Verbals
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Verbals

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    Verbals Verbals Presentation Transcript

    • Verbals Gerund Participle Infinitive
    • Verbal Phrase =
      • A phrase that is centered around a verb form .
      • This verb form is NOT used as a verb in the sentence
      • It is used as a noun , adjective or adverb .
      • There are 3 kinds of verbals or verbal phrases :
      • GERUND PARITCIPLE IN FINI TIVE
    • Gerund - ing NOUN What?
    • Gerund / Gerund Phrase
      • … centers around a verb form ending in -ING
      • … is always used as a noun
      • … is never surrounded by commas (except for appositives )
      • Caution! -ING verb forms can also be verbs or adjectives (These are NOT gerunds .)
      • … can be used in each of the 6 noun positions
    • Not all -ING words are Gerunds :
      • morning
      • evening
      • something
      • nothing
      • anything
      • everything
      • She is driving to school today.
    • Gerund / Gerund Phrase
      • EXAMPLES :
      • Swimming the mile is my best event.
      • I like swimming the mile.
      • My best event is swimming the mile.
      • I gave swimming the mile a try.
      • He lectured us about swimming the mile.
      • My best event, swimming the mile, was canceled.
    • Gerund / Gerund Phrase
      • ANSWERS :
      • Swimming the mile is my best event. ( Subject )
      • I like swimming the mile . ( DO )
      • My best event is swimming the mile . ( PN )
      • I gave swimming the mile a try. ( IO )
      • He lectured us about swimming the mile . ( OP )
      • My best event, swimming the mile , was canceled. ( APP )
    • Gerund / Gerund Phrase
      • EXAMPLES :
      • His sister was dancing in the show.
      • I hate practicing the piano.
      • I gave my mom’s cooking a perfect 10.
      • Sitting by the pool is quite relaxing.
      • Wishing upon a star, Sue imagined a better life.
      • While I was walking on the beach, I found a sand dollar.
    • Gerund / Gerund Phrase
      • ANSWERS :
      • His sister was dancing in the show. ( not a gerund, verb phrase )
      • I hate practicing the piano . ( DO )
      • I gave my mom’s cooking a perfect 10. ( IO )
      • Sitting by the pool is quite relaxing. ( S )
      • Wishing upon a star, Sue imagined a better life. ( not a gerund, participial phrase )
      • While I was walking on the beach, I found a sand dollar. ( not a gerund, clause )
    • Gerund / Gerund Phrase
      • EXAMPLES :
      • Becoming a doctor takes years of serious study.
      • Kino’s specialty is cooking mushrooms.
      • The subtle squeaking of the door hinges told Mira that her sister was home.
      • Carla decided on writing about famous women in history.
      • Mr. Riley enjoys the crackling of a campfire on a winter’s evening.
    • Gerund / Gerund Phrase
      • ANSWERS :
      • Becoming a doctor takes years of serious study. ( S )
      • Kino’s specialty is cooking mushrooms . ( PN )
      • The subtle squeaking of the door hinges told Mira that her sister was home. ( S )
      • Carla decided on writing about famous women in history . ( OP )
      • Mr. Riley enjoys the crackling of a campfire on a winter’s evening . ( DO )
    • Gerund / Gerund Phrase
      • EXAMPLES :
      • Traveling to new and interesting places is fun.
      • The smiling child amused his parents.
      • Give playing golf another chance.
      • Pam is studying for her French exam.
      • Holding onto the kite, Jeremy received a cut.
    • Gerund / Gerund Phrase
      • ANSWERS :
      • Traveling to new and interesting places is fun. (S)
      • The smiling child amused his parents. ( not a gerund, participle )
      • Give playing golf another chance. (IO)
      • Pam is studying for her French exam. ( not a gerund, verb phrase )
      • Holding onto the kite, Jeremy received a cut. ( not a gerund, participial phrase )
    • Gerund / Gerund Phrase patterns to look for…
      • Subject + verb …
      • Subject + linking verb + PN
      • Subject + action verb + DO
      • Subject + action verb (usu. give ) + IO DO
      • Preposition + OP
      • S, Appositive , verb… (Other combinations are possible for this one.)
    • Participle -ing -d -ed -n -en -nt ADJECTIVE What kind? Which one?
    • Participles…
      • are verb forms that act like adjectives .
      • can end in –ing , -d, -ed, -n, -en, nt
      • will come as close as they can to the noun they modify
      • can come BEFORE or AFTER the noun it modifies
    • Participles
      • Examples:
      • The frowning clown fell down. ( article / adj./ noun )
      • The clown, frowning at the crowd , fell down.
