20
  21. 21. Planning systems in each country and sometimes federal states in Europe have a lot of common instruments and levels. The most common instrument in the European planning systems is the land use local plan (with sometimes different denominations), followed by the regional plan (focussing on regional development and regional structure). At least one local plan (land use, zoning plan) is legally binding, while plans from the upper levels can be legally binding or not. The scale can differ, especially as in different countries there are one, two or even three plans on municipal level. Also on regional level, plans are established on different scales, different administrative levels, and have also often different representations. For instance, plans in France are highly schematic and in Germany are very precise. Sometimes they are legally binding, sometimes not. Content is also different, depending of the country, like sectoral plans. Even in one state there may exist regions with plans and others without. Also the time of updating is an important fact which varies. On the national level, plans are established in different manner, depending on the political administration. [5] There are many challenges for spatial planning in Europe - from heterogeneity of data to differences of planning legislations in the European countries. Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE) can significantly contribute to support spatial planning processes, especially in transboundary contexts. It should help to enhance exchange of strategic data, to improve the use of impact assessment and evaluation of plans and provisions in spatial planning with transparency and shared methodology. References 1. Cerba, O., Charvat, K., Kafka, S., Mildorf, T. Spatial Planning – Example of European Integration of Public Data. In 7th Eastern European e-Gov Days: eGovernment & eBusiness Ecosystem & eJustice, 23-24. 4. 2009, Prague (Czech Republic). 2. Cerba, O., Charvat, K., Kafka, S., Mildorf, T. International Cooperation on Spatial Planning. In IST-Africa 2009, 6.-8. 5. 2009, Kampala (Uganda). 3. Plan4all – European Network of Best Practices for Interoperability of Spatial Planning Information, description of the work. [Online].Available: http://www.plan4all.eu/wk/i mages/e/e6/Plan4all_project_description.pdf 4. Directive 2007/2/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 March 2007 establishing an Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE). [Online]. Available: http://eurlex.europa.eu/JOHtml.do?uri=OJ:L:2007:108:SOM:EN: HTML. 5. Deliverable D2.1 Cluster of Leading Organisations in SDI for Spatial Planning. [Onlin e].Available: http://www.plan4all.eu/wiki/Deliverables:public 6. Deliverable D2.2 Analysis of Innovative Challenges. [Online].Available: http://www.p lan4all.eu/wiki/Deliverables:public 7. Deliverable D2.3 INSPIRE Requirements Analysis. [Online].Available: http://www.pl an4all.eu/wiki/Deliverables:public 21
  22. 22. 8. Deliverable D2.4 User Analysis Report. [Online].Available: http://www.plan4all.eu/wi ki/Deliverables:public 9. D2.5 Generic Conceptual model, INSPIRE Drafting Team “Data Specifications”. [Online]. Available: http://inspire.jrc.ec.europa.eu/reports/ImplementingRules/inspireDataspecD2_5v2.0.pd f 10. Data State of Play.[Online].Available: http://inspire.jrc.ec.europa.eu/reports/Implemen tingRules/network/Data%20_State%20_of_Play_EUR_report.pdf 11. COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS AND THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE, Green Paper on Territorial Cohesion. Commission of the European Communities. COM (2008) 616 final. [Online]. Available: http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/consultation/terco/paper_terco_en.pdf 12. Spatial development glossary. European Conference of Ministers Responsible for Regional/Spatial planning (CEMAT) 2007 (bilingual version) (Territory and landscape 2), Council of Europe Publishing. [Online].Available: http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/cultureher itage/Source/Resources/Publications/Land/CEMAT_Glossary_TerritoryandLandscape No2_BIL.pdf 13. INSPIRE documents. [Online].Available: http://inspire.jrc.ec.europa.eu/index.cfm/pag eid/6 22
  23. 23. GMES eeds Described Spatial Data Otakar Cerba University of West Bohemia in Pilsen, Univerzitni 8, 306 14 Pilsen, Czech Republic, cerba@kma.zcu.cz Abstract. The title of this chapter emphasizes a need of different types and levels of description of spatial data sets used for GMES purposes. Why? GMES is very large and not homogeneous initiative with brave targets (environmental questions, security etc.). The purpose of GMES is to deliver information which corresponds to user needs. The processing and dissemination of such information is carried out within the "GMES service component" (GMES – European Commission, 2009). To promote and maintain GMES activities we need a large number of tools, applications, methods and technologies. Keywords: Spatial data, Spatial data description, GMES, Standardization, INSPIRE 1 Introduction “GMES, which stands for Global Monitoring for Environment and Security, is a European programme for the implementation a European capacity for Earth observation. The main objective of GMES is to monitor and better understand our environment (How our planet is changing? Why is it changing? How this might influence our daily lives?) and to contribute to the security of every citizen. GMES will provide decision-makers who rely on strategic information with regard to environmental and security issues with an independent and permanent access to reliable data. The project aims at providing geo-information data on the regional, European and global scale and covers a wide range of thematic domains like Land use / land cover change, Soil sealing, Water quality and availability, Spatial planning, Forest management, Carbon storage, Global food security.” (GMES, 2009) The title of this chapter emphasizes a need of description of spatial data sets used for GMES purposes. Why? GMES is very large and not homogeneous initiative with brave targets (environmental questions, security etc.). The purpose of GMES is to deliver information which corresponds to user needs. The processing and dissemination of this information is carried out within the "GMES service component" (GMES – European Commission, 2009). To promote and maintain GMES activities we need a large number of tools, applications, methods and technologies. But these instruments cannot work without good-quality data. As the 23
