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Verbals Gerund Participle Infinitive
Verbal Phrase =  <ul><li>A phrase that is centered around a  verb form . </li></ul><ul><li>This  verb form  is  NOT  used ...
Gerund - ing NOUN What?
Gerund / Gerund Phrase <ul><li>… centers around a  verb form  ending in  -ING </li></ul><ul><li>… is always used as a  nou...
Not all  -ING  words are  Gerunds : <ul><li>morning </li></ul><ul><li>evening </li></ul><ul><li>something </li></ul><ul><l...
Gerund / Gerund Phrase <ul><li>EXAMPLES : </li></ul><ul><li>Swimming the mile is my best event. </li></ul><ul><li>I like s...
Gerund / Gerund Phrase <ul><li>ANSWERS : </li></ul><ul><li>Swimming the mile  is my best event. ( Subject ) </li></ul><ul>...
Gerund / Gerund Phrase <ul><li>EXAMPLES : </li></ul><ul><li>His sister was dancing in the show. </li></ul><ul><li>I hate p...
Gerund / Gerund Phrase <ul><li>ANSWERS : </li></ul><ul><li>His sister  was dancing  in the show.  ( not  a gerund,  verb p...
Gerund / Gerund Phrase <ul><li>EXAMPLES : </li></ul><ul><li>Becoming a doctor takes years of serious study. </li></ul><ul>...
Gerund / Gerund Phrase <ul><li>ANSWERS : </li></ul><ul><li>Becoming a doctor  takes years of serious study.  ( S ) </li></...
Gerund / Gerund Phrase <ul><li>EXAMPLES : </li></ul><ul><li>Traveling to new and interesting places is fun. </li></ul><ul>...
Gerund / Gerund Phrase <ul><li>ANSWERS : </li></ul><ul><li>Traveling to new and interesting places  is fun.  (S) </li></ul...
Gerund / Gerund Phrase patterns  to look for… <ul><li>  Subject +  verb  … </li></ul><ul><li>Subject +  linking verb  +   ...
Participle -ing -d -ed -n -en -nt ADJECTIVE What kind? Which one?
Participles… <ul><li>are  verb forms  that act like  adjectives . </li></ul><ul><li>can end in  –ing , -d, -ed, -n, -en, n...
Participles <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>The  frowning  clown fell down.  ( article / adj./ noun ) </li></ul><ul><l...
Participial Phrases… <ul><li>may fall at the  beginning  of the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>If so, it will be separated fr...
Find the participles: <ul><li>The fallen tree blocked the road. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary had to replace the soiled carpet. <...
Find the participles  (Answers) <ul><li>The  fallen  tree blocked the road. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary had to replace the  soi...
Find the participial phrases: <ul><li>Running quickly, the puppy caught up with the family. </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing my fa...
Find the participial phrases   (Answers) <ul><li>Running quickly , the puppy caught up with the family. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Find the participial phrases: <ul><li>Granny’s goal, quilting a huge quilt, will have to wait until spring. </li></ul><ul>...
Find the participial phrases (Answers) <ul><li>Granny’s goal,  quilting a huge quilt , will have to wait until spring.  (g...
Participle / Participial Phrase  patterns  to look for…  <ul><li>participial phrase   ,   Subject  +  verb … </li></ul><ul...
In fini tive to +  verb NOUN /  ADJECTIVE  /  ADVERB What?  (NOUN) Which one?  (ADJ.) What kind?  (ADJ.) Why?  (ADV.)
In fini tive  RULES: <ul><li>Center around TO + verb </li></ul><ul><li>Verb is “naked” – No endings  (-ing, -ed, etc.) </l...
Find the  In fini tives <ul><li>I wanted to go to the mall today. </li></ul><ul><li>My mom went to bed early. </li></ul><u...
Find the  In fini tive  Phrases: <ul><li>I went to the pond to fish for bass. </li></ul><ul><li>I have to go to the mall b...
In fini tive  Phrases used as  NOUNS : <ul><li>I want to get a car for my birthday. </li></ul><ul><li>My goal is to get a ...
