Diabetes Management

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Diabetes Management

  1. 1. The ABCs of Diabetes Managing Diabetes Presented byVisiting Nurse and Community Health
  2. 2. Famous Diabetics Patti LaBelle, singer James Cagney, actor Mary Tyler Moore, actress  Delta Burke, actress  Johnny Cash, C&W singer  Ernest Hemingway, novelist
  3. 3. Test Your Diabetes IQ1. Can you catch diabetes? a. Yes b. No c. Only if I don’t wash my hands
  4. 4. Test Your Diabetes IQ1. Can you catch diabetes? a. Yes b. No c. Only if I don’t wash my handsAnswer: B – Diabetes is not a contagious disease. However, having a blood relative with Type 2 diabetes is a significant risk factor.
  5. 5. Test Your Diabetes IQ2. Are there different types of diabetes a. Yes, Types 1 and 2, and Gestational diabetes b. No, one size fits all c. None of the above
  6. 6. Test Your Diabetes IQ2. Are there different types of diabetes a. Yes, Types 1 and 2, and Gestational diabetes b. No, one size fits all c. None of the aboveAnswer: A – Type 1 or juvenile-onset diabetes; Type 2, or adult-onset diabetes; and Gestational diabetes, which occurs during pregnancy
  7. 7. Test Your Diabetes IQ3. Can you lessen the chances of getting Type 2 diabetes? a. Yes, good nutrition, exercise and leading a healthy lifestyle can prevent or delay it b. No, so eat, drink and be merry c. All of the above
  8. 8. Test Your Diabetes IQ3. Can you lessen the chances of getting Type 2 diabetes? a. Yes, good nutrition, exercise and leading a healthy lifestyle can prevent or delay it b. No, so eat, drink and be merry c. All of the aboveAnswer: A – By eating healthy foods and exercising regularly, Type 2 diabetes can be delayed and even prevented
  9. 9. Test Your Diabetes IQ4. Is there a cure for Type 2 diabetes? a. Yes, just ask your CVS pharmacist b. No, but researchers are close to finding a cure for Type 1 diabetes c. Maybe, it depends on what type of mattress you sleep on
  10. 10. Test Your Diabetes IQ4. Is there a cure for Type 2 diabetes? a. Yes, just ask your CVS pharmacist b. No, but researchers are close to finding a cure for Type 1 diabetes c. Maybe, it depends on what type of mattress you sleep onAnswer: B – While researchers are close to finding a cure for Type 1 diabetes, there’s still a long way to go for a Type 2 cure
  11. 11. Diabetes Facts Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin 20.8 million people in the US, or 7% of the population,  Type 2 diabetes represents have diabetes 85-90% of all cases Of that number, 6.2 million  Type 2 diabetes is usually people (or nearly one-third) diagnosed in adults over 50, but increasingly is occurring are unaware that they have at a younger age the disease  While there is no cure, The three major types are diabetes can be managed, Type 1, Type 2, and and sometimes prevented Gestational diabetes
  12. 12. Diabetes Risk FactorsType 2 diabetes is most likely to occur if you:  Are over 45 and have high blood pressure  Are over 45 and overweight  Are over 45 and have one or more family members with diabetes  Are over 55
  13. 13. Diabetes Risk FactorsType 2 diabetes is most likely to occur if you:  Have heart disease or have had a heart attack  Have had high blood sugar levels during pregnancy  Have had a borderline high blood sugar test Have polycystic ovary syndrome and are overweight Are Aboriginal or a Torres Strait Islander aged over 35 Are a Pacific Islander, from a Chinese culture background, or from the Indian sub-continent and are over 35
  14. 14. Diabetes Symptoms  Frequent urination  Excessive thirst  Extreme hunger  Unusual weight loss  Increased fatigue
  15. 15. Diabetes Symptoms  Numbness or tingling in the feet or legs  Blurred vision  Frequent infections  Itchiness  Irritability
  16. 16. Diagnosing Diabetes In diagnosing diabetes, physicians primarily depend upon the results of specific glucose tests Doctors also take into account your physical exam, presence or absence of symptoms, and medical history Some people will have transient problems with elevated blood sugars that will return to normal after the illness has resolved
  17. 17. Diagnosing Diabetes Some medications may alter your blood glucose levels (most commonly steroids) and certain diuretics (water pills) Three tests are used to measure the presence of blood sugar problems are:  Fasting blood sugar test: the direct measurement of glucose levels in the blood during an overnight fast;  Glucose tolerance test: the measurement of the bodys ability to appropriately handle the excess sugar presented after drinking a high glucose drink; and  An A1C (also known as glycated hemoglobin or HbA1c) test: gives you a picture of your average blood glucose control for the past 2 to 3 months.
  18. 18. Managing Diabetes Type 2 diabetes is usually controlled by healthy eating and regular exercise, both of which often result in weight loss Some people may require oral medications which:  Help the pancreas produce more insulin, or  Help the body to use insulin more effectively, or  Slow down the rate at which glucose is absorbed after eating a meal When dietary changes, exercise and/or oral medication aren’t effective, insulin injections are required
  19. 19. Diabetes ComplicationsUntreated or poorly managed diabetes can lead to: Damage to the eyes, leading to loss of vision Artery damage, increasing the risk of heart attack or stroke Kidney damage  Nerve damage in toes and feet, increasing risk of amputation  Impotence in men  Pregnancy complications
  20. 20. Diabetes and Nutrition You should have 3 meals and 3 snacks per day There are 3 types of carbohydrates  Fiber  Starch  Sugar Dietary fiber does not raise  Total carbohydrates per snack blood sugar should run between 15 and 20 Starches and sugars are the grams reason for blood sugar to rise  Eat about the same number of Total carbohydrates per meal carbs at each meal should run between 40 and 55 grams (40-45 for women; 50-55  Keep a food diary for 1 week to for men) see the number of carbs you have eaten
  21. 21. Diabetes and Nutrition In general, use a 9’ plate Cover 1/2 of the plate with non-starchy vegetables  Lettuce, cabbage, cucumbers, peppers, mushrooms, onions, garlic, green beans, broccoli, celery, carrots, cauliflower, tomatoes Cover 1/4 of the plate with high protein foods  Cover 1/4 of the plate with  Some options are 3 ounces of starchy foods lean meat, skinless poultry,  Some options are 1 slice bread; ½ fish or tofu; 1-2 eggs; 2 Tbsp. cup hot cereal or ¾ cup dry non- peanut butter; 1/3 cup nuts; sweetened cereal; 1/3 cup cooked 2 ounces of cheese pasta or rice; ½ cup dried beans or lentils; ½ cup potatoes, corn, or peas, cauliflower, tomatoes
  22. 22. And in Conclusion …You can manage, and possibly prevent, diabetes by:  Maintaining a healthy weight  Eating a healthy, balanced diet  Ensuring adequate levels of daily exercise
  23. 23. On behalf of Visiting Nurse and CommunityHealth, thank you. Are there any questions?

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