  24. 24. information used and produced by GMES are related to specific locations we can talk about spatial data. Defining the term of spatial data is complicated. The complication is caused by the fact that except for the adjective “spatial” other attributes like geo-, geographic or geospatial are used. INSPIRE (Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community) Glossary (INSPIRE Registry, 2009) defines the term “spatial data” as “data with a direct or indirect reference to a specific location or geographic area”. The functioning of the GMES is based on the availability of such data, the possibility of quick update, combination, exchange, visualization, analysis etc. Users also must have enough information about the data to be able to find data and decide if they are suitable for a particular purpose. This chapter should answer three basic question related to using spatial data in the GMES framework. 1. Why should spatial data be described? 2. What is necessary to describe? 3. How is it possible to make spatial data description? 2 Importance of spatial data description The strategic objective of GMES is to achieve harmonization of the fragmented national standards for global monitoring for environment and security throughout the European Union (Mirovsky, 2006). It is not a unification of standards on a single pan-European basis, but the harmonization and interconnection of existing resources, including spatial data. Such harmonization needs the huge number of knowledges and information on harmonized elements. Therefore especially semi- automated or full-automated harmonization must be supported by such information and knowledges extracted from concrete spatial data sets and from other external sources describing these spatial data sets. It should be noted that the activities related to GMES related not only to current all-European spatial data. Activities relating to environment and security use the large number of different spatial data sets, which differ from each other. • Data from various makers (state authorities, commercial companies, public - collaborative mapping) • Data from various providers • Data provided under different licenses and legislative restrictions • Data using different data models 24
  25. 25. • Data provided in various data formats • Data acquired in various ways (satellite imagery, photogrammetry, public /collaborative/ mapping, state administration mapping, GPS measuring but also information like text documents, photos, statistical documents, historical and archive materials) • Data of different ages (from historical documents to actual remote sensing data) • Data in different dimensions (2D, 2,5 D, 3D, temporal components) • Data at different scales • Data covering different areas (from a global perspective like Earth browser to a specific interiors of buildings and utility lines) The set of users of spatial data from GMES is also very complicated in terms of harmonization. These data sets could be used by public, risk management and security bodies, forest and water management, industry, state administration etc. Moreover, it is necessary to emphasize linguistic and cultural differences, traditions, and national or local standards related to acquisition of spatial data set, their processing and cartographic visualization. The term user does not refer only to humans, but also to machines. More precisely, various automated processes like search or visualization services represent GMES users, too. We could find many other characteristics of spatial data (e.g. spatial reference systems or portrayal rules – see Directive 2007/2/EC), which further accentuate the differences of individual data sets and limit the harmonization process. Any method of unification of all data sources is impossible for many reasons – the number of data is very high and still increasing, questions of national legislatives, using of different hardware platforms, operational systems and software products with proprietary formats and models etc. Harmonization of GMES and other data sets must be provided through existing data sets description and following particular transformation and/or conversions and not through existing data sets transformation to one platform. Only detailed multilevel spatial data description enable to find, decode and apply information and knowledges to use, share and combine different data. The importance and significance of this approach based on information and knowledges on spatial data sets increase with need of very fast acquisition of very quality data, for example for purposes of risk management or security. 25
  26. 26. 3 Spatial data components and properties What is it mean to describe spatial data sets? The description should be based on interconnected description of spatial data components and attributes. This description is mostly explicit and external. But for example data coded in a mark- up language can have some internal description by tags marked the meaning of elements and attributes. Spatial data have a large number of different properties which could be divided into 4 groups. This selection of properties is based on following publications – (Annoni et al., 2008), (Cada & Mildorf, 2005), (Cerba & al., 2009b), (Directive 2007/2/EC), (ISO 19115:2003): 1. Common properties of data: Support of interoperability and accessibility (Multilinguality, Cultural adaptability, Metadata, Legislative conformance, Relationships to other data, Data models), Data origin (Data character /measure or processed data/, Methods used for data capture, Data management, Frequency of updating, Types of updated information), Data distribution (Licenses, Prices, Data providers or distributors), Data presentation (Visualization model, Multiple representation), Technical parameters of data storage and distribution (Medium, Data format) 2. Properties of spatial components of data: Used units, Precision, Granularity, Consistency, Reliability, Spatial scope, Geometry (spatial representation), Dimension, Topology, Geodetic datum 3. Properties of temporal (time) components of data: Used units, Precision, Granularity, Consistency, Reliability, Time scope. 4. Properties of attribute (descriptive) components of data: Used units, Precision, Granularity, Consistency, Reliability, Theme of attributes, Terminology, Classification systems, Identifier management, Registries, Feature catalogues (description of attributes). 4 Standards represent the right way When does anybody ask how to describe spatial data, there is only one correct answer – using standards. There are many different standards, methods, technologies and applications describing various components of spatial data at different levels of the model. The following table (based on document Niemann, 2005) gives an overview of these forms and relevant standards. 26
  27. 27. Table 1: Spatial data description methods Standard Level of model Controlled vocabularies & glossaries Thesauruses Relation models, mark-up languages ER model, DB Schema, XML schema languages Taxonomies Topic Maps Conceptual models RDF/S UML Ontologies Logical theories Description Logic First Order Logic Modal Logic Axiology All of the above models and methods may be described in detail by using metadata standards (e.g. ISO 19115, some other component of the series of ISO 191XX or Dublin Core Metadata Initiative. 5 Conclusion GMES is among the projects of the very near future. Near future, however, in terms of information and communication technologies (ICT) is the arise of new technologies, bringing significant changes for example possibilities of: • Composition of different services and data sources located on remote computers • Individual profiles related to spatial data and their representation, for example culturally specific or language specific profiles • Using of contexts of current situation 27