In fini tive  Phrases used as  ADJECTIVES : <ul><li>The movie to see is  Avatar . </li></ul><ul><li>I missed the road to t...
In fini tive  Phrases used as  ADVERBS : <ul><li>I went to the pond to fish. </li></ul><ul><li>To get into Harvard, you mu...
Some  famous  In fini tives  : <ul><li>“ To be  or not  to be , that is the question.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ To know  me is ...
Look for patterns…
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Verbals

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Transcript of "Verbals"

  1. 1. Verbals Gerund Participle Infinitive
  2. 2. Verbal Phrase = <ul><li>A phrase that is centered around a verb form . </li></ul><ul><li>This verb form is NOT used as a verb in the sentence </li></ul><ul><li>It is used as a noun , adjective or adverb . </li></ul><ul><li>There are 3 kinds of verbals or verbal phrases : </li></ul><ul><li>GERUND PARITCIPLE IN FINI TIVE </li></ul>
  3. 3. Gerund - ing NOUN What?
  4. 4. Gerund / Gerund Phrase <ul><li>… centers around a verb form ending in -ING </li></ul><ul><li>… is always used as a noun </li></ul><ul><li>… is never surrounded by commas (except for appositives ) </li></ul><ul><li>Caution! -ING verb forms can also be verbs or adjectives (These are NOT gerunds .) </li></ul><ul><li>… can be used in each of the 6 noun positions </li></ul>
  5. 5. Not all -ING words are Gerunds : <ul><li>morning </li></ul><ul><li>evening </li></ul><ul><li>something </li></ul><ul><li>nothing </li></ul><ul><li>anything </li></ul><ul><li>everything </li></ul><ul><li>She is driving to school today. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Gerund / Gerund Phrase <ul><li>EXAMPLES : </li></ul><ul><li>Swimming the mile is my best event. </li></ul><ul><li>I like swimming the mile. </li></ul><ul><li>My best event is swimming the mile. </li></ul><ul><li>I gave swimming the mile a try. </li></ul><ul><li>He lectured us about swimming the mile. </li></ul><ul><li>My best event, swimming the mile, was canceled. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Gerund / Gerund Phrase <ul><li>ANSWERS : </li></ul><ul><li>Swimming the mile is my best event. ( Subject ) </li></ul><ul><li>I like swimming the mile . ( DO ) </li></ul><ul><li>My best event is swimming the mile . ( PN ) </li></ul><ul><li>I gave swimming the mile a try. ( IO ) </li></ul><ul><li>He lectured us about swimming the mile . ( OP ) </li></ul><ul><li>My best event, swimming the mile , was canceled. ( APP ) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Gerund / Gerund Phrase <ul><li>EXAMPLES : </li></ul><ul><li>His sister was dancing in the show. </li></ul><ul><li>I hate practicing the piano. </li></ul><ul><li>I gave my mom’s cooking a perfect 10. </li></ul><ul><li>Sitting by the pool is quite relaxing. </li></ul><ul><li>Wishing upon a star, Sue imagined a better life. </li></ul><ul><li>While I was walking on the beach, I found a sand dollar. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Gerund / Gerund Phrase <ul><li>ANSWERS : </li></ul><ul><li>His sister was dancing in the show. ( not a gerund, verb phrase ) </li></ul><ul><li>I hate practicing the piano . ( DO ) </li></ul><ul><li>I gave my mom’s cooking a perfect 10. ( IO ) </li></ul><ul><li>Sitting by the pool is quite relaxing. ( S ) </li></ul><ul><li>Wishing upon a star, Sue imagined a better life. ( not a gerund, participial phrase ) </li></ul><ul><li>While I was walking on the beach, I found a sand dollar. ( not a gerund, clause ) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Gerund / Gerund Phrase <ul><li>EXAMPLES : </li></ul><ul><li>Becoming a doctor takes years of serious study. </li></ul><ul><li>Kino’s specialty is cooking mushrooms. </li></ul><ul><li>The subtle squeaking of the door hinges told Mira that her sister was home. </li></ul><ul><li>Carla decided on writing about famous women in history. </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Riley enjoys the crackling of a campfire on a winter’s evening. