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Chapter 5 Space continuous, infinite, ever present
Space is the area between and around objects. The space around objects is often called negative space; negative space has shape. Space can also refer to the feeling of depth. Real space is three-dimensional; in visual art when we can create the feeling or illusion of depth we call it space.
Is there a suggestion of depth on the flat surface?
Can you divide the picture into the fore-ground, middle ground and background?
Strong details is used in the foreground, with gradual loss of detail as the image fades into the back ground
Large objects in the fore ground graduating to smaller objects in the back ground
Overlapping of objects give the appearance of objects being in front of each other
Warm colors in the foreground and cool colors in the back ground
Space Since objects in our environment look smaller when they are farther away, the easiest way to show depth is to vary the size of objects, with closer objects being larger and more distant objects being smaller. As well, we perceive objects that are higher on the page and smaller as being further away than objects which are in the forefront of a picture. Overlapping, vertical, and diminishing Edward Degas
Overlapping When objects are partially obscured by other objects in front of them, we perceive them as further back than the covering objects. We do not see them as incomplete forms, just further back.
Illusion of Space and Depth We live in a three-dimensional world of depth. When we look around us, some things seem closer, some further away. The artist can also show the illusion of depth by using the following means: Size & Vertical Location Overlapping Linear Perspective
Depth of Field The human eye, like the camera, has a limited depth of field. In other words we focus on one level and the objects in front or behind are often blurred. When Diego Velazquez painted Las Meninas he, along with many artists painted everything in focus. This was part of the magic of painting as the viewers perception was thereby expanded. This painting by Diego Velazquez has a defined foreground, middle ground and background.
Linear Perspective (Converging Lines) Linear perspective is based on the idea that all lines will converge on a common point on the horizon called the vanishing point. You have observed linear perspective when you notice that the lines on the highway appear to meet at a point in the distance. Artists use linear perspective to create a focal point for a picture. Any walls, ceilings, floors or other objects with lines will appear to come together at the horizon line. These lines converging lead our eyes towards that point. Often, the most important object or person in the picture will be located at that point. You can see in the drawing above how all the lines in the drawing seem to lead your eye toward the church in the center back of the drawing. Other types of perspective, such as two-point or multipoint perspective are also used. Two-point perspective, which occurs when you display a building from a corner view, as opposed to a front view, is often used by architects to show a more three-dimensional view of a building. 1 point perspective
Linear perspective the way objects appear in space to the eye
Perspective - scientific method for creating a three-dimensional illusion on a two-dimensional surface.
Vanishing point - a point in a perspective drawing to which parallel lines appear to converge.
Horizon line - a horizontal line across the picture. It is always at eye level - its placement determines where we seem to be looking from - a high place, or from close to the ground. The actual horizon might not be visible, but you need to draw a 'virtual' horizon to construct a picture in perspective.
Vantage point - a place from which something can be viewed One point perspective uses one vanishing point
Two point perspective uses two vanishing points
Class Art Activity 2 Point Linear Perspective Supplies – paper, pencil
Horizon Line Draw a straight line, horizontally across your paper.
Vanishing Point Draw 2 points on each side of the line near the outer edges of the paper.
Draw a straight vertical line on the horizon line anywhere you like.
Draw a line from the top of the vertical line to each point then repeat with the bottom of the vertical line
Draw 2 lines on each side of your first vertical line anywhere inside the triangles.
Now erase the lines from the point back to the last vertical lines you drew on the paper. Your drawing should look like this. You have now drawn a box sitting on the horizon line.
Now we will draw a box above the horizon line. Start by drawing a vertical line above the horizon line anywhere on your paper. Then draw 2 lines from the top of the line to the vanishing point on each side and from the bottom to each side.
Draw 2 vertical lines anywhere inside the triangles formed by the previous lines.
Now draw 2 lines from each of the vertical lines to the opposite vanishing point creating a bottom to the box.
Erase the lines to form a box above the horizon line.
Now you draw a 2 point perspective box below the line