  28. 28. • On demand data – user will get only necessary data to make the all process more faster Harmonisation of spatial data could have another benefits to data users (except possibilities of using of new technologies): • Any duplicities in data • Clear origin and assurance of quality of the data • Data structure standardisation • Data purity, security and structure uniformity • Better data manipulation • Reciprocal data accessing per WMS (Web Map Service), WCS (Web Coverage Service) and WFS (Web Feature Service) – preservation data up-dating (possibility of on-line actualisation) • Fall of cost for data updating and maintenance • Better software development • Better source exploitation • Improvement of chances in communication with authorities • Better utilization and commercialization of urban planning geospatial data • Increasing activities, e.g. education (Cerba et al., 2009a) All of these processes will require spatial data and the demands on quality of these data will be constantly rising. Therefore it is necessary the implementation of different methods and levels of spatial data description. Similarly to the initiative for the complete validation called Document Schema Definition Language (DSDL) a structure for describing and exchanging not only spatial data should be designed. Because the only way of interconnected group of methods of spatial data description bring the higher spatial data accessibility and interoperability. It is necessary for such large projects like GMES or INSPIRE. Spatial data description could be applied in designing and building of an expert system. For example one of such expert systems could design and technique of cartographic spatial data visualization based on knowledges and information about spatial data. There are four main factors to push to the integration in spatial data (according to Cerba et al., 2009a): 1. Legislative rules and their strict control. 2. Business strategies (requirements of market). 3. Education – explanation of benefits of approach based on spatial data description. 28
  29. 29. 4. Quality of technical support and development of new technologies supported standards. References 1. Annoni, A., Friis-Christensen, A., Lucchi, R. & Lutz, M. (2008). Requirements and Challenges for Building a European Spatial Information Infrastructure: INSPIRE. In van Oosterom & P., Zlatanova, S. Creating Spatial Information Infrastructures. Towards the Spatial Semantic Web. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, London. ISBN 978-1-4200-7068-2. 2. Cada, V. & Mildorf, T. (2005). Delimitation of reference geodata from land data model. GIS Ostrava 2005. Ostrava: VŠB - TUO, 2005. s. 1-12. ISSN 1213-239X. 3. Cerba, O., Charvat, K., Kafka, S. & Mildorf, T. (2009a). Spatial Planning – Example of European Integration of Public Data. Paper presented at 7th Eastern European e|Gov Days: eGovernment & eBusiness Ecosystem & eJustice, April (22) - 23 - 24, 2009 Prague, Czech Republic. 4. Cerba, O., Charvat, K., Jezek, J., Kafka, S. & Musil, M. (2009b). Spatial data interoperability makes ICT use more efficient. 5. Directive 2007/2/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 March 2007 establishing an Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE). (2007) 6. GMES – European Commission (2009). Retrieved November 16, 2009 from http://ec.europa.eu/gmes/index_en.htm. 7. GMES. (2009) Retrieved November 16, 2009 from www.gmes.info. 8. Geographic information — Metadata. Information géographique — Métadonnées . ISO 19115:2003. (2003), ISO. 9. INSPIRE Registry. Glossary. European Commission, 1995-2009. (2009) Retrieved September 15, 2009, from http://inspire- registry.jrc.ec.europa.eu/registers/GLOSSARY. 10. Mirovsky. O. (2006). Co je program GMES?. Czech Space Office. Retrieved November 16, 2009 from http://www.czechspace.cz/cs/gmes. 11. Niemann, B. (2005). Data Reference Model Implementation Through Iteration and Testing Version 1.0. Retrieved November 19, 2009 from http://web- services.gov/DRMITIT10172005.doc. 29
  30. 30. GMES – The European ambition to bring Earth Observation capacities in daily use Ondrej Mirovsky Czech space office, Katerinská 10, Prague 2, 128 00, Czech Republic, mirovsky@czechspace.cz Abstract: Following paper describes evolution and recent development of the GMES programme, which is a European tool how to bring data produced within earth observation capacities closer to daily use for numerous international, national and even regional institutions. Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) will help to ensure sustainable flow of accurate and timely data to monitor changes of our environment and will be a helpful tool to manage and coordinate fast emergency response. Keywords: GMES, European Union, European commission, European Space Agency, European Environmental Agency, services, data, environment, security. 1 Introduction The planet Earth is recently going through ages of rapid change of its surface, biosphere, atmosphere and climate, which has impact on both nature and people inhabiting this planet. In order to be able to monitor these changes, Earth Observation (EO) gives us powerful tool how to get detailed information on global scale in a short of time. European Union is in terms of environmental issues global leader and needs accurate and timely information to fulfil all monitoring and reporting demands as well as data for quick emergency response. Therefore, GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) as the European Initiative for the establishment of a European capacity for Earth Observation was launched. 2 GMES – first steps A key driving element having contributed to the establishment of GMES was the paradox of having so much data produced within current Earth Observation systems on one hand and lack of good quality and timely data delivered to 30
  31. 31. decisions makers on the other hand. Thus, in 1998 in Baveno (Italy) representatives of numerous institutions in this field concluded together with European commission and European Space Agency to establish European capacity for Earth observation named GMES. However, it was not only need to ensure data for Europe, but GMES bears also greater geostrategic importance of having autonomous system not dependent on non-European systems, where still now EU depends almost from 60% on foreign EO systems. EU commitment in this field is also a good tool to support European spaces industry, research and development while are all targeting to help to meet goals of the EU Lisbon strategy. During last few years GMES has received wider importance within EU and in 2004 GMES was recognized in the Communication from the Commission to the European parliament and the Council /COM (2004) 65/(1) followed by the resolution of the Parliament giving “green” light to further develop GMES. Further on GMES found substantial basis to its development via finances from Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) in the domain of SPACE research. In the period 2007- 2013 some 1.2 billion EUR were made available to develop GMES. 3 Architecture of GMES The GMES initiative federates a wide range of observational networks and data providers, exploiting the most recent observation techniques and technologies, for developing edge-cutting information products to end-users. In principle, the GMES observational infrastructure composes of two main components – space and in situ. Space infrastructure The space component shall ensure sustainable provision of satellite derived Earth observation data to all GMES services. The architecture of the component is derived from service requirements provided by the user communities. ESA and EUMETSAT are two main European actors in this area who should play the major role in co-ordination, implementation and operational running of the infrastructure (2). Key elements of this component will be sets of 6 satellites systems named Sentinels, which shall cover all space born data needs for all services. These satellites will acquire radar and optical data, information on atmospheric chemistry and many other needs. First satellites on the orbit are expected in 2011. It is also a key aspect of benefits of GMES programme that Sentinel satellite systems are synergic logical follow up of some already existing satellite systems widely used in Europe (e.g. SPOT and ENVISAT). 31
