Andrew Goodwin’s
Theory
From his book Dancing in the Distraction Factory (1992)

Andrew Goodwin states that there are part...
There is a relationship between lyrics and visuals
This may be illustrative like in
Rihanna’s music video for her
2007 hit...
There is a relationship between the music
and the visuals
The tone of the music whether it
be happy or angry will often be...
The demands of the record label will include the
need for lots of close ups of the artist and the
artist may develop motif...
There is frequently reference to notion of
looking (screens within screens, telescopes
etc. and particularly voyeuristic t...
There is often intertextual reference (to
films, TV programmes, other music
videos etc.)

Clip from Nicki Minaj
– Stupid S...
Nicki Minaj makes intertextual references to various music videos in
her music video for her record ‘Stupid Stupid’. Here,...
Here, Nicki Minaj in the
music video for her track
‘Stupid Stupid’ (top right)
has imitated a shot from
Jessie J’s hit rec...
Lady Gaga – Bad Romance
(November 2009)

Again in Nicki Minaj’s same
video she has mimicked Lady
Gaga by wearing similar c...
Music videos demonstrate characteristics
of the genre

A characteristic of rap and hip-hop videos is the sexual objectific...
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Andrew Goodwin’s Theory

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Andrew Goodwin’s Theory

  1. 1. Andrew Goodwin’s Theory From his book Dancing in the Distraction Factory (1992) Andrew Goodwin states that there are particular characteristics in music videos that the audience can look out for.
  2. 2. There is a relationship between lyrics and visuals This may be illustrative like in Rihanna’s music video for her 2007 hit ‘Umbrella’. However visuals can alternatively be amplifying or contradicting to lyrics.
  3. 3. There is a relationship between the music and the visuals The tone of the music whether it be happy or angry will often be in sync with the atmosphere of the video. For example Kanye West’s track ‘All Falls Down’ has an emotional tone and towards the end of the video we see the woman crying.
  4. 4. The demands of the record label will include the need for lots of close ups of the artist and the artist may develop motifs which recur across their work (a visual style). The Weeknd is a new artist who’s record label (Republic Records) has used a low-angle long shot of him in the centre with his hands in his pockets in ‘Wicked Games’ (below) And again in this medium shot in ‘The Zone’ (above). This has image that continues to recur creates an image of The Weeknd to the audience and tells us more about his personality.
  5. 5. There is frequently reference to notion of looking (screens within screens, telescopes etc. and particularly voyeuristic treatment of the female body) An example of this is rapper Drake’s music video for his song ‘Hold on, we’re going home’ in which the female is objectified for the ‘male gaze’
  6. 6. There is often intertextual reference (to films, TV programmes, other music videos etc.) Clip from Nicki Minaj – Stupid Stupid (January 2012) Clip from Shakira – She Wolf (July 2009)
  7. 7. Nicki Minaj makes intertextual references to various music videos in her music video for her record ‘Stupid Stupid’. Here, Nicki Minaj has recreated scenes from Shakira’s ‘She Wolf’ video by dancing in a cage.
  8. 8. Here, Nicki Minaj in the music video for her track ‘Stupid Stupid’ (top right) has imitated a shot from Jessie J’s hit record ‘Price Tag’ (bottom right) where there are special effects used to make the artists look minute on big chairs.
  9. 9. Lady Gaga – Bad Romance (November 2009) Again in Nicki Minaj’s same video she has mimicked Lady Gaga by wearing similar contacts to make her iris’ look extremely large.
  10. 10. Music videos demonstrate characteristics of the genre A characteristic of rap and hip-hop videos is the sexual objectification of females - Male artists often show little respect to females referring to them as ‘bitches’ and ‘hoes’. For example in Pusha T’s music video for his track ‘Sweet Serenade’
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