Robert andrews millikan


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Robert andrews millikan

  1. 1. Robert Andrews Millikan<br />By: Kaylen McMahan<br />
  2. 2. About…<br />Robert Andrews Millikan was born in Illinois.<br />He loved science.<br /> <br />
  3. 3. The College Years<br />Millikan went to Oberlin College in 1891 and received his doctorate from Colombia University in 1895.<br />He went on to teach at the University of Chicago, where he became a fulltime professor in 1910.<br />
  4. 4. Oil Drop Experiment<br />In 1909 Millikan began experimenting with electric charge.<br />He wanted to find out the electric charge of a single electron. <br />He obtained these results in 1910 with his famous oil-drop experiment, where he exchanged water for oil. <br />Oil-drop <br />experiment<br />
  5. 5. Oil Drop Experiment in Depth<br />Photoelectric Effect<br />•The main failure was that there was no way of isolating an individual particle.<br />•For his experiment Millikan used very tiny oil droplets (due to its low evaporation rate). The oil droplets picked up a charge due to friction with oxygen molecules.<br />•They were also subjected to radiation source so that the probability of charged oil drops will be high in the chamber.<br />•These droplets were allowed to fall initially under the influence of gravity and air resistance. <br />•By focusing on a single oil drop its terminal velocity was calculated. Then the oil drops were subjected to electric field. <br />Over a ten-year program of experimentation, Robert Millikan devised the apparatus to verify Einstein's theory. <br />Inside an evacuated glass bulb, a plate of an alkali metal, such as lithium, sodium, or potassium, was mounted on a wheel which moved past a scraper knife and then into the path of monochromatic light at various frequencies. <br />Millikan measured the voltage required to prevent the induced current. <br />The graph of incident light frequency vs. voltage was a straight line. Einstein's equation was verified.<br />
  6. 6. Studying Einstein<br />He studied Einstein’s equation in 1916. <br />He then used this reserearch that he gained from experimentation to gain an exact value of Planck’s constant. <br /> <br />
  7. 7. Cosmic Radiation<br />In 1921 he went on to become the director of the Norman Bridge Laboratory of Physics at CalTech. <br />It was here that he studied radiation that physicist Victor Hess had detected came from outer space (the sun). <br />Millikan proved that radiation had indeed come from outer space. <br />He named this radiation ‘cosmic rays’.<br /> <br />Until Millikan retired from working as chairman of the executive council at CalTech, he transformed CalTech into one of the primary researching schools in the nation.<br />
  8. 8. Man of ‘Nobel’ Stature<br />He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1923 for determining the charge of an electron in 1913 and Planck’s constant in 1916.<br />His research with the oil drop experiment and photoelectric effect won him this award.<br />He studied with Max Planck in Germany and he also studied withHermann Nernst at Göttingen. <br /> <br />
  9. 9. Citations<br />•Millikan, Robert Andrews. ( 2010). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved   February  24,  2010, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition:<br />•Millikan, Robert Andrews. [Photograph]. Retrieved February  24,  2010, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition:<br />•RM, p. (2003). Robert Andrews Millikan (1868-1953). Hutchinson's Biography Database, 1. Retrieved from History Reference Center database. <br />•Salem Press/Magill, B. (1999). Millikan Explains Cosmic Rays. Great Scientific Achievements (p. 241). US: Salem Press/Magill Books. Retrieved from History Reference Center database <br />•Salem Press/Magill, B. (1999). Millikan Conducts His Oil-Drop Experiment. Great Scientific Achievements (p. 145). US: Salem Press/Magill Books. Retrieved from History Reference Center database.<br />Audio: Dream on <br />as performed by Aerosmith<br />