  32. 32. Fig. 1. Sentinel 1 (source ESA) In-situ infrastructure The in situ component is based on an observation infrastructure owned and operated by the large number of stakeholders coordinated, in some cases, in the frame of European or international networks. In situ observation activities and associated infrastructure derive from a range of national, EU and international regulatory requirements and agreements or form part of research processes. None was created to meet the needs of GMES, and they cover a much wider field than the GMES services. By this reason European Environmental Agency was appointed to co-ordinate the consolidation of in-situ networks for GMES purposes (2). Users Third key element of GMES are surely users. Users are here to define their needs to both space and in-situ elements in order to get from the system such data they can instantly use for their daily needs. User-driven principle shall be applied in both elements – for the design of satellite systems as well as on in-situ data processing to final users. What European users need most are ready-made tailored data. 32
  33. 33. Fig. 2. GMES architecture (source EC) 4 GMES services Bringing GMES into reality of daily life involves sets of services, which are now in pilot phase with the future transition into operational services. Today we have five basic GMES services under development tackling most needed information for European users. Land monitoring service is now being developed under GEOLAND 2 project and it is dedicated to cover land monitoring needs for Europe including topics as land cover changes, agri-environmental issues, spatial planning, forest monitoring etc. For the domain of marine applications project MyOcean is now processed to cover monitoring of the ocean and seas in order to get better data on maritime security, natural recourses, oil spill prevention etc (3.) Emergency response service of GMES is covered by project SAFER which gathers activities towards to a rapid mapping and provision of online information during emergency situations. The scope of this service goes even on global level, when this service has the potential to work worldwide. Atmosphere services of GMES are recently under MACC project, when core of this task is to deliver data on air quality, climate change, monitor sand and dust storms, UV radiation risks etc. Lastly, G-MOSAIC 33
  34. 34. project is now running to cover security GMES services. Core of activities is in the provision of geo-spatial information in support of EU external relation policies for Security related activities (4). 5 GMES – operational service After ten years of research activities, GMES has now entered its pre-operational phase through five major projects (as listed above) financed by the EU, ESA and Member States budgets aimed at developing future operational services and infrastructure. The services are being developed to meet the needs of a wide range of users who rely on accurate environmental and security data and information. Operational, continuous and sustainable delivery of information has not yet been achieved. Further investment is therefore necessary, in Space infrastructure in particular, in order to fill the remaining gaps in GMES services and to guarantee their long-term sustainability and reliability. In addition, a common approach between the various partners involved in the development of GMES needs to be further enhanced, to avoid the possibility of a duplication of efforts. GMES is also creating opportunities for increased private sector usage of new information sources. It will trigger partnerships between research and service providers, many of them small and medium enterprises. Thus, while not likely in the short to medium term, the development of market opportunities could eventually determine the proportion of public investment (5). This year regulation on the European Earth observation programme (GMES) and its initial operations was adopted to guarantee smooth transition from research phase into operational phase of GMES before the new financial perspective of the EU will be in place. 6 Conclusion Earth Observation encompasses a powerful set of advanced technologies which in combination with in situ (ground-based, airborne etc.) measurements provides products and services supporting solutions to international challenges such as security threats, environmental degradation and climate change. The GMES initiative reflects the European decision to develop its own, independent observation capabilities. At this time GMES stands on the edge of transition into real operational services delivering data where needed and has a unique potential to be a very successful approach how to maintain our planet safe and healthy. For its success, future strong commitment of its main key players – European Commission and European Space Agency is needed together with the voice of member states of the EU and other international bodies. 34
  35. 35. References 1. COM (2004) 65, COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL, Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES): Establishing a GMES capacity by 2008 - (Action Plan (2004-2008)) 2. http://ec.europa.eu/gmes/obser_infra.htm 3. http://www.myocean.eu.org/index.php/project/objectives 4. http://www.gmes-gmosaic.eu/ 5. Kolar, J., Mirovsky, O. (2009): The Czech EU presidency: a gateway to 6. GMES for users from Central and Eastern Europe, Window on GMES, March 2009, ISSN 2030-5410, http://www.boss4gmes.eu/index.php?id=103&no_cache=1 35
