Verbals
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Verbals

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Verbals Verbals Presentation Transcript

  • Verbals Gerund Participle Infinitive
  • Verbal Phrase =
    • A phrase that is centered around a verb form .
    • This verb form is NOT used as a verb in the sentence
    • It is used as a noun , adjective or adverb .
    • There are 3 kinds of verbals or verbal phrases :
    • GERUND PARITCIPLE IN FINI TIVE
  • Gerund - ing NOUN What?
  • Gerund / Gerund Phrase
    • … centers around a verb form ending in -ING
    • … is always used as a noun
    • … is never surrounded by commas (except for appositives )
    • Caution! -ING verb forms can also be verbs or adjectives (These are NOT gerunds .)
    • … can be used in each of the 6 noun positions
  • Not all -ING words are Gerunds :
    • morning
    • evening
    • something
    • nothing
    • anything
    • everything
    • She is driving to school today.
  • Gerund / Gerund Phrase
    • EXAMPLES :
    • Swimming the mile is my best event.
    • I like swimming the mile.
    • My best event is swimming the mile.
    • I gave swimming the mile a try.
    • He lectured us about swimming the mile.
    • My best event, swimming the mile, was canceled.
  • Gerund / Gerund Phrase
    • ANSWERS :
    • Swimming the mile is my best event. ( Subject )
    • I like swimming the mile . ( DO )
    • My best event is swimming the mile . ( PN )
    • I gave swimming the mile a try. ( IO )
    • He lectured us about swimming the mile . ( OP )
    • My best event, swimming the mile , was canceled. ( APP )
  • Gerund / Gerund Phrase
    • EXAMPLES :
    • His sister was dancing in the show.
    • I hate practicing the piano.
    • I gave my mom’s cooking a perfect 10.
    • Sitting by the pool is quite relaxing.
    • Wishing upon a star, Sue imagined a better life.
    • While I was walking on the beach, I found a sand dollar.
  • Gerund / Gerund Phrase
    • ANSWERS :
    • His sister was dancing in the show. ( not a gerund, verb phrase )
    • I hate practicing the piano . ( DO )
    • I gave my mom’s cooking a perfect 10. ( IO )
    • Sitting by the pool is quite relaxing. ( S )
    • Wishing upon a star, Sue imagined a better life. ( not a gerund, participial phrase )
    • While I was walking on the beach, I found a sand dollar. ( not a gerund, clause )
  • Gerund / Gerund Phrase
    • EXAMPLES :
    • Becoming a doctor takes years of serious study.
    • Kino’s specialty is cooking mushrooms.
    • The subtle squeaking of the door hinges told Mira that her sister was home.
    • Carla decided on writing about famous women in history.
    • Mr. Riley enjoys the crackling of a campfire on a winter’s evening.
  • Gerund / Gerund Phrase
    • ANSWERS :
    • Becoming a doctor takes years of serious study. ( S )
    • Kino’s specialty is cooking mushrooms . ( PN )
    • The subtle squeaking of the door hinges told Mira that her sister was home. ( S )
    • Carla decided on writing about famous women in history . ( OP )
    • Mr. Riley enjoys the crackling of a campfire on a winter’s evening . ( DO )
  • Gerund / Gerund Phrase
    • EXAMPLES :
    • Traveling to new and interesting places is fun.
    • The smiling child amused his parents.
    • Give playing golf another chance.
    • Pam is studying for her French exam.
    • Holding onto the kite, Jeremy received a cut.
  • Gerund / Gerund Phrase
    • ANSWERS :
    • Traveling to new and interesting places is fun. (S)
    • The smiling child amused his parents. ( not a gerund, participle )
    • Give playing golf another chance. (IO)
    • Pam is studying for her French exam. ( not a gerund, verb phrase )
    • Holding onto the kite, Jeremy received a cut. ( not a gerund, participial phrase )
  • Gerund / Gerund Phrase patterns to look for…
    • Subject + verb …
    • Subject + linking verb + PN
    • Subject + action verb + DO
    • Subject + action verb (usu. give ) + IO DO
    • Preposition + OP
    • S, Appositive , verb… (Other combinations are possible for this one.)
  • Participle -ing -d -ed -n -en -nt ADJECTIVE What kind? Which one?
  • Participles…
    • are verb forms that act like adjectives .
    • can end in –ing , -d, -ed, -n, -en, nt
    • will come as close as they can to the noun they modify
    • can come BEFORE or AFTER the noun it modifies
  • Participles
    • Examples:
    • The frowning clown fell down. ( article / adj./ noun )
    • The clown, frowning at the crowd , fell down.