      • Frowning at the crowd , the clown fell down.
    • Participial Phrases…
      • may fall at the beginning of the sentence.
      • If so, it will be separated from the sentence with a comma
      • Example :
      • Bent by the wind , the tree finally fell over.
    • Find the participles:
      • The fallen tree blocked the road.
      • Mary had to replace the soiled carpet.
      • Mike’s goal was hiking the Rockies.
      • The running water eroded the soil.
      • We finally got our own swimming pool.
      • Eating jalapeno peppers can be painful.
    • Find the participles (Answers)
      • The fallen tree blocked the road.
      • Mary had to replace the soiled carpet.
      • Mike’s goal was hiking the Rockies . (gerund)
      • The running water eroded the soil.
      • We finally got our own swimming pool.
      • Eating jalapeno peppers can be painful. (gerund)
    • Find the participial phrases:
      • Running quickly, the puppy caught up with the family.
      • Seeing my family made me feel safe.
      • Bending in the wind, the tree finally fell.
      • The wind, whipping through the valley, did extensive damage.
      • I saw my uncle waiting for me.
    • Find the participial phrases (Answers)
      • Running quickly , the puppy caught up with the family.
      • Seeing my family made me feel safe. (gerund)
      • Bending in the wind , the tree finally fell.
      • The wind, whipping through the valley , did extensive damage.
      • I saw my uncle waiting for me .
    • Find the participial phrases:
      • Granny’s goal, quilting a huge quilt, will have to wait until spring.
      • Martha’s hobby is sewing for the family.
      • Sitting by the dock, Bob felt lonely.
      • The boy sitting by the bay was my cousin.
      • Not watching his steps, the toddler fell down.
    • Find the participial phrases (Answers)
      • Granny’s goal, quilting a huge quilt , will have to wait until spring. (gerund / appositive)
      • Martha’s hobby is sewing for the family . (gerund)
      • Sitting by the dock , Bob felt lonely.
      • The boy sitting by the bay was my cousin.
      • Not watching his steps , the toddler fell down.
    • Participle / Participial Phrase patterns to look for…
      • participial phrase , Subject + verb …
      • Subject , participial phrase , verb …
      • Subject + verb + DO participial phrase
      • Preposition + OP participial phrase
      • Article participle Noun
    • In fini tive to + verb NOUN / ADJECTIVE / ADVERB What? (NOUN) Which one? (ADJ.) What kind? (ADJ.) Why? (ADV.)
    • In fini tive RULES:
      • Center around TO + verb
      • Verb is “naked” – No endings (-ing, -ed, etc.)
      • Examples: to go, to sit, to talk, etc.
      • Can be used as noun , adj . or adv .
      • Caution! Do not confuse with prepositional phrases using “to” ( to school , to me , to us , to them, to lunch, etc.)
    • Find the In fini tives
      • I wanted to go to the mall today.
      • My mom went to bed early.
      • Your cat ate too much food today.
      • To sleep all day is unhealthy.
      • I want to ask you a question.
    • Find the In fini tive Phrases:
      • I went to the pond to fish for bass.
      • I have to go to the mall before supper.
      • To make good grades, one must study.
      • My goal is to make good grades.
      • I sat with the team to give them my support.
      • Don’t try to get out of here too fast.
    • In fini tive Phrases used as NOUNS :
      • I want to get a car for my birthday.
      • My goal is to get a car for my birthday.
      • To get a car for my birthday would be wonderful.
      • My goal, to get a car for my birthday, may never happen.
      • Which two noun positions are not used?
    • In fini tive Phrases used as ADJECTIVES :
      • The movie to see is Avatar .
      • I missed the road to take to the beach.
      • The place to see moose is Canada.
      • I need a place to keep my book bag.
      • Adjective infinitive phrases will come directly after a noun and modify it by answering “which?” or “what kind?.”
    • In fini tive Phrases used as ADVERBS :
      • I went to the pond to fish.
      • To get into Harvard, you must study.
      • I am happy to be here.
      • I am sad to see you go.
      • An infinitive phrase that comes first in a sentence MAY be an adverb, but it will have a comma after it. Adverb infinitive phrases usually answer “why?” or “how?.”
    • Some famous In fini tives :
      • “ To be or not to be , that is the question.”
      • “ To know me is to love me.”
      • “ You’ve got to live a little.”
      • “ I vant to drink your bloooooood.”
      • “ I wanna hold your hand.”
      • “ I’ve only just begun to fight .”
      • “ To boldly go where no man has gone before…” (split infinitive)
    • Look for patterns…