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Gerund / Gerund Phrase <ul><li>ANSWERS : </li></ul><ul><li>Becoming a doctor takes years of serious study. ( S ) </li></ul><ul><li>Kino’s specialty is cooking mushrooms . ( PN ) </li></ul><ul><li>The subtle squeaking of the door hinges told Mira that her sister was home. ( S ) </li></ul><ul><li>Carla decided on writing about famous women in history . ( OP ) </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Riley enjoys the crackling of a campfire on a winter’s evening . ( DO ) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Gerund / Gerund Phrase <ul><li>EXAMPLES : </li></ul><ul><li>Traveling to new and interesting places is fun. </li></ul><ul><li>The smiling child amused his parents. </li></ul><ul><li>Give playing golf another chance. </li></ul><ul><li>Pam is studying for her French exam. </li></ul><ul><li>Holding onto the kite, Jeremy received a cut. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Gerund / Gerund Phrase <ul><li>ANSWERS : </li></ul><ul><li>Traveling to new and interesting places is fun. (S) </li></ul><ul><li>The smiling child amused his parents. ( not a gerund, participle ) </li></ul><ul><li>Give playing golf another chance. (IO) </li></ul><ul><li>Pam is studying for her French exam. ( not a gerund, verb phrase ) </li></ul><ul><li>Holding onto the kite, Jeremy received a cut. ( not a gerund, participial phrase ) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Gerund / Gerund Phrase patterns to look for… <ul><li> Subject + verb … </li></ul><ul><li>Subject + linking verb + PN </li></ul><ul><li>Subject + action verb + DO </li></ul><ul><li>Subject + action verb (usu. give ) + IO DO </li></ul><ul><li>Preposition + OP </li></ul><ul><li>S, Appositive , verb… (Other combinations are possible for this one.) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Participle -ing -d -ed -n -en -nt ADJECTIVE What kind? Which one?
  16. 16. Participles… <ul><li>are verb forms that act like adjectives . </li></ul><ul><li>can end in –ing , -d, -ed, -n, -en, nt </li></ul><ul><li>will come as close as they can to the noun they modify </li></ul><ul><li>can come BEFORE or AFTER the noun it modifies </li></ul>
  17. 17. Participles <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>The frowning clown fell down. ( article / adj./ noun ) </li></ul><ul><li>The clown, frowning at the crowd , fell down. </li></ul><ul><li>Frowning at the crowd , the clown fell down. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Participial Phrases… <ul><li>may fall at the beginning of the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>If so, it will be separated from the sentence with a comma </li></ul><ul><li>Example : </li></ul><ul><li>Bent by the wind , the tree finally fell over. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Find the participles: <ul><li>The fallen tree blocked the road. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary had to replace the soiled carpet. </li></ul><ul><li>Mike’s goal was hiking the Rockies. </li></ul><ul><li>The running water eroded the soil. </li></ul><ul><li>We finally got our own swimming pool. </li></ul><ul><li>Eating jalapeno peppers can be painful. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Find the participles (Answers) <ul><li>The fallen tree blocked the road. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary had to replace the soiled carpet. </li></ul><ul><li>Mike’s goal was hiking the Rockies . (gerund) </li></ul><ul><li>The running water eroded the soil. </li></ul><ul><li>We finally got our own swimming pool. </li></ul><ul><li>Eating jalapeno peppers can be painful. (gerund) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Find the participial phrases: <ul><li>Running quickly, the puppy caught up with the family. </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing my family made me feel safe. </li></ul><ul><li>Bending in the wind, the tree finally fell. </li></ul><ul><li>The wind, whipping through the valley, did extensive damage. </li></ul><ul><li>I saw my uncle waiting for me. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Find the participial phrases (Answers) <ul><li>Running quickly , the puppy caught up with the family. </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing my family made me feel safe. (gerund) </li></ul><ul><li>Bending in the wind , the tree finally fell. </li></ul><ul><li>The wind, whipping through the valley , did extensive damage. </li></ul><ul><li>I saw my uncle waiting for me . </li></ul>