    • Frowning at the crowd , the clown fell down.
  • Participial Phrases…
    • may fall at the beginning of the sentence.
    • If so, it will be separated from the sentence with a comma
    • Example :
    • Bent by the wind , the tree finally fell over.
  • Find the participles:
    • The fallen tree blocked the road.
    • Mary had to replace the soiled carpet.
    • Mike’s goal was hiking the Rockies.
    • The running water eroded the soil.
    • We finally got our own swimming pool.
    • Eating jalapeno peppers can be painful.
  • Find the participles (Answers)
    • The fallen tree blocked the road.
    • Mary had to replace the soiled carpet.
    • Mike’s goal was hiking the Rockies . (gerund)
    • The running water eroded the soil.
    • We finally got our own swimming pool.
    • Eating jalapeno peppers can be painful. (gerund)
  • Find the participial phrases:
    • Running quickly, the puppy caught up with the family.
    • Seeing my family made me feel safe.
    • Bending in the wind, the tree finally fell.
    • The wind, whipping through the valley, did extensive damage.
    • I saw my uncle waiting for me.
  • Find the participial phrases (Answers)
    • Running quickly , the puppy caught up with the family.
    • Seeing my family made me feel safe. (gerund)
    • Bending in the wind , the tree finally fell.
    • The wind, whipping through the valley , did extensive damage.
    • I saw my uncle waiting for me .
  • Find the participial phrases:
    • Granny’s goal, quilting a huge quilt, will have to wait until spring.
    • Martha’s hobby is sewing for the family.
    • Sitting by the dock, Bob felt lonely.
    • The boy sitting by the bay was my cousin.
    • Not watching his steps, the toddler fell down.
  • Find the participial phrases (Answers)
    • Granny’s goal, quilting a huge quilt , will have to wait until spring. (gerund / appositive)
    • Martha’s hobby is sewing for the family . (gerund)
    • Sitting by the dock , Bob felt lonely.
    • The boy sitting by the bay was my cousin.
    • Not watching his steps , the toddler fell down.
  • Participle / Participial Phrase patterns to look for…
    • participial phrase , Subject + verb …
    • Subject , participial phrase , verb …
    • Subject + verb + DO participial phrase
    • Preposition + OP participial phrase
    • Article participle Noun
  • In fini tive to + verb NOUN / ADJECTIVE / ADVERB What? (NOUN) Which one? (ADJ.) What kind? (ADJ.) Why? (ADV.)
  • In fini tive RULES:
    • Center around TO + verb
    • Verb is “naked” – No endings (-ing, -ed, etc.)
    • Examples: to go, to sit, to talk, etc.
    • Can be used as noun , adj . or adv .
    • Caution! Do not confuse with prepositional phrases using “to” ( to school , to me , to us , to them, to lunch, etc.)
  • Find the In fini tives
    • I wanted to go to the mall today.
    • My mom went to bed early.
    • Your cat ate too much food today.
    • To sleep all day is unhealthy.
    • I want to ask you a question.
  • Find the In fini tive Phrases:
    • I went to the pond to fish for bass.
    • I have to go to the mall before supper.
    • To make good grades, one must study.
    • My goal is to make good grades.
    • I sat with the team to give them my support.
    • Don’t try to get out of here too fast.
  • In fini tive Phrases used as NOUNS :
    • I want to get a car for my birthday.
    • My goal is to get a car for my birthday.
    • To get a car for my birthday would be wonderful.
    • My goal, to get a car for my birthday, may never happen.
    • Which two noun positions are not used?
  • In fini tive Phrases used as ADJECTIVES :
    • The movie to see is Avatar .
    • I missed the road to take to the beach.
    • The place to see moose is Canada.
    • I need a place to keep my book bag.
    • Adjective infinitive phrases will come directly after a noun and modify it by answering “which?” or “what kind?.”
  • In fini tive Phrases used as ADVERBS :
    • I went to the pond to fish.
    • To get into Harvard, you must study.
    • I am happy to be here.
    • I am sad to see you go.
    • An infinitive phrase that comes first in a sentence MAY be an adverb, but it will have a comma after it. Adverb infinitive phrases usually answer “why?” or “how?.”
  • Some famous In fini tives :
    • “ To be or not to be , that is the question.”
    • “ To know me is to love me.”
    • “ You’ve got to live a little.”
    • “ I vant to drink your bloooooood.”
    • “ I wanna hold your hand.”
    • “ I’ve only just begun to fight .”
    • “ To boldly go where no man has gone before…” (split infinitive)
  • Look for patterns…