  36. 36. Spatial Observation Services and Infrastructure in the Czech Republic – SOSI CZ Lukas Brodsky1, Milan Novacek2, Jan Kolomaznik1, Vaclav Vobora1, Lubos Kucera1 1 GISAT spol. s.r.o., Geoinformation Company, Charkovska 7, 101 00Praha 10, Czech Republic {Lukas.Brodsky, Jan.Kolomaznik, Vaclav.Vobora, Lubos.Kucera}@gisat.cz 2 ANF DATA spol. s r. o., Pujmanové 1221, 140 00 Praha 4, Czech Republic milan.novacek@siemens.com Abstract. The SOSI CZ project is one of the three related SOSI (Spatial Observation Services and Infrastructure) projects, each implemented in a different country. The overall multi-country SOSI project was initiated by ESA with the aim to demonstrate the innovative technology and service concepts within the context of the European Shared Environmental Information System (SEIS). Profiting from the ESA developed technology and the availability of ESA Service Support Environment (SSE), which is a Web-service based system supporting chaining of distributed services, the entire SOSI project aims at demonstrating the possibility to create a network of service provision points supporting at the same time needs at various levels: from local to European, like those of the European Environmental Agency (EEA). In addition to the above-mentioned SOSI common objectives, SOSI CZ focuses on implementation of a satellite imagery dissemination service and implementation of MEEO Software Modules for automated pre-classification of satellite imagery. Keywords: Spatial Observation Services, Earth observation, SEIS, SSE, Land Cover 1 Introduction SEIS – a European Perspective According to the European Union’s 6th Environmental Action Programme aiming at a Sustainable Development Strategy integrated assessments of environmental information are becoming the trend. This nurtures the vision of a Shared Environmental Information System (SEIS) with the scope to improve, modernise, 36
  37. 37. streamline, and connect environmental information systems in Europe and world- wide (see Ref. EEA, 2008). From the European Environment Agency’s (EEA’s) perspective (Steenmans, 2009) SEIS is about: • Sharing (organisation): Political commitment (legislation); Partnership (win-win); Networking (connecting); • Environmental Information (content): Horizontal integration (data centres); Vertical integration (local to global); Online access - real time for policy makers and public; • System (infrastructure and services): Existing ICT Infrastructure; INSPIRE, Report net, GMES, etc.; New e-Services (e-Government). In this list the SOSI project addresses primarily the items “networking”, “online access” and all items under “System”, i.e. Europe's infrastructure backbone for environmental services. SOSI Common Objectives: • Identifying land monitoring information services common to all participating countries and relevant at local and European levels • Implementing in each participating country a Service Provision Point integrating relevant technology • Implementing a SOSI Demonstrator overarching through SSE all the Service Provision Points • For the identified land monitoring information services, verifying that the SOSI Demonstrator permits both - their local use with local flavours and also integrated use in a wider European context (in particular towards the EEA) SOSI CZ Objectives: On top of SOSI common objectives the SOSI CZ will also focus on: • Implementation of satellite imagery dissemination service (including data archiving and cataloguing) • Implementation of MEEO Software Modules for automated pre- classification (including validation and benchmarking) of satellite imagery. 2 Project Description SOSI is a project for developing innovative “Spatial Observation Services and Infrastructure” within the context of land monitoring initiatives at European and Member State levels. The project’s objective is to demonstrate, in real operations, a decentralized information system allowing integration of distributed data and 37
  38. 38. processing services as well as access and distribution at multiple levels, languages and content granularities. SOSI is contributing to and maintaining - during a demonstration period - a network of test implementations intended to be jointly operated by the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Environment Agency (EEA) and the participating organizations from the European Member States Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary and Luxembourg. The programmatic objectives of the European Shared Environmental Information System (SEIS) and related user requirements are providing orientation to SOSI. In particular the SEIS activity to implement the Land Cover Data Service (LCDS), a joint initiative of EEA [RD07] and twelve Member States to establish an information sharing and reporting environment for land use and land cover change, will be addressed by the SOSI project. It is expected that the results of the SOSI project will contain valuable recommendations for the future evolution of these European services. The primary technology and operational procedures of SOSI are being implemented by utilizing the Service Support Environment (SSE) of ESA [AD03]. SOSI offers a distributed node-based infrastructure of Web-services following Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) principles and standards thus establishing access to a number of content services (Figure 2) and one land cover generation processing service operated by the participating organizations. The SSE infrastructure is providing coupling and user access mechanisms (binding, workflows and portal). Further programmatic facets come into the SOSI project by the fact that some of the very first operational products of Kopernikus, Europe’s Global Monitoring for Environment and Security initiative (former GMES), have been loaded and made accessible via the SOSI infrastructure. The product’s official name is "High resolution core land cover data for built-up areas, including degree of soil sealing, 2006" which was generated in the course of the "GMES Fast-Track Service on Land Monitoring" project spearheaded by EEA with coordinated satellite data provisioning by ESA. 38
  39. 39. Fig. 1. SOSI Servers in Member States and at European Agencies. In addition, the SOSI system offers on-line access to the "Corine land cover map 2000" (CLC2000) dataset, the product of an EEA coordinated activity with Member States. This dataset includes land cover data of lower spatial and thematic but high temporal resolution, semi-automatically derived from MERIS instrument data received by the local Envisat receiving station in the Czech Republic. Data on land cover is necessary for formulating environmental policy as well as for other purposes such as regional development and agriculture policies. At the same time it provides one of the basic inputs for the production of more complex information on other themes (soil erosion, pollutant emissions into the air by the vegetation, etc.). The SOSI project foresees to implement an operational service to demonstrate online access to this high resolution data for built-up areas entirely covering four pilot states, namely: Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary and Luxembourg (Figure 1). This land cover data (LC data) will be provided at connected service provision points physically operated in each of these countries. Potentially more areal coverage can be accessed via the service provision points operated by the EEA node called Land Use Data Centre (LUDC), which is also planned to be interfaced by the SOSI infrastructure. 39
