Will draw on studies undertaken by the Rowan Group and others
Changing demographic patterns, changing family styles and organisation. Policy shifts that have meant many young people are dependent on families for longer – removal of certain rights, housing policies and shift in emphasis from employment to training. All have combined to make youth transitions sharper for some (young homeless, mental health problems) and more elongated for others.
The problem with this definition - largely a one way process rather than a dialogue. Suggests mentoring is based on a deficit model of young people – as a problem and in need of remedy
Rutter(1989) has suggested that the presence of a mentor in certain conditions can provide a means of helping young people to overcome difficult circumstances and to thrive where their peers do not. This idea of resilience has become important in youth policy but we are still unclear to what extent young people who are already resilient are adept at finding and keeping a mentor, or whether mentoring enhances resilience. Attachment theory – the idea that a consistent and continuing person has an important protective role in helping young people to negotiate their social worlds, has become significant in the mentoring field. Enhanced resilience could be related to ideas about building social capital in Coleman’s terms. Social support to assist young people to deal with their difficulties – important factor in accounts given by young people that the mentor ‘didn’t treat me like a case’ and that the relationship was personalised not professional Ecological theory has also been highly influential in US based mentoring (Bronfenbrenner) Many of these approaches focus exclusively on the individual – a need to take account of young people as members of their social groups since particularly for teenagers, their lives are intensely social. Informal education and particularly youth work offers an opportunity for peer mentoring in addition to individual models.
Learner as active – constructing knowledge - holistic
Informal education offers the opportunity for dialogue: between teachers and learners and between learners themselves. Learning according to this approach is a co-operative process, in which learning is constructed between actors.
Successful mentoring relationships – trust, reciprocity, challenge, negotiation, informality, acceptance all significant in accounts by young people and mentors. Above all, youn gpeople in our study stressed the importance of mentoring being a voluntary relationship which can be built on or rejected by the young person – this may be more problematic in organised or formal mentoring where precise goals have been preset Se next slide - typology
Being involved in a shared interest often provided a starting point for the development of a more trusting relationship – this may be particularly important for young people who have had difficult relationships in the past
Philip and Hendry (1996)
Sharing a Laugh was a study undertaken with the support of the Joseph Rowntree Foundation and which explored formal mentoring in three settings over a two year period. Young people, mentors and stakeholders participated in the study. Professional friendship – issue of endings and power of mentor
These were successful relationships – important to stress that a number of failed relationships which did not become ‘connected’.
The chess coach: what can we learn from mentoring as an educational process?
The mentor is someone with greater experience or wisdom than the mentee. Second the mentor offers guidance or instruction that is intended to facilitate the growth and development of the mentee. Third, there is an emotional bond between mentor and mentee, a hallmark of which is a sense of trust
Resolving conflict, renegotiating relationships, trying out new identity
A ‘safe setting’ in which to take risks in learning – leaving the ‘baggage behind’
Chess as a starting point?
Reciprocity and Non conformity Reciprocity And equality Reciprocity And equality Mentors Empathetic Advisory, guide, outsider Qualities Sought /identified Recognition and life crises Managing reputations Identity Lifestyle Rehearsal for action Acceptance of peer Group and Youth Culture values Empathy Recognition Of aspiration to role models Life events Home and street Street Home based Youth Groups Home based Context Both Both Female Female Male Gender Long term ‘risky adult’ Peer Group Best Friend Individual/ Team Classic Mentoring Forms
An alternative to sometimes difficult peer and family relationships
Qualities of trust, shared interests, challenge and respect
Classic, peer and group Classic and group Classic e-mentoring Classic, peer and group Classic Style Variable – aim for longstanding Variable – may be linked to employment scheme Variable – schemes vary. Mentoring often ended if yp leaves employment scheme Ideally flexible – may be intensive rather than long term Ideally flexible but not less than I year Duration Primary age-young adults 13+ 15+ 10-25 10-25 Age groups Important – often aims to rebuild relationships Variable Variable – focus on developing skills Important – befriending key element Level of emotional engagement Confidence, solidarity, strengthen communities that may feel under threat Confidence/resilience, explore alternatives, challenge behaviour, advocacy Link with individuals/agencies and young person; build skills and confidence Develop relationship via shared interest/activity Building social skills Strategies ‘ community’ members – often unclear which community volunteers to complement work of paid staff Volunteers ideally with business background/knowledge. Complement work of paid staff Volunteers and sometime paid staff. Skills in key areas, ability to relate to yp Male ‘role models’ favoured but majority women Target groups (mentors) Yp from marginalised groups eg minority ethnic NEET; substance misusers, yp in criminal justice system ‘ underachieving’ Possible school problems, poor background ‘ underachievin disadvantaged, potentially at risk, esp young men Children from single parent family; isolated yp; known family difficulties Target Groups (mentees) Ecology of development; Attachment; resilience; Cognitive behavioural therapy; resilience; social capital Ecology of development Social capital and social inclusion Mentoring as ‘professional friendship’- Youth transitions Social support Attachment theory/resilience/social capital (bridging)/developmental psych Theoretical framework – (explicit or implicit) Yp alienated from mainstream community – often linked with (i) Disruptive/ challenging behaviour often linked to schools Deficit model: lack social capital and access to networks. Remedy absence of or missed opportunities to build expertise Deficit model of yp/family Underlying assumptions (v)Integration into community (iv)Reduction of unwanted behaviours (iii)Expanding opportunities (ii)Instrumental (i)Compensatory Mentoring Forms