ALTERNATIVE/COMPUTER ACCESS AND THE WRITING PROCESS Professional Development Session Region 4 ESC 1/15/2013 Blaise Mladenka / Lynn Guthrie
Session resourcesHandouts (hard copy for quick reference)A Wikispace with all documents relating to this presentation :―Alternative Computer Access and the Writing Process‖ @http://specializededtechsupport.wikispaces.com/ Includes: Presentation notes Handout materials ―How to…‖ Guides Links to Internet Resources Additional Resource documents References
The Writing Process (an overview)Emergent literacy … the developmental stages of writingSpelling StagesWriting SkillsStages in the Writing Process
Early Writing Stages: Random scribbling (15 months To 2.5 years) Controlled Scribbling (2 to 3 years) Lines and Patterns (2.5.to 3.5 years) Pictures of objects and people (3 to 5 years) Letter and word practice (3 to 5 years)Hogan, Kathy Scribbles, Drawings, & Invented Spelling; The Journey to Becoming a WriterPresented at the Reading & Writing Conference, Region 4 ESC November 10, 2012
Spelling DevelopmentPrephonemic/preliterate - random letters or streams(zxcv =team)Early Phonemic - one consonant sound or equivalent prominent in theword(t = team)Consonant frame – 2 to 3 of the prominent consonants (K / early 1st)(tm = team)Phonetic - each sound is represented with a letter. (1st grade) (tem, tim = team)Transitional - incorrect spellings that apply standard English spellingconventions (2nd grade) (teem, teme = team)Conventional – correct spelling (team) DeCoste, Denise ―Assistive Technology Assessment: Developing a Written Productivity Profile‖ Presented at the TATN State Conference June 13, 2012 Citing Ferroli and Shanahan (1987) ―Spelling Stages‖
Spelling DevelopmentWithin-word patterns - spell short vowel sounds correctly andsome long vowel combinations2nd to 4th grade(teme, teem = team)Syllable juncture – single syllable words are spelled with correctvowels patterns; working on unstressed syllables in words3rd to 8th grade(hopeing = hoping; sampul – sample; squirle = squirrel)Derivational constancy – students understand that words arederived from the same root and apply this to spellingMiddle school into adulthoodCompasition = compose/composition; confedence =confide/confidenceDeCoste, Denise ―Assistive Technology Assessment: Developing a Written Productivity Profile‖Presented at the TATN State Conference June 13, 2012Citing Templeton (2002) ―Within-word Patterns‖
Texas Essential Knowledge of Skills for Writing • Penmanship/Capitalization/Punctuation • Purpose • Writing Processes • Spelling • Grammar/Usage • Evaluation • Connections(Refer to the ―Texas Essential Knowledge of Skills for Writing (a checklist ofTEKS K – 12)‖ in the Internet Resources document for a link to the document)
Texas Essential Knowledge of Skills for Writing (a K – 12 checklist) (As posted in the Writing Module on the TATN website)http://www.texasat.net/docs/Writing_TEKS%20Effective%20Writing%20Instruction.pdf
TEA’s Writing Process Stages (As posted in the Writing Module on the TATN website)http://www.texasat.net/docs/Writing%20Process%20Stages.pdf
Assessment Informal Assessment In Educational EvaluationThe value of informal assessments for writing (in the context of bilingualeducation) … and some considerations in doing soDiscussions of Standardized Vs. Informal testingSamples of structured and unstructured informal assessmentsIdeas on how to proceed available @ http://www.finchpark.com/courses/assess/informal.htm ( Refer to the Internet Resources document for a link to this article)
To determine where a student is in the writing process:• Teacher/parent surveys• Therapist observations• Typical work samples• Comparisons to previewed checklists• Formal skills checklistsAdditional sources that be helpful: The Bridge Assessment Evaluation Tool of Children’s Handwriting Written Productivity Profile (WWP Referenced in the Internet Resources or Vendor’s List documents
Practice with the Written Productivity Profile (WPP) A ―complete‖ writing profile includes: 1. Handwriting speed across 4 tasks 2. Keyboarding speed across 4 tasks 3. Spelling development 4. The ability to compose based on writing traits • Ideas • Organization • Word choice • Voice • Sentence fluency • ConventionsDeCoste, Denise ―Assistive Technology Assessment: Developing a Written Productivity Profile‖Presented at the TATN State Conference June 13, 2012
Writing Tasks Timed for letters / words per minuteAlphabetCopying from a modelWriting from dictationIndependent composition