  40. 40. In the course of analysing the contributions from the mentioned Member States a proposal to tackle also specific national requirements has developed: The Hungarian participation in the information network will, in addition to the land cover service setup in Hungary, address multi-lingual aspects of a national portal for Hungarian users. This is expected to challenge SSE configuration flexibility in international scenarios. The plans for the SOSI implementation in the Czech Republic (CZ) foresee that an existing Earth Observation (EO) satellite data archive maintained nationally for regionally received Envisat MERIS data shall be connected via SSE drawing benefits from the available tools for publishing archive data, discovery, viewing, ordering via a powerful graphical user interface, and secure delivery of data to users. Fig. 2. SOSI Service Metamodel. The SSE capabilities of setting up workflows and value chains of distributed services are a further demonstration objective in SOSI. A custom automated Land Cover (LC) generation engine provided by the company MEEO shall be installed as a network service which can be chained into a SOA workflow. The experimental configuration in SOSI shall demonstrate at least the availability of manually LC processed data from the Czech archive service and the flow via this LC generation engine to the Czech LC provider service. It is expected from this demonstration that the value adding process may be in the future managed in a widely automated way, incorporating both synchronous and asynchronous (e.g. for human operator intervention) steps in the processing and provisioning chain, as 40
  41. 41. required. Also the performance and behaviour of the MEEO classification engine shall be assessed. All in all, it is hoped that the SOSI activity will be convincing that the envisaged SOA approach incorporates a set of viable and efficient tools which can favourably be used for the implementation of “ubiquitous access to distributed, cooperating data and services”, by demonstrating service examples in the EO land monitoring application field. Acknowledgments. The project is conducted under contract of the European Space Agency ESA (ESRIN Contr. No. 21776/08/IL-G) and CZ national PECS program (Contract number 98082 – “SOSI CZ Spatial Observation Services and Infrastructure in the Czech Republic”) with strong steering support by the European Environment Agency EEA. The authors wish to thank Mr. S. D’Elia, Mr. A. della Vecchia and Mr. P.G. Marchetti from ESA as well as Mr. J. Bliki, Mr. S. Jensen, Mrs. A. Sousa, Mr. C. Steenmans, and the LUDC team from EEA for essentially having formed the project idea and for accompanying its execution. The preparedness by the company Geoville to host the Luxembourg SOSI instantiation is very much appreciated. The contributions of the company Spacebel regarding SOA and SSE knowhow and of the company MEEO regarding automated LC generation and practical SSE knowhow have been very valuable to the SOSI project. References 1. EEA – European Environment Agency, Shared environmental information system, 2008, http://www.eea.europa.eu/about-us/what/shared-environmental-information- system. 2. ESA – European Space Agency, Service Support Environment, 2008, http://services.eoportal.org. 3. JRC – Joint Research Centres, INSPIRE Technical Architecture – Overview, V1.2, 2007, http://inspire.jrc.ec.europa.eu/reports.cfm. 4. JRC – Joint Research Centres, INSPIRE Network Services Architecture, V3.0, 2008, http://inspire.jrc.ec.europa.eu/reports.cfm. 5. Steenmans, C., Towards a Shared Environmental Information System, SEIS – A European perspective, European Environment Agency Presentation, 2009. 41
  42. 42. The Black Sea Catchment Observation System built on a grid-enabled Spatial Data Infrastructure Anthony Lehmann1,2, Gregory Giuliani1,2, Nicolas Ray1,2, Karin Allenbach1,2, Karel Charvat3, Dorian Gorgan4, Mamuka Gvilava5, Tamar Bakuradze5, Seval Sozen6, Cigdem Goksel6 and the enviroGRIDS consortium 1 University of Geneva, enviroSPACE, Battelle Bat. D, Route de Drize, CH-1227 Carouge, Switzerland 2 UNEP/DEWA/GRID-Europe, Switzerland 3 Czech Centre for Science and Society, Czech Republic 4 Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania 5 GIS & RS Consulting Center "GeoGraphic", Georgia 6 Istanbul Technical University, Turkey Corresponding author: Anthony.Lehmann@unige.ch Abstract. The Black Sea catchment represents a very large historically rich area of more than 2 million km2 with more than 160 million inhabitants occupying a strategic position between Europe and Asia. It is partially following an unsustainable development caused by inadequate resource management that leads to severe environmental, social and economical problems. The EnviroGRIDS @ Black Sea Catchment project is addressing these issues by bringing several new emerging information technologies that are totally revolutionizing the way we will be looking at our planet in the future. The Global Monitoring for the Environment and Security (GMES) and the Global Earth Observation Systems of Systems (GEOSS) are indeed building a data-driven vision of our planet to explore its past, present and future. The INSPIRE directive is promoting data sharing through interoperability standards at European level, while the UN-SDI is following the same pathway within the United Nations. In order to address the challenges faced by these initiatives of increasing need for data storage and processing, enviroGRIDS will build upon the largest Grid computing infrastructure in the world (EGEE) that will transform elements of software underpinning scenarios and models onto a gridded system. EnviroGRIDS is aiming at building the capacity of scientist to assemble such a system, the data providers to share their data, the capacity of decision makers to use it, and the capacity of the general public to understand the important environmental, social and economical issues at stake. Keywords: GEOSS, GMES, INSPIRE, UNSDI, EGEE, Black Sea catchment, SWAT, remote sensing, sensors, interoperability, grid-enabled Spatial Data Infrastructure. 42
  43. 43. 1 Introduction The enviroGRIDS project aims at building capacities in the Black Sea region on new international standard to gather, store, distribute, analyze, visualize and disseminate crucial information on past, present and future states of this region in order to assess its sustainability and vulnerability. In order to achieve its objectives, enviroGRIDS will build an ultra-modern grid-enabled Spatial Data Infrastructure (GSDI) using web services to connect to the Global Monitoring for the Environment and Security (GMES) and the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). It will be also fully compatible with the EU directive on Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Union (INSPIRE) and the equivalent UN initiative (UN-SDI). The scientific aim of the enviroGRIDS project is to promote and federate existing Observation Systems in order to address several Societal Benefit Areas as defined by GEOSS within a changing climate framework. This system will incorporate a shared information system that operates on the boundary of scientific/technical partners, stakeholders and the public. It will contain an early warning system that will inform in advance decision makers and the public about risks to human health, biodiversity and ecosystems integrity, agriculture production or energy supply provoked by climatic, demographic and land cover changes on a 50 year time horizon. The generic technical objectives of the enviroGRIDS project are to: • Run a gap analysis on existing regional observation systems to prepare recommendations for improvement of networks of data acquisition in each region/country • Improve regional network to coordinate the efforts of partners active in observation systems • Develop the access to real time data from sensors and satellites • Create spatially explicit scenarios of key changes in land cover, climate and demography • Distribute large calculations and datasets on large computer clusters (Grid) • Streamline the production of indicators on sustainability and vulnerability of societal benefits • Provide policy-makers and citizens with early warning and decision support tools at regional, national and local levels • Build capacities in the implementation of many new standards and frameworks (INSPIRE, GEOSS, GMES, UN-SDI) 43
