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ELPA LR Presentation KCampbell

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  • Literature Review: summarizing and synthesizing the current literature (In what ways do ST programs support student growth?—General understanding of topic)Integrated Research Review: starts from current connections seen—General understanding of a relationship. heavier on trends/implications.Goal: From a student perspective, ST successes in light of LT and vouched for successes
  • Anderson et al. (2006) +Battsek (1962) : objectivesuniversities want to cultivate an international mindset throughout the student population (Schwald, 2012)Trends – can ST accomplish the same goals?“…goal of study abroad programs is to provide students’ exposure to the international community. In that sense, short-term study abroad programs are not any different than long-term programs” (Slotkin et al., 2012)LT most advantageous by far (Dwyer, 2004; Medina-Lopez-Portillo, 2004)
  • Battsek(1962)Salisbury (2012) says that learning is complex and that under specific conditions where a program is designed with purpose, study abroad could help student’s intellectual development.Tests of language acquisition (Martinsen, 2008)Impossible to compare courses - STEM (Battsek, 1962; Schwald, 2012)Partners not vettedMust be realistic (Salisbury, 2012)Dwyer (2004): 50 years worth of datarelated obstacle for all programs is that “the interactions that students often have with native speakers while abroad may not be very useful for developing students’ oral skills” (Martinsen, 2008, 520) Quality over quantityTests prove that even LT have troubleWhat influences it?  established ICS
  • internal and should not be confused with intercultural competence, which is external behaviors (Medina-Lopez-Portillo, 2004). White femalesPromotion of ICS when some ppl already experience it hereDifficult to test-- IDI system--- validated its reliability (Anderson et al., 2006; Medina-Lopez Portillo, 2004; )50 questionsstages: denial, defense, minimization,acceptance, adaptation and integration--- minimum of two yearsfactors affecting intercultural sensitivity are language proficiency, motivation to learn the language, presence of an on-site faculty director, types of interaction with natives, housing arrangements, and pre-, real time, and post-program evaluationsMartinsen (2011) time for reprieve.Anderson et al. (2006) Reversal step of the Defense IDI (where they lessened their tendency to see other cultures as better than their own) and with the Acceptance Adaptation (where they improved their ability to accept and adapt to cultural differences)Paige et al.’s (2004)Denial of Differencetheir own culture as the only “real” one… uninterestedDefense against Differencethe most “evolved” or best way to live. …overt negative stereotyping. Minimization of DifferenceThe experience of similarity outweighs the experience of difference. ..superficial cultural differences in food, customs, etc… they tend to overestimate their toleranceAcceptance of Differenceaccept the existence of culturally different ways of organizing human existence, although they do not necessarily like or agree with every way. …eager questioning of others.Adaptation to DifferenceEffective use of empathy, or frame of reference shifting, to understand and be understood across cultural boundaries.Integration of Differenceshift rather smoothly from one cultural worldview to another.
  • reflection, establishing identity, social constructions, understanding privilege, flexibility, creativity, and developing a sense of personal agency (Mather et al., 2012; Anderson et al., 2006). Short-term international experience can provide participants with "cognitive repositioning", or as Festervand et al. (2001, 110) describe it, “a dose of humility”.Martinsen (2008) found that students at least perceive important benefits--attitudes and interests. Dwyer (2004) personal impact=impressive regardless of the term length. Overall, 95% of the students said that study abroad had a lasting impact on their lives“a great deal more benefit will accrue to the student if he is restricted from rushing through the capital cities of European countries in the limited period at his disposal” (Battsek, 1962, 235).
  • contacts students Changing majors – international careers (LT 2x more likely)Hard --under the academic objective.soft skills -- not limited to: responsibility, flexibility, and time-management. connection with its purpose and usefulness-- seeing these things in action validates what the student is learning. Meetings with corporate officials, observation of business practices, and direct contact can back up these lectures from the home institution (Festervand & Tillery, 2001)
  • Slotkin et al. (2012), Dwyer (2004) & Salisbury (2012) said, QUALITY OVER QUANTITY. Dwyer (2004) – summer more than semesterMcMurtrie (2007) showed that faculty involvement in study abroad program design has increased.Going again: some studies more than half, others 20%, some proving that they were more likely to try another culture
  • Intercultural sensitivity is not limited to understanding only the other culture. The development of intercultural maturity, valuing what makes people different, and finding a way to reconcile the cultural challenges in relationship to one's identity is a valuable growth opportunity (Mather et al., 2012).
  • Transcript

    • 1. Study Abroad Objectives The Accomplishments of Short-Term Programs Kathleen Campbell ELPA 701 · December 5, 2013
    • 2. Introduction  Literature Review vs. Integrated Research Review  Goal  Rationale: recent trends  Increases in Study Abroad Dwyer, 2004; Lewis & Niesenbaum, 2005; McMurtrie, 2007; Rubin, 1996; Schwald, 2012; Wheeler, 2000  Increases in short-term programs Anderson et al., 2006; Dwyer, 2004; Festervand & Tillery, 2001; Martinsen, 2011; McKeown, 2009; McMurtrie, 2007; Medina-Lopez-Portillo, 2004; Rubin, 1996; Schwald, 2012; Slotkin et al., 2012; Wheeler, 2000  Research question: In what ways are the four objectives for study abroad, as identified by Anderson et al. (2006), met by short-term study abroad experiences?
    • 3. Evernote Strategy 1962-2012 Academic Journals Books Tools Sources Methods Topical Timeline where applicable
    • 4. Research Review  Academic benefits  Intercultural sensitivity development  Personal growth  Professional development
    • 5. Academics  Most important objective?  What is it? How to test it?  Language acquisition  Comparing courses, unless faculty-led  Dwyer (2004) – 50 years  Graduate school, changing majors
    • 6. Intercultural Sensitivity  Internal—not behavior  Test: Intercultural Development Inventory (Bennett, 1993)  Denialdefenseminimization acceptanceadaptationintegration  2 years
    • 7. Personal Growth  Individual, subjective  ―Cognitive repositioning‖  Duration  How to get the most of it
    • 8. Professional Development  Contacts  Direction of study  Soft skills  Theory to reality  Business students
    • 9. Conclusions Summary of Findings and Implications
    • 10. Findings & Implications  All objectives linked  In this relationship—implications  Organization of program: Quality/Quantity  Short-term leading to repeat or long-term  Completing and reinforcing objectives  Trends: white females and promotion
    • 11. Connections & Implications  Academics-ICS  Need for language to truly immerse, but English can be blinding  ICS-Personal Growth  Immersion brings about personal challenges, questioning reality  Academics-ICS-Personal Growth  Direction in career  All  Direction in life
    • 12. Future Research  More on personal and professional growth  Studies on academics outside of language  Results of English programs  Data from longer ranges—lasting effects?  Bigger and more diverse samples
    • 13. Do short-term study abroad programs meet the four objectives? Yes— the extent depending on the program construction and the student
    • 14. Discussion  Did any of the results surprise you?  What are your opinions on short-term or faculty-led programs?  Should any objective be prioritized?

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