Handwriting and keyboard developmentResearch findings shared:Students still need handwriting for many tasks.Difficulties with handwriting lead children to avoid writing / see selves as lesscompetent.Both handwriting and computer skills are needed.Lower marks are sometimes assigned to students w/ poor handwriting.Some students feel socially isolated and bullied. Based on research compiled by Denise DeCoste ―Assistive Technology Assessment: Developing a Written Productivity Profile‖ Presented at the TATN State Conference June 13, 2012
4th graders with and without LD take longer to type than write by hand.Around 5th grade, handwriting speeds (average) 10 WPM.Keyboarding speeds without explicit keyboarding instruction is slower thathandwriting speeds in elementary (2 years behind).Handwriting quality is not related to keyboarding baseline…students still learn keyboarding at the same rate.Special education students had lower baselines, but acquired skills at the samerate as non-special education students.With instruction, 5th and 6th graders progress faster than 3rd and 4th graders. Based on research compiled by Denise DeCoste ―Assistive Technology Assessment: Developing a Written Productivity Profile‖ Presented at the TATN State Conference June 13, 2012
6th graders, after 12 weeks of instruction were faster keyboarding thanhandwriting; even the 20 slowest produced 75% more text with keyboardingthan handwriting.Students receiving 8 weeks of 20 minutes / day resulted in keyboarding at thesame rate as handwriting.Students produced longer and better essays after keyboarding becamecomparable to handwriting speeds. Based on research compiled by Denise DeCoste ―Assistive Technology Assessment: Developing a Written Productivity Profile‖ Presented at the TATN State Conference June 13, 2012
Keyboarding is not always practical• if the student does not retain the ability to quickly locate keys.• if handwriting is still faster after significant keyboarding practice.Keyboarding is appropriate• If handwriting is too difficult or illegible.• If keyboarding speed is faster than handwriting speed.Keyboarding training should begin in 3rd grade.Keyboarding is not necessarily a solution when written languageand / or spelling deficits are major issues.When handwriting and keyboarding are adequate efforts should focuson developing needed language / spelling skills.Keyboarding alone will not overcome a student’s lack of ability in theseareas, though it can provide an efficient means of editing. Based on research compiled by Denise DeCoste ―Assistive Technology Assessment: Developing a Written Productivity Profile‖ Presented at the TATN State Conference June 13, 2012
So when should we recommend keyboarding Vs. handwritingWhat factors might determine which to emphasize?Should we ―qualify‖ when keyboarding should be allowedi.e., which tasks?
And then … there is voice to text writing…. (voice recognition software) When do we go there? And why? And why not?
General strategies to support the writing process―Scribbles, Drawing, and Invented Spelling: The Journey to Becoming a Writer‖• Especially good resource regarding organizing the writing environment and noting the steps in guided writing• Does not address adaptations for students who need ―alternative pencils‖ Some points re writing environments: • A meeting area • A writing center • Writing conference area • The publishing area • Literacy enriched play centers Some points re Routines • Mini-lessons (mentor texts/ modeled writing/interactive writing / graphic organizers/writing samples) • Uninterrupted writing time • Author’s chair • Writing routines (morning message/daily news/show-n-tell / message boards)Kathy Hogan ―Scribbles, Drawings, & Invented Spelling; The Journey to Becoming a Writer‖ Presented at the Reading& Writing Conference, Region 4 ESC November 10, 2012
General strategies to support the writing processSome additional resources: ReadWriteThink Lesson plans, rubrics, and strategies and interactive on line activities for supporting reading and writing skills. www.readwritethink.net Printable checklists for writing Teachers can create writing checklists (any specific skills ) by using this on-line tool. Students can use these checklists Monitor their writing. http://pblchecklist.4teachers.org/checklist.shtml
Strategies to support the writing process for students with special needs Students who have specific needs related to vision, hearing, motor, print and cognitive challenges may need alternative tools to support the development of writing skills.