  44. 44. 2 Background The core environmental problem of the Danube River Catchment can be described as “ecologically unsustainable development and inadequate water resources management” [1]. The problems are caused by different factors, such as: inadequate management of wastewater/solid waste, ecological unsustainable industrial activities, and inadequate land management and improper agricultural practices. These factors generate several direct consequences: pollution of surface/groundwater, eutrophication, and accelerated runoff /erosion. These consequences have in turn the following main effects: decline in quality of life, human health risks, degradation of biodiversity, economic decline, and reduced availability of water. The Black Sea itself is also affected by severe environmental degradation [2]. Some signs of recovery have been observed in the last years, but eutrophication remains a severe problem. Several of the environmental topics addressed in enviroGRIDS are clearly related and interdependent. As climatic change is becoming a worldwide concern that will affect many areas of human activities, the last report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [3,4,5] predicts important changes in the coming decades that will not only modify climate patterns in terms of temperature and rainfall, but will also drastically change freshwater resources qualitatively and quantitatively, leading to more floods or droughts in different regions, lower drinking water quality, increased risk of water-borne diseases, and irrigation problems. These changes may trigger socio-economic crises across the globe that need to be addressed well in advance of their occurrences in order to reduce their associated risks. Indeed, as documented by several assessments, humans are exerting significant impacts on the global water system [6] through activities such as the modification of the hydrological cycle, the accelerated melting of snow and ice in alpine zones, the removal of trees that lead to increased runoff, reduced transpiration, impacts on the water table and landscape salinity, the draining of wetlands, irrigation for agriculture, the alteration of flow through dams, the transfer of water between catchments, and pollution from industrial, agricultural and domestic sources. The European Community is addressing the crucial problem of water quality and quantity by adopting the Water Framework Directive [7] that promotes water management based on watersheds rather than administrative or political boundaries. The aim is to build river catchment management plans that define objectives based on ecological, hydrological and chemical values, as well as protected areas status. River catchment analysis will integrate the analysis of the economic value of water use for stakeholders in order to understand the cost effectiveness of alternative policy and technical measures. However, despite efforts to date, the vulnerability of different areas of Europe and beyond to climate change remains poorly addressed. The United Nations has followed a similar 44
  45. 45. pathway and launched the UN Water Program [6] that aimed at bringing a greater focus on water-related issues at all levels and on the implementation of water- related programmes in order to achieve the water-related targets in Agenda 21, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI). 3 EnviroGRIDS consortium The enviroGRIDS partners cover expertise in several fields of environmental sciences and information technologies. They have a very strong and direct interest in Observations Systems and have connections in numerous local, national, regional and international organisations. Together they form a very strong consortium that will be able to raise significantly the Public awareness in different Societal Benefits Areas, to build Decision Makers capacity to use Observation Systems, and Scientists capacity to construct them and feed them with quality information. This consortium will be supervised from Geneva that occupies a strategic position by hosting several international organizations centered on environmental and related societal issues (GEO, UNEP, UNDP, WHO, WMO, WCO, ICRC, IUCN, WWF…). Indeed, the Group on Earth Observation (GEO) intergovernmental project is based in Geneva to establish the Global Earth Observation System of Systems that is recognized by the European Commission as an official partner for global projects. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), through its GRID-Europe office, has a long experience in gathering and making available global environmental data through, for instance, the Global Environmental Outlook program, and is presently involved in project on the climatic vulnerability of the shallow Lake Balaton in Hungary as well as several other European projects. The Enabling Grids for E-Sciences project (EGEE) that is coordinated by our CERN partner will provide the necessary computing and storage capacity for this project. The Climatic Change and Climate Impacts group at the University of Geneva has an excellent international reputation in terms of its research on climate change impacts and is striving to reinforce its relationships with international organizations. Therefore, the combined expertise of GRID, UNIGE, CERN and GEO will be easy to gather regularly to guarantee the best possible steering of the enviroGRIDS project. Many partners in this project are leaders in the field of hydrological modeling and already know each other because they belong to the active community of users of Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT, Arnold et al., 1998), and have already collaborated in other projects. The UNESCO Institute for Water Education (IHE) is a leading institute in research and teaching hydrology for students coming from the entire world. The Swiss Aquatic Research Institute (EAWAG) is an internationally recognized research institute in hydrology and has done some large 45
