Literature Review: summarizing and synthesizing the current literature (In what ways do ST programs support student growth?—General understanding of topic)Integrated Research Review: starts from current connections seen—General understanding of a relationship. heavier on trends/implications.Goal: From a student perspective, ST successes in light of LT and vouched for successes
Anderson et al. (2006) +Battsek (1962) : objectivesuniversities want to cultivate an international mindset throughout the student population (Schwald, 2012)Trends – can ST accomplish the same goals?“…goal of study abroad programs is to provide students’ exposure to the international community. In that sense, short-term study abroad programs are not any different than long-term programs” (Slotkin et al., 2012)LT most advantageous by far (Dwyer, 2004; Medina-Lopez-Portillo, 2004)
Battsek(1962)Salisbury (2012) says that learning is complex and that under specific conditions where a program is designed with purpose, study abroad could help student’s intellectual development.Tests of language acquisition (Martinsen, 2008)Impossible to compare courses - STEM (Battsek, 1962; Schwald, 2012)Partners not vettedMust be realistic (Salisbury, 2012)Dwyer (2004): 50 years worth of datarelated obstacle for all programs is that “the interactions that students often have with native speakers while abroad may not be very useful for developing students’ oral skills” (Martinsen, 2008, 520) Quality over quantityTests prove that even LT have troubleWhat influences it? established ICS
internal and should not be confused with intercultural competence, which is external behaviors (Medina-Lopez-Portillo, 2004). White femalesPromotion of ICS when some ppl already experience it hereDifficult to test-- IDI system--- validated its reliability (Anderson et al., 2006; Medina-Lopez Portillo, 2004; )50 questionsstages: denial, defense, minimization,acceptance, adaptation and integration--- minimum of two yearsfactors affecting intercultural sensitivity are language proficiency, motivation to learn the language, presence of an on-site faculty director, types of interaction with natives, housing arrangements, and pre-, real time, and post-program evaluationsMartinsen (2011) time for reprieve.Anderson et al. (2006) Reversal step of the Defense IDI (where they lessened their tendency to see other cultures as better than their own) and with the Acceptance Adaptation (where they improved their ability to accept and adapt to cultural differences)Paige et al.’s (2004)Denial of Differencetheir own culture as the only “real” one… uninterestedDefense against Differencethe most “evolved” or best way to live. …overt negative stereotyping. Minimization of DifferenceThe experience of similarity outweighs the experience of difference. ..superficial cultural differences in food, customs, etc… they tend to overestimate their toleranceAcceptance of Differenceaccept the existence of culturally different ways of organizing human existence, although they do not necessarily like or agree with every way. …eager questioning of others.Adaptation to DifferenceEffective use of empathy, or frame of reference shifting, to understand and be understood across cultural boundaries.Integration of Differenceshift rather smoothly from one cultural worldview to another.
reflection, establishing identity, social constructions, understanding privilege, flexibility, creativity, and developing a sense of personal agency (Mather et al., 2012; Anderson et al., 2006). Short-term international experience can provide participants with "cognitive repositioning", or as Festervand et al. (2001, 110) describe it, “a dose of humility”.Martinsen (2008) found that students at least perceive important benefits--attitudes and interests. Dwyer (2004) personal impact=impressive regardless of the term length. Overall, 95% of the students said that study abroad had a lasting impact on their lives“a great deal more benefit will accrue to the student if he is restricted from rushing through the capital cities of European countries in the limited period at his disposal” (Battsek, 1962, 235).
contacts students Changing majors – international careers (LT 2x more likely)Hard --under the academic objective.soft skills -- not limited to: responsibility, flexibility, and time-management. connection with its purpose and usefulness-- seeing these things in action validates what the student is learning. Meetings with corporate officials, observation of business practices, and direct contact can back up these lectures from the home institution (Festervand & Tillery, 2001)
Slotkin et al. (2012), Dwyer (2004) & Salisbury (2012) said, QUALITY OVER QUANTITY. Dwyer (2004) – summer more than semesterMcMurtrie (2007) showed that faculty involvement in study abroad program design has increased.Going again: some studies more than half, others 20%, some proving that they were more likely to try another culture
Intercultural sensitivity is not limited to understanding only the other culture. The development of intercultural maturity, valuing what makes people different, and finding a way to reconcile the cultural challenges in relationship to one's identity is a valuable growth opportunity (Mather et al., 2012).
Study Abroad Objectives
The Accomplishments of Short-Term Programs
ELPA 701 · December 5, 2013
Literature Review vs. Integrated Research Review
Rationale: recent trends
Increases in Study Abroad
Dwyer, 2004; Lewis & Niesenbaum, 2005; McMurtrie, 2007; Rubin, 1996; Schwald, 2012; Wheeler, 2000
Increases in short-term programs
Anderson et al., 2006; Dwyer, 2004; Festervand & Tillery, 2001; Martinsen, 2011; McKeown, 2009; McMurtrie,
2007; Medina-Lopez-Portillo, 2004; Rubin, 1996; Schwald, 2012; Slotkin et al., 2012; Wheeler, 2000
Research question: In what ways are the four
objectives for study abroad, as identified by
Anderson et al. (2006), met by short-term study
Intercultural sensitivity development
Most important objective?
What is it? How to test it?
Comparing courses, unless faculty-led
Dwyer (2004) – 50 years
Graduate school, changing majors
Test: Intercultural Development
Inventory (Bennett, 1993)
How to get the most of it
Direction of study
Theory to reality
Summary of Findings and Implications
Findings & Implications
All objectives linked
In this relationship—implications
Organization of program: Quality/Quantity
Short-term leading to repeat or long-term
Completing and reinforcing objectives
Trends: white females and promotion
Need for language to truly immerse, but English
can be blinding
Immersion brings about personal challenges,
Direction in career
Direction in life
More on personal and professional
Studies on academics outside of
Results of English programs
Data from longer ranges—lasting
Bigger and more diverse samples
Do short-term study abroad
programs meet the four
the extent depending on the program construction and the student
Did any of the results surprise you?
What are your opinions on short-term or
Should any objective be prioritized?