Resources to Consider for the Emergent Writer―Emergent Literacy for All‖Addresses supporting emergent literacy, and offers alternative toolsfor students to use to support the development of writing• Notes important concepts of emergent writing• Stresses the importance of focus on function (writing) Vs. form (tool)• Offers ideas for finding the ―write‖ tool• Provides tips on how to teach meaning of writing to emergent writers• Offers suggestions for meaningful writing tasks• Emphasizes use of meaningful context for early writing• Presents considerations in assessing beginning writing• Gives step by step guidance in some specific writing activities• Shares links to other resources Gretchen Hanser PhD for Louisiana Department of Education@ http://sda.doe.louisiana.gov/ResourceFiles/Literacy/LA-EL9-2011-HO.pdf Based primarily on work done at the Center for Literacy & Disabilities Studies University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
A select slide from ―Emergent Literacy for All‖(Pencil)• Pick a pencil that has the most potential for students to EASILY use.• Students DO NOT need to know their letters in order to get an alternative pencil.• Students learn about pencils and letters by writing.• Early writing is a PERFECT way to work on motor skills and letter knowledge.• Students must have access to the full alphabet.• Their ―scribble‖ will look different—it is not about how the actual letter is physically formed by hand. Gretchen Hanser PhD for Louisiana Department of Education@ http://sda.doe.louisiana.gov/ResourceFiles/Literacy/LA-EL9-2011-HO.pdf Based primarily on work done at the Center for Literacy & Disabilities Studies University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Suggestions from ―Emergent Literacy for All‖(tools) • Large keyboards • Portable word processors • Labelers • Eye gaze boards • Intellikeys board Gretchen Hanser PhD for Louisiana Department of Education@ http://sda.doe.louisiana.gov/ResourceFiles/Literacy/LA-EL9-2011-HO.pdf Based primarily on work done at the Center for Literacy & Disabilities Studies University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Roy, Vicky Poston ―Alternative Pencils: Writing with Students with Significant Disabilities‖ Presented at theTATN State Conference June 12, 2012Source pictures from the ―Alternative Pencils‖ CD Available from the Center for Literacy & DisabilitiesStudies, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
A select slide from ―Emergent Literacy for All‖(teaching strategies)Give Informative Feedback- Give the Scribbles Meaning • You’ve written a lot of letters—let’s see if we can count them.‖ • Point to one of your letters-let’s see if it is in someone’s name. • ‖You have a lot of ―c‖s in your writing. Let’s find all of them.‖ • Pick a letter and let’s find something in the room that starts with that letter.‖ • Pick a letter and let’s write a letter book with it.‖ Gretchen Hanser PhD for Louisiana Department of Education@ http://sda.doe.louisiana.gov/ResourceFiles/Literacy/LA-EL9-2011-HO.pdf Based primarily on work done at the Center for Literacy & Disabilities Studies University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
A select slide from ―Emergent Literacy for All‖(authentic writing activities)Have a Context for Early Writing • Context for responding to writing • Verbal/Signed choices based on student • Pictures • Movies • Objects/Tactuals • Personal Remnant Books • Classroom Remnant Lists/Charts Gretchen Hanser PhD for Louisiana Department of Education@ http://sda.doe.louisiana.gov/ResourceFiles/Literacy/LA-EL9-2011-HO.pdf Based primarily on work done at the Center for Literacy & Disabilities Studies University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
A select slide from ―Emergent Literacy for All‖(authentic writing activities)Name Writing for Authentic Reasons • Always model correct attempt afterwards • Student makes attempt with alternative pencil. Meryl’s attempt: QBC • Adult follows up with: - ―You wrote QBC. Here’s how I write your name.‖ - Adult uses alternative pencil to write correctly. • Providing a model afterwards gives a cognitive structure for later use. • Focus on teaching students to ―think like writers.‖ (Karen Erickson, 2009) Gretchen Hanser PhD for Louisiana Department of Education@ http://sda.doe.louisiana.gov/ResourceFiles/Literacy/LA-EL9-2011-HO.pdf Based primarily on work done at the Center for Literacy & Disabilities Studies University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Resources to Consider for the Emergent WriterAn eye gaze system to love… ―Lennart‖ … can be viewed @http://youtube.com/watch?v=6_PgPFSV_hs―Predictable Chart Writing‖A step by step ―how to‖ adapted for emergent writerswho need alternative pencils.Available through The Center for Literacy & Disabilities Studies (CLDS)@ http://www.med.unc.edu/ahs/cldsAlternative Pencils product available at UNC @https://www.med.unc.edu/ahs/clds/products/available-for-purchase