  46. 46. scale uses of SWAT in recent years for instance across the entire African continent or in Iran. The University of Barcelona (UAB) is partner within the European Topic Centre on Land Use and Spatial Information (ETC-LUSI). Finally, the Centre for Advanced Studies, Research and Development in Sardinia (CRS4) is also a leading partner in information and technology and started to develop web based decision support tools based on SWAT outputs. This strong hold of Western Europe partners is ideally reinforced in the enviroGRIDS project with several high level education, research, public and private partners within the Black Sea Catchment. For example, IBSS (Ukraine) is one of the leading institutes in terms of the long-term research of the Black Sea ecosystem. IBSS holds and develops the database on over 150 oceanographic expeditions dealing with this region. Along with USRIEP (Ukraine), DHMO (Ukraine), SPSU (Russia), DDNI (Romania) these institutes have monitored the ecosystems of the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov, the Danube delta, and forecasting the present ecological state of marine and terrestrial components of the catchment. INHGA (Romania) has a long-standing experience in water resources, flood and drought risk management, as well as the assessments of the impact of human activity and climate change on the hydrological regime of the catchment. GeoGraphic (Georgia) develops specialized software, flexible data management technologies, and cartographic production pertained to the environmental issues of the Black Sea region. Finally, CCSS (Czech Republic) is a leading center in Spatial Data Infrastructure and sensors deployment. Table 1. The enviroGRIDS consortium. Beneficiary name Short Country name Université de Genève UNIGE Switzerland Czech Centre for Science and Society, CCSS Czech partner of United Nations Spatial Data Infrastructure Republic European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) CERN Switzerland (Int.) Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and EAWAG Switzerland Technology Geographic GIS&RS Consulting Center Geographic Georgia UNESCO: Institute for Water Education IHE The Netherlands (UN) University of Barcelona, European Topic Centre Land UAB Spain Use and Spatial Information supported by the European Environment Agency (EEA) Ukrainian Scientific and Research Institute of USRIEP Ukraine Ecological Problems 46
  47. 47. Soresma n.v. SORESMA Belgium St. Petersburg State University SPSU Russian Federation Istanbul Technical University ITU Turkey Melitopol State Pedagogical University AZBOS Ukraine and Azov-Black Sea Ornithological Station ArxIT consulting ARXIT Switzerland Black Sea Regional Energy Centre BSREC Bulgaria Danube Delta’ National Institute for Research and DDNI Romania Development Danube Hydrometeorological Observatory DHMO Ukraine Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas IBSS Ukraine Institute of Geography of the Romanian Academy IGAR Romania National Institute of Hydrology and Waters INHGA Romania Management Odessa National I.I. Mechnikov University ONU Ukraine Technical University of Cluj-Napoca UTC Romania Environmental Protection and Water Management VITUKI Hungary Research Institute Permanent Secretariat of the Commission on the BSC PS Turkey Protection of the Black Sea against Pollution Advanced Studies, Research and Development in CRS4 Italy Sardinia International Commission for the Protection of the ICPDR Austria Danube River National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology NIMH Bulgaria Tavrida National University TNU Ukraine 4 EnviroGRIDS step by step First, a gap analysis will allow identifying areas where most efforts are needed to reinforce existing observation systems in the Black Sea catchment. Then, spatially explicit scenarios of key drivers of changes such as climate, demography and land cover will be created. These scenarios will feed into hydrological models calibrated and validated for the entire Black Sea Catchment. EnviroGRIDS will rely on the largest grid computing infrastructure in the world (EGEE) that will transform elements of software underpinning scenarios and models onto a gridded system. The combined impacts of expected climatic, demographic, land cover and hydrological changes will be measured against GEOSS Societal Benefit Areas through several pilot studies in different countries within the Black Sea catchment. A strong effort will be put on convincing regional data holders to serve their metadata and data through web services in order to complement the global data made available by several international organizations. Specific outcomes will be analyzed and made accessible through a state-of-the-art web interface. The resulting web services will help our main targeted end users, the Black Sea 47
  48. 48. Commission and the International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River, to improve their web portal for their communication on the state of the Black Sea catchment (Figure 1). Fig. 1. EnviroGRIDS data flow and processing based on web services and regionally and internationally available data to serve principal end users needs, public and decision makers. 5 Soil and Water Assessment Tool New advances in computing technology plus data availability from the Internet have made high resolution modelling of distributed hydrologic processes possible. Using the program Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) [8] (http://www.brc.tamus.edu/swat/), enviroGRIDS will apply a high-resolution (sub- catchment spatial and daily temporal resolution) water balance model to the entire Black Sea Catchment (BSC). The BSC Catchment (Figure 2) model will be calibrated and validated using river discharge data, river water quality data, and crop yield data [9]. As part of the modelling work, uncertainty analysis will also be performed to gauge the confidence on all model outputs. Subsequent analyses of land use change, agricultural management change, and/or climate change can then predict the consequence of various scenarios. 48
  49. 49. An example of the use of SWAT can be found in the “Lake Balaton Integrated Vulnerability Assessment, Early Warning and Adaptation Strategies” project that was launched following many years of water quality problems and a negative water balance induced by water shortage starting in 2000 and lasting for four years [10]. This raised a serious sustainability concerns in the Lake Balaton area, Hungary and the region. Due to the Lake Balaton sensitivity to climate change and its impacts the problem came to the fore both for policy and science. Fig. 2. Black Sea catchment. Lake Balaton’s internationally unique vulnerability situation is the combined result mainly of its very shallow profile and the fact that through heavy reliance on tourism as a primary source of livelihoods, the socio-economic consequences of ecological deterioration can be severe and immediate. This is particularly the case as society has not fully dealt with the legacy of transition from centrally planned to a market economy. If the frequency of years with negative water balance indeed increased in the future, as indicated by applicable climate change scenarios, Lake Balaton and the coupled socio-economic system is expected to emerge as a highly sensitive and internationally unique indicator of vulnerability to global change. On a more positive side, it could also serve as a high profile example of adaptation measures consistent with sustainable development. 49

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