New dealimpact


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New dealimpact

  1. 1. The New Deal’s Impact on Society
  2. 2. New Deal Constituencies & the Broker State • Civilian gov’t employees increased by 80% • # of gov’t employees in Washington, DC doubled in 10 years • Power of federal gov’t increased drastically • Acted as a broker state – Gov’t acted as mediator in national marketplace – Elevated & strengthened new interests • Organized labor, women, African Americans, & other groups joined the coalition the Democrats started to build
  3. 3. Organized Labor • Huge arena for federal intervention • Factors that led to growth of labor movement – Inadequacy of welfare capitalism – New Deal legislation; example=Wagner Act – Rise of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO); est. 1936 • Growing militancy of rank & file workers • By 1940, unionized workers=9 million – 23% of the non-farm workforce
  4. 4. Organized Labor • CIO promoted all workers, skilled & unskilled, into one union – Accepted women, blacks, & Mexican Americans – John L. Lewis, once leader of United Mine Workers, helped form CIO – Competed w/ AFL; more militant – Allied w/ Democratic Party • Scored a victory with United Auto Workers & GM (1936-1937) – GM & other auto producers recognized the UAW
  5. 5. Organized Labor • Steel workers struggled in battle for unionization • Memorial Day Massacre (1937), South Chicago • Marching peacefully, fired upon, 10 killed & 90 wounded • Strike failed • 1937—4,720 strikes & 80% favored unions
  6. 6. Women & the New Deal • Gains in government: – Frances Perkins, 1st female in cabinet – Molly Dawson, head of Women’s Division of the DNC – Nellie, Tayloe Ross, 1st female director of the mint – Eleanor Roosevelt, one of the 1st prominent First Ladies • The “conscience of the New Deal” • Setbacks: – Low wages
  7. 7. Eleanor Roosevelt in 1933 Sec. of Labor Frances Perkins
  8. 8. Blacks & the New Deal • New Deal did little to battle racial discrimination • CCC segregated blacks & whites • NRA codes did not protect black workers • FDR repeatedly refused to ban lynching – Said it would antagonize southern members of Congress • Their support was needed for New Deal measures
  9. 9. Blacks & the New Deal • 18% of WPA recipients were black • Resettlement Administration was set up to help small farmers buy land • Mary McLeod Bethune hired to run Office of Minority Affairs • Eleanor Roosevelt was a champion of equal rights • The belief that the White House was concerned for African Americans shifted voting
  10. 10. Politicization of Mexican Americans • Benefited from labor policies – But agencies paid at different rates based on race – Tension & conflict between whites & Hispanics in CCC camps • Increasingly identified with US rather than Mexico • Democrats made it clear that they welcomed Mexican Americans
  11. 11. Indian Reorganization Act • Native Americans continued to be among the nation’s most disadvantaged minorities • Average annual income in 1934=$48! • IRA reversed Dawes Act of 1887 by promoting extensive self-government; tribal councils & constitutions • Tribal lands & agricultural profits both increased greatly • New Deal helped preserve Native languages, arts, traditions
  12. 12. The New Deal & the Land • TVA was the biggest New Deal environmental undertaking • 1933: task was to develop region’s resources under public control • CCC & WPA created several attractions
  13. 13. New Deal & the Arts • Federal Art Project gave work to many of 20th century’s leading painters, muralists, sculptors
  14. 14. New Deal & the Arts • Federal Music Project employed 15K musicians • Federal Writers Project employed 5K writers • Federal Theatre Project, most ambitious, reached 25- 30 million in 4 years – Terminated in 1939 over fears of Communist influence
  15. 15. Legacies of the New Deal • Set in motion far-reaching changes • Growth of a modern state of significant size • People experienced fed. gov’t as a part of everyday life for first time • In 1930s, over 1/3 of Americans received direct gov’t services from fed. programs, from Social Security, farm loans, relief work, etc.
  16. 16. Legacy of the New Deal • Gov’t made a commitment to intervene in economy when private sector could not guarantee stability • Stock market regulation, Fed. Reserve reformed • Accelerated pattern begun by Progressive of using regulation to bring order to economic life
  17. 17. Problems with the New Deal • Social Security Act did not include national health care • Welfare system did not reach a majority of American workers, including domestics & farm workers • Discriminated against women in terms of jobs & wages • Did not end Depression, only short-term fixes
  18. 18. Problems with the New Deal • Forced FDR to be unable to challenge marginalization of blacks in the South • Needed white southern vote • Court-packing scheme, recession of 1937, Republican success in 1938 elections, & inevitability of WWII—combined to bring end to the New Deal
  19. 19. Successes • Great political move; gained support for Democratic Party from various groups – 84% of those on relief voted for FDR in 1936 – Middle class voters also moved to Democratic side – Stay w/ Democrats for years to come