Resources to Consider for the Struggling Writer The TATN Writing Module ―Technology Supports for Struggling Writers‖ is our ―go to‖ guide for resources to support students within the framework of TEA’s Writing Process Stages. Components of the Writing Module: • Writing Process Stages • Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for Writing • Handout and Guide • Technology Links for Writing InstructionThe TATN Writing Module @ http://www.texasat.net/default.aspx?name=trainmod.writing
The TATN Writing Module― Technology Supports for Struggling Writers‖Handout and Guide:• Effective Elements of Writing Instruction• Instructional vs. Compensatory Interventions• Strategies for tool Use• Considerations of task demand and student challenges with each stage in the writing process• Specific technology supports for each stage Click on the link ―The Handout and Guide‖ @ http://www.texasat.net/default.aspx?name=trainmod.writing
The TATN Writing Module― Technology Supports for Struggling Writers‖ The ―Technology Links for Writing Instruction‖ includes (for each stage): • No tech/ Low tech options • Technology products • Manufacturer • Website • Description of the tool Click on the link ―Technology Links for Writing Instruction‖ @ http://www.texasat.net/default.aspx?name=trainmod.writingFor some of the same in slightly different format (e.g.,Assistive Technology Devices for Writing and Spelling)visit the Georgia Project for Assertive Technology resources pages available @http://www.gpat.org/Georgia-Project-for-Assistive-Technology/Pages/default.aspx
Blogs (info and comments re tools) on reading and writing difficulties@ http://www.spectronicsinoz.com/blog/tag/reading-and-writing-difficulties/ Such topics as: • Hot keys for Read & Write Gold • Using iPads to support students who struggle with literacy • Apps for Phonics • Reviews of specific products • Apps for special education
Resources to guide the tool decision making processThe AIM Navigator:As posted on the site: ―a process facilitator that guides the workof a collaborative team as they work through the AIM-related needsof individual students.‖ Available @ http://aim.cast.org/navigator/pageThe Dell Assistive Technology Solution Configuration Tool :Dells Assistive Technology Services for education provides a toolto ―Configure an ATS solution‖. Available @https://www.evas.com/eduplan/configurator.php
Tools Word Processors/spelling support/graphic organizersWord processors as a stand-aloneAdditional supports within the processor• spell check / grammar check• auto correct• enhancement features such as size, color, spacing, simplified toolbarSpecialized tools/strategies• use of highlighter• created form fields• work in outline viewOn-line dictionaries Microsoft OneNote ―5 Ways Microsoft OneNote Can Help Students With Dyslexia Stay Organized‖ @ http://www.microsoft.com/education/en-us/teachers/how-to/Pages/OneNote_for_dyslexia.aspx
Students may need additional supports such as: • Text to speech feedback e.g., IntelliTalk Writing with Symbols 2000 / Sym Writer Narrator Write:Outloud • Word prediction support e.g., Word Q Soothsayer Co:WriterA features comparison of word prediction software is available @http://www.spectronicsinoz.com/article/word-prediction-software-comparison-chart
Literacy Supports Software―all in one‖ software ( talking word processor, spelling support and more …)WYNNSOLORead & Write GoldKurzweilClaroCrick’s ―Write OnLine‖ writer A ―Literacy Supports Software Comparisons Chart‖ is available @ http://www.spectronicsinoz.com/article/literacy-support-software-comparison-chart
Accessible Instructional Materials ( a sampling)Classroom Suite, a software suite with multiple course contents forinstruction; @http://www.intellitools.com/classroom-suite.htmlLiteracy Lab, an accessible early literacy instructional program … readingand writing @http://www.mayer-johnson.com/literacy-lab/Boardmaker PreMade Activites @http://www.mayer-johnson.com/pre-made/
Portable word processors• w/ & w/o speech feedback• w/ spell check• w/word predictione.g. Fusion / Forte AlphaSmart / Neo
Spellcheck/Grammar checkGinger Proofreader, a free downloadable spelling and grammar check @http://www.gingersoftware.com/?cpn=1&adg=1&ad=1&cnt=1&ln=1&gclid=COfK3ubFsbICFQc4nAod8AkArwYouTube video on Ginger Grammar/Spell Checker @http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XJqc5JIiDCI&feature=relatedAdvanced spell checkers compared @http://www.callscotland.org.uk/Resources/Quick-Guides/Assets/Downloads/Writing-Support-Tools_Advanced-Spellcheckers-Compared.pdf
Portable dictionaries/Talking reading pensPhonetic Dictionaries/Talking Dictionaries e.g., Franklin Talking DictionariesReading Pens e.g., WizCom’s Readingpen See a YouTube video demo of the WizCom Readingpen @ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_f400NcyxtM