  23. 23. Find the participial phrases: <ul><li>Granny’s goal, quilting a huge quilt, will have to wait until spring. </li></ul><ul><li>Martha’s hobby is sewing for the family. </li></ul><ul><li>Sitting by the dock, Bob felt lonely. </li></ul><ul><li>The boy sitting by the bay was my cousin. </li></ul><ul><li>Not watching his steps, the toddler fell down. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Find the participial phrases (Answers) <ul><li>Granny’s goal, quilting a huge quilt , will have to wait until spring. (gerund / appositive) </li></ul><ul><li>Martha’s hobby is sewing for the family . (gerund) </li></ul><ul><li>Sitting by the dock , Bob felt lonely. </li></ul><ul><li>The boy sitting by the bay was my cousin. </li></ul><ul><li>Not watching his steps , the toddler fell down. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Participle / Participial Phrase patterns to look for… <ul><li>participial phrase , Subject + verb … </li></ul><ul><li>Subject , participial phrase , verb … </li></ul><ul><li>Subject + verb + DO participial phrase </li></ul><ul><li>Preposition + OP participial phrase </li></ul><ul><li>Article participle Noun </li></ul>
  26. 26. In fini tive to + verb NOUN / ADJECTIVE / ADVERB What? (NOUN) Which one? (ADJ.) What kind? (ADJ.) Why? (ADV.)
  27. 27. In fini tive RULES: <ul><li>Center around TO + verb </li></ul><ul><li>Verb is “naked” – No endings (-ing, -ed, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: to go, to sit, to talk, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used as noun , adj . or adv . </li></ul><ul><li>Caution! Do not confuse with prepositional phrases using “to” ( to school , to me , to us , to them, to lunch, etc.) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Find the In fini tives <ul><li>I wanted to go to the mall today. </li></ul><ul><li>My mom went to bed early. </li></ul><ul><li>Your cat ate too much food today. </li></ul><ul><li>To sleep all day is unhealthy. </li></ul><ul><li>I want to ask you a question. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Find the In fini tive Phrases: <ul><li>I went to the pond to fish for bass. </li></ul><ul><li>I have to go to the mall before supper. </li></ul><ul><li>To make good grades, one must study. </li></ul><ul><li>My goal is to make good grades. </li></ul><ul><li>I sat with the team to give them my support. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t try to get out of here too fast. </li></ul>
  30. 30. In fini tive Phrases used as NOUNS : <ul><li>I want to get a car for my birthday. </li></ul><ul><li>My goal is to get a car for my birthday. </li></ul><ul><li>To get a car for my birthday would be wonderful. </li></ul><ul><li>My goal, to get a car for my birthday, may never happen. </li></ul><ul><li>Which two noun positions are not used? </li></ul>
  31. 31. In fini tive Phrases used as ADJECTIVES : <ul><li>The movie to see is Avatar . </li></ul><ul><li>I missed the road to take to the beach. </li></ul><ul><li>The place to see moose is Canada. </li></ul><ul><li>I need a place to keep my book bag. </li></ul><ul><li>Adjective infinitive phrases will come directly after a noun and modify it by answering “which?” or “what kind?.” </li></ul>
  32. 32. In fini tive Phrases used as ADVERBS : <ul><li>I went to the pond to fish. </li></ul><ul><li>To get into Harvard, you must study. </li></ul><ul><li>I am happy to be here. </li></ul><ul><li>I am sad to see you go. </li></ul><ul><li>An infinitive phrase that comes first in a sentence MAY be an adverb, but it will have a comma after it. Adverb infinitive phrases usually answer “why?” or “how?.” </li></ul>
  33. 33. Some famous In fini tives : <ul><li>“ To be or not to be , that is the question.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ To know me is to love me.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ You’ve got to live a little.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I vant to drink your bloooooood.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I wanna hold your hand.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I’ve only just begun to fight .” </li></ul><ul><li>“ To boldly go where no man has gone before…” (split infinitive) </li></ul>
  34. 34. Look for patterns…
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