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atoms and molecules

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  1. 1. Atoms, Quarks and Molecules OH!!!!!! MY!!!!! For my sweet Brittany and her Chemistry Friends!
  2. 2. <ul><li>Sometimes in Chemistry the teacher forgets to tell you some of the most important concepts because they think you already know it </li></ul><ul><li>This power point is to help organize the ideas of the basics of what atoms are and how they are organized </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Atoms are small particles that are made up of electrons, protons and neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>Together the protons and neutrons create the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>The electrons travel around the nucleus </li></ul>
  4. 4. Just like the planets travel around the sun, electrons travel around the nucleus <ul><li>Atom </li></ul><ul><li>Planets around sun </li></ul>
  5. 5. Charges of Atoms <ul><li>Protons have a positive charge + </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons have a negative charge - </li></ul><ul><li>Neutrons have a neutral charge 0 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Subatomic Particles <ul><li>Subatomic particles are a fancy name for the small particles that make up atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: electrons, protons, neutrons </li></ul>
  7. 7. Size and Charge of subatomic particles <ul><li>The three particles are different in size and charge. Neutrons have no charge and are the largest subatomic particles. They are roughly the size of both a proton and an electron put together. Protons are slightly smaller than neutrons and have a positive (+) charge. Electrons are the smallest of all and carry a negative (-) charge. </li></ul>
  8. 8. That’s right! <ul><li>Protons = + Positive </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons = - Negative </li></ul><ul><li>Neutrons = 0 Neutral </li></ul>
  9. 9. In an atom(element) # protons = # electrons <ul><li>If the # protons = # electrons </li></ul><ul><li>And protons are positive and electrons are negative </li></ul><ul><li>And Neutrons are neutral charge </li></ul><ul><li>An Atom or Element have a net neutral 0 Charge </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Electrons are white and negative </li></ul><ul><li>Protons are yellow and positive </li></ul><ul><li>Neutrons are orange and have no charge </li></ul>
  11. 11. Size of Atoms Particles <ul><li>Protons and neutrons are about the same size. </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons are very very very small </li></ul><ul><li>The mass of the atom is mostly in the nucleus </li></ul>
  12. 12. Remember: <ul><li>The Nucleus is the protons and the neutrons together. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>The words Atoms and Elements mean the same thing </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>The periodic chart is a chart that organizes the properties of atoms (elements) </li></ul><ul><li>The periodic chart can tell you a lot about the properties of the atom (element) </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Periodic Chart can tell you: <ul><li>How much the atom’s mass is </li></ul><ul><li>How many electrons an atom has </li></ul><ul><li>How many protons an atom has </li></ul><ul><li>How many neutrons an atom has </li></ul><ul><li>It can also tell you how reactive the atoms are to one another. This reactivity helps atoms to form with one another. </li></ul>
  16. 16. A periodic chart has two numbers on each element <ul><li>Atomic Number = </li></ul><ul><li>The number of protons and the number of electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic Mass = </li></ul><ul><li>What the mass of one mole of the element is equal to </li></ul><ul><li>(a mole is 6 x 10 to the 23 rd atoms) </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li># protons = Atomic # </li></ul><ul><li># electrons = Atomic # </li></ul><ul><li># neutrons = Atomic Mass – Atomic Number </li></ul>
  18. 19. Helium: Look at a periodic Chart <ul><li>Atomic # = 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic Mass = 4 (round it off) </li></ul><ul><li># of protons = 2 </li></ul><ul><li># of electrons = 2 </li></ul><ul><li># of neutrons = 4 – 2 = 2 </li></ul>
  19. 20. Barium: Look at a periodic Chart <ul><li>Atomic Mass = 137 </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic # = 56 </li></ul><ul><li># of protons = 56 </li></ul><ul><li># of electrons = 56 </li></ul><ul><li># of neutrons = </li></ul><ul><li>137- 56 = 81 </li></ul>
  20. 21. Find the number of electrons, protons and neutrons for the following elements (atoms) Phosphate Nitrogen Chlorine Sodium Carbon Calcium Hydrogen # neutrons # protons # electrons Atom
  21. 22. Find the number of electrons, protons and neutrons for the following elements (atoms) 16 15 15 Phosphate 7 7 7 Nitrogen 18 17 17 Chlorine 12 11 11 Sodium 6 6 6 Carbon 20 20 20 Calcium 0 1 1 Hydrogen # neutrons # protons # electrons Atom
  22. 23. A good interactive website that describes what atoms are built up of <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Click here to see atom website </li></ul>
  23. 24. This website is an interactive website that will teach you about finding # of electrons, neutrons, protons Website to learn number of protons neutrons and electrons
  24. 25. <ul><li>Website to teach element reactivity </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>Demonstration of atoms forming a bond </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  26. 28. How to find number of electrons in orbitals <ul><li>Website to show number of electrons in orbitals </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
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