Graphic OrganizersKidspirationInspirationDraft Builder Text 2 Mind Map is a free on-line ―outline-to-visual map‖ tool available @ http://www.text2mindmap.com/
Accessible text Making (almost) any document accessible for the writerSources of text:• Relevant internet documents• On-line curricula (e.g., end of chapter summaries or quizzes)• Hardcopy documents scanned as a PDF fileReasons for converting:• Access via word processor to address the handwriting challenge• Reduce / modify the content• Simplify vocabulary• Access via form fields• Easy ―answer mode‖ (e.g., highlight or underline answers)• Make more accessible for ―literacy supports software‖
Accessible text Making (almost) any document accessible for the writerUse of PDF converterse.g., Adobe Acrobat ProRefer to ―Using Adobe Acrobat Pro to Convert a PDF file‖in the ―How To guides‖ for simple directions on converting a PDFfile to editable text (a text file)There are 2 documents available for download about working with Adobe tomake documents interactive on the QIAT site in the Resource table @http://natri.uky.edu/assoc_projects/qiat/resourcebank.html―Working with PDFs in Acrobat 9‖; A more-than-you-might-need on PDFsis available for view or download @http://www.lib.umich.edu/files/services/exploratory/pdfs/acrobat9.pdf
Use of a scanner and OCR software to capture and convert documentse.g.,PaperPortOmniPage ProUse of literacy software supports to convert PDFto Worde.g.,WYNN WizardRead & Write GoldRefer to ―Using WYNN to convert an image file/PDF to editable text‖and to ―Read & Write Gold Scan modes‖ in the ―How To guides‖ for simpledirections on converting a PDF file to editable text (a text file) And now… ―snap and read/write‖ technology • Intel Reader • iPad
Note:One may not need to create text fields for all or moststudents.If student cannot navigate and write into a documentwithout text fields pre-inserted it may be necessary tocreate them.
Graphic (Picture based) Word ProcessorsFor students who are severely (cognitively) print challenged the use of a picturebased word processor will give opportunities to:• Create literary pieces• Develop symbol based sentence structure• Foster improved sight word recognition (given writing activities structured to do so)e.g.,Picture ItPix WriterWriting with Symbols 2000Communicate: Sym WriterCommunicate: In Print2Clicker 6
iPad Apps A sampling of apps for individuals who require alternative tools for writing (Yes, iPads are ―so cool‖, and yet, not always necessary ... but they really may be the best option for some students.) e.g., iWordQ Typ-O HD Voice Dream ReaderSome reviews:Word processor apps 6 listed with descriptors, prices and links to iTunes @http://www.techshout.com/features/2012/25/best-word-processor-apps-for-ipad/―The 5 Best Writing Apps for the iPad‖ @http://www.lifehack.org/articles/technology/the-5-best-writing-apps-for-the-ipad.html
Accessibility Accessibility tools available within the computer’s operating system may be all some students need to make word processing successful. See Ease of Access options Choose which tools need ―adjusting‖ and how or Let the Wizard help you decide Practice a few …. Sticky keys Audio cueRefer to the On-line Resources document for links to accessibility guides
Keyboard shortcuts Keyboard Shortcuts have the power to reduce the work load, speed up productivity, avoid difficulties with mouse control. Practice a few… Navigating the desktop Navigating within an application MS Word shortcutsRefer to the On-line Resources document for links to keyboard shortcut guides
Alternatives to the standard mouse (hardware)What can’t the individual do with a standard mouse?(Can this be addressed with the Windows/Mac operating system’s accessibilitypreferences, i.e., using the numeric keypad as a mouse?)Is the size of the mouse a problem?Are there ―too many‖ buttons?Is mouse movement control a challenge?See a review of different types of mouse movers @http://smartech.gatech.edu/jspui/bitstream/1853/7351/1/Mouse.pdf(This article is a bit ―dated‖ (2002) but ok for a general overview of mouse types to consider.)
On-screen mouse controls Make mouse movers/pointing devices more accessible by allowing users who can move a mouse, but cannot control mouse functions, the ability to do such actions as click, double click, click & drag. ScanBuddy Dragger32 OneWay CrossScanner DwellBuddy SmartClickA large selection of on-screen mouse controls are listed and described on the EnableMartwebsite @ http://www.enablemart.com/Catalog/On-Screen-MouseDemos of Origin Instruments onscreen keyboards and ―mouse emulators‖ can be downloaded forpreview (and trial use) @ ttp://orin.com/access/demos/index.htm
Touch Windows / Touch ScreensBecause of motor, vision or cognitive challenges, some individualsmay be successful only when they have ―direct select‖ access.
