The Influence of Estuarine Habitats on Expression of Life History Characteristics of Smolting Coho Salmon<br />Research P...
Acknowledgements<br />University of Alaska Fairbanks<br />Kachemak Bay Research Reserve, NOAA, NERRS<br />Alaska Departmen...
Summary<br />Background and purpose<br />Objectives <br />2009 project review<br />2010-2011 sampling plan<br />Questions ...
Overview<br />Variability in life history strategies is a solution to ecological problems<br />What is the problem for sal...
Coho Salmon in Estuaries<br />Coho (Silver) salmon<br /><ul><li>Northern CA to West Coast AK
Wide range of life histories
Estuary use is short but important</li></ul>Estuary use in Pacific Salmon<br /><ul><li>Very dynamic areas, not well unders...
Potential area of hard selection pressure
Important for smolting</li></li></ul><li>The Question:<br />Do estuary habitats select for salmon smolt traits?<br />Two-p...
Environmental conditions: salinity, temperature</li></ul>Adults returning to two different estuarine systems<br /><ul><li>...
Environmental conditions: tidal inundation, stream flow events, size  </li></li></ul><li>Study Area<br />~12 km2<br />~1.0...
Predictions<br />Smolt traits within a single type of estuarine habitat<br /><ul><li>Greater range of environmental condit...
More developed smolt will be associated with increasing salinity and temperature </li></li></ul><li>Predictions<br />Salmo...
2009 Pilot Study Goals<br />Three Objectives<br />Determine sampling methods<br />Determine sites<br />Develop baseline da...
2009 Pilot Study Results<br /><ul><li>Sampled ten sites, four channel types in the Fox, six sites, three channel types wit...
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The influence of estuarine habitats on the expression of life history of characteristcs of Life History

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2010 project update by Tammy Hoem

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The influence of estuarine habitats on the expression of life history of characteristcs of Life History

  1. 1.  The Influence of Estuarine Habitats on Expression of Life History Characteristics of Smolting Coho Salmon<br />Research Project Review<br />For<br />KBRR NERRS Community Council<br />May 26, 2010<br />Presented by<br />Tammy Hoem, GRF, University of Alaska Fairbanks<br />
  2. 2. Acknowledgements<br />University of Alaska Fairbanks<br />Kachemak Bay Research Reserve, NOAA, NERRS<br />Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Sport Fish<br />Graduate Committee:<br />Amanda Rosenberger<br />Christian Zimmerman<br />Megan McPhee<br />Franz Mueter<br />Cooperators and full-time staff:<br />Coowe Walker (and the Walker family)<br />Steve Baird<br />Michelle Gutsch<br />Jason Neher<br />And the amazing army of staff and volunteers who have helped out for the past two years!!<br />
  3. 3. Summary<br />Background and purpose<br />Objectives <br />2009 project review<br />2010-2011 sampling plan<br />Questions and discussion<br />
  4. 4. Overview<br />Variability in life history strategies is a solution to ecological problems<br />What is the problem for salmon? Our changing climate.<br />Variability <br />(of conditions)<br />Variability<br />(of fish traits)<br />Resilience<br />to environmental change<br />
  5. 5. Coho Salmon in Estuaries<br />Coho (Silver) salmon<br /><ul><li>Northern CA to West Coast AK
  6. 6. Wide range of life histories
  7. 7. Estuary use is short but important</li></ul>Estuary use in Pacific Salmon<br /><ul><li>Very dynamic areas, not well understood
  8. 8. Potential area of hard selection pressure
  9. 9. Important for smolting</li></li></ul><li>The Question:<br />Do estuary habitats select for salmon smolt traits?<br />Two-part Investigation<br />Smolts in an estuary<br /><ul><li>Traits: size, condition, age class
  10. 10. Environmental conditions: salinity, temperature</li></ul>Adults returning to two different estuarine systems<br /><ul><li>Traits: size, movement patterns, genetic diversity and structure
  11. 11. Environmental conditions: tidal inundation, stream flow events, size </li></li></ul><li>Study Area<br />~12 km2<br />~1.0 km2<br />
  12. 12. Predictions<br />Smolt traits within a single type of estuarine habitat<br /><ul><li>Greater range of environmental conditions results in fish with greater range of traits
  13. 13. More developed smolt will be associated with increasing salinity and temperature </li></li></ul><li>Predictions<br />Salmon traits compared between estuaries<br />The larger, more complex estuary(Fox)will have fish with:<br /> A wider range in time using the estuary and patterns of movement between fresh and salt water.<br /> Wider ranges in the age and length at ocean entry<br /> Weaker genetic structure but greater genetic diversity<br />
  14. 14. 2009 Pilot Study Goals<br />Three Objectives<br />Determine sampling methods<br />Determine sites<br />Develop baseline data set<br />
  15. 15. 2009 Pilot Study Results<br /><ul><li>Sampled ten sites, four channel types in the Fox, six sites, three channel types within the Anchor
  16. 16. Captured >4k fish, 13 species in the Fox and >1k fish, 8 species within the Anchor
  17. 17. Determined best sampling method and selected sites for focused sampling
  18. 18. Developed baseline species composition, size, and distribution data</li></li></ul><li>2010 Study Objectives<br />Compare traits of smolts using the estuary<br /><ul><li>Salinity, temperature
  19. 19. Size, condition, age </li></ul>Compare salmon traits between two different estuary systems<br /><ul><li>Stream discharge, size, watershed type
  20. 20. Size at marine entry, time of estuary occupancy, movement patterns, genetic structure, diversity</li></li></ul><li>Methods: Smolt Traits Compared Within a Single Estuary<br />Measure environmental conditions<br />Temperature (continuous logging)<br />Salinity (point measurements)<br />Capture salmon smolt, measure traits<br />Size measured in field and in photos<br />Condition and age determined from scale and specimens<br />Test predictions regarding conditions and smolt traits<br />
  21. 21. Methods: Salmon Traits Compared Between Estuaries<br />Collect environmental data<br /><ul><li>Stream flow (gauges, depth loggers)
  22. 22. Tidal inundation (depth loggers)
  23. 23. Size (existing maps)</li></ul>Collect samples from adult returns<br /><ul><li>Standard length and photos from angled fish
  24. 24. Otoliths, fin clips from angled fish</li></ul>Complete analysis of adult otoliths<br /><ul><li>Microstructure for age and size
  25. 25. Microchemistry for behavior and movement</li></ul>Complete analysis of genetic samples<br /><ul><li>Examine diversity and structure of markers</li></ul>Test predictions regarding estuaries and fish traits<br />
  26. 26. The End…for now!<br />
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