Switch AccessThere are many different kinds of switches to choose fromin order to access one’s best motor movement SwitchesA switch interface takes the motor movement to the computer’s interfaceto engage with a program that is accessible via scan mode A switch / switch interface connection to a computer
Alternative keyboardsSome students may need larger keys and keyboardOther students may need a smaller sizedkeyboardSome students may be more successfulwith one handed keyboardsOther students may need specialsensitivity controlsPreview some keyboard options @ http://www.enablemart.com/Catalog/Keyboards-Mice-Joysticks
On-screen keyboardsMicrosoft WindowsDepending on the OS and version the onscreen keyboard :• may be set to open on startup• may be able to be repositioned• may be resized• may have word prediction options• may offer a click, dwell or scan option.
See ―Gizmo’s Freeware Review‖ of 4 free onscreen keyboards (OSK) foraccessibility ( Gizmo’s vote as the 4 best) @http://www.techsupportalert.com/best-free-onscreen-keyboard-osk.htmClick-n-TypeMicrosoft On-Screen KeyboardFree Virtual KeyboardDasher REACH : As noted on the web ― Reach is not only an on-screen keyboard, but a tool chest, loaded with features to help you write, access information, communicate, access the internet…‖ With Scan Buddy and switch access .. a powerful tool for total computer access.A large selection of on-screen keyboards are listed and described on the EnableMart website @http://www.enablemart.com/Catalog/On-Screen-Keyboards
Voice dictation A truly ―no tech/low tech to high tech‖ selection of options• Using a scribe• Tape recorders• Voice recorder on a computer• Voice recorder software (e.g., Audacity)• Voice recognition software e.g., - Windows Speech Recognition - Dragon Naturally Speaking (Windows OS) - Dragon Dictate (MacIntosh OS) - And now… the ―speech-to-text keyboard microphone‖ in the newest iOS (i.e., the iPad)
Alternatives to ―text only‖ writing (Is writing overrated ?) Use of fairly simple multimedia tools to express an idea, generate an audio/ visual report or otherwise demonstrate understanding of concepts.Samples for PC: PowerPoint Glogster Fotobabble Photostory; Littlebirdtales Voice Thread On-line comic strip toolsSample iPad Apps: (free) Voice Thread PaperPort Notes (not free) SonicPics Pictello Refer to the Internet Resources and Vendor’s List for descriptors and links to these tools.
Environmental Inventories Now that you know which tools … What does the student need to know in order to use them effectively? What does the team need to know in order for the student to use them effectively?Environmental Inventories can be a very helpful tool.• Develop a simple list of the primary skills needed• Use any checklist or resources that might come in the tool’s guide or manual• Use section headings from the guide to create a checklist• Create a checklist by working with the tool and when exploring it with the student Refer to the ―skills sheet_data collection_portable word processor‖ document.
Rubrics for use of technology supportsWhen do you expect the student to use them?Not all the tools, not all the timeHow does the student know when to use them?How does the team know when to expect the student to use them?
Rubrics for use of technology supports can be a very helpful tool.• Create a table that includes: • Any relevant accommodations • Each tool (low tech to high tech) the student might need • Identify the tasks within each course content / domain • Identify which tool to expect the student to use for each task within each domain• Include any relevant notes / special considerations • Procedure and tools for transfer of assignments between teacher and student • Where student saves works in progress • Where student saves completed work • Procedure for possible need for access from home• Create simple ―How to‖ guides for use by teacher, student and parent as needed to communicate procedures (i.e, how to access student folder from home) Special credit goes to Susie White, Instructional Facilitator, Spring Branch ISD, for her (major) part in the process of developing inventories and rubrics for assistive technology.
Primary referencesDeCoste, Denise ―Assistive Technology Assessment: Developing a Written Productivity Profile‖Presented at the TATN State Conference June 13, 2012Hanser, Gretchen ― Emergent Literacy for ALL!‖ Louisiana Department of Education, September, 2011Accessed on December/2012 at @ http://sda.doe.louisiana.gov/ResourceFiles/Literacy/LA-EL9-2011-HO.pdfHogan, Kathy ―Scribbles, Drawings, & Invented Spelling; The Journey to Becoming a Writer‖ Presentedat the Reading & Writing Conference, Region 4 ESC November 10, 2012Roy, Vicky Poston ―Alternative Pencils: Writing with Students with Significant Disabilities‖ Presented atthe TATN State Conference June 12, 2012Hartman, Lynda S ―Handwriting / Keyboarding Rates‖ A document posted on the QIAT Resources page @http://lsv.uky.edu/archives/QIAT.html Presenter contact information: Blaise Mladenka @ email@example.com Lynn Guthrie @ firstname.lastname@example.org