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The influence of estuarine habitats on the expression of life history of characteristcs of Life History
 

The influence of estuarine habitats on the expression of life history of characteristcs of Life History

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2010 project update by Tammy Hoem

2010 project update by Tammy Hoem

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    The influence of estuarine habitats on the expression of life history of characteristcs of Life History The influence of estuarine habitats on the expression of life history of characteristcs of Life History Presentation Transcript

    •  The Influence of Estuarine Habitats on Expression of Life History Characteristics of Smolting Coho Salmon
      Research Project Review
      For
      KBRR NERRS Community Council
      May 26, 2010
      Presented by
      Tammy Hoem, GRF, University of Alaska Fairbanks
    • Acknowledgements
      University of Alaska Fairbanks
      Kachemak Bay Research Reserve, NOAA, NERRS
      Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Sport Fish
      Graduate Committee:
      Amanda Rosenberger
      Christian Zimmerman
      Megan McPhee
      Franz Mueter
      Cooperators and full-time staff:
      Coowe Walker (and the Walker family)
      Steve Baird
      Michelle Gutsch
      Jason Neher
      And the amazing army of staff and volunteers who have helped out for the past two years!!
    • Summary
      Background and purpose
      Objectives
      2009 project review
      2010-2011 sampling plan
      Questions and discussion
    • Overview
      Variability in life history strategies is a solution to ecological problems
      What is the problem for salmon? Our changing climate.
      Variability
      (of conditions)
      Variability
      (of fish traits)
      Resilience
      to environmental change
    • Coho Salmon in Estuaries
      Coho (Silver) salmon
      • Northern CA to West Coast AK
      • Wide range of life histories
      • Estuary use is short but important
      Estuary use in Pacific Salmon
      • Very dynamic areas, not well understood
      • Potential area of hard selection pressure
      • Important for smolting
    • The Question:
      Do estuary habitats select for salmon smolt traits?
      Two-part Investigation
      Smolts in an estuary
      • Traits: size, condition, age class
      • Environmental conditions: salinity, temperature
      Adults returning to two different estuarine systems
      • Traits: size, movement patterns, genetic diversity and structure
      • Environmental conditions: tidal inundation, stream flow events, size
    • Study Area
      ~12 km2
      ~1.0 km2
    • Predictions
      Smolt traits within a single type of estuarine habitat
      • Greater range of environmental conditions results in fish with greater range of traits
      • More developed smolt will be associated with increasing salinity and temperature
    • Predictions
      Salmon traits compared between estuaries
      The larger, more complex estuary(Fox)will have fish with:
      A wider range in time using the estuary and patterns of movement between fresh and salt water.
      Wider ranges in the age and length at ocean entry
      Weaker genetic structure but greater genetic diversity
    • 2009 Pilot Study Goals
      Three Objectives
      Determine sampling methods
      Determine sites
      Develop baseline data set
    • 2009 Pilot Study Results
      • Sampled ten sites, four channel types in the Fox, six sites, three channel types within the Anchor
      • Captured >4k fish, 13 species in the Fox and >1k fish, 8 species within the Anchor
      • Determined best sampling method and selected sites for focused sampling
      • Developed baseline species composition, size, and distribution data
    • 2010 Study Objectives
      Compare traits of smolts using the estuary
      • Salinity, temperature
      • Size, condition, age
      Compare salmon traits between two different estuary systems
      • Stream discharge, size, watershed type
      • Size at marine entry, time of estuary occupancy, movement patterns, genetic structure, diversity
    • Methods: Smolt Traits Compared Within a Single Estuary
      Measure environmental conditions
      Temperature (continuous logging)
      Salinity (point measurements)
      Capture salmon smolt, measure traits
      Size measured in field and in photos
      Condition and age determined from scale and specimens
      Test predictions regarding conditions and smolt traits
    • Methods: Salmon Traits Compared Between Estuaries
      Collect environmental data
      • Stream flow (gauges, depth loggers)
      • Tidal inundation (depth loggers)
      • Size (existing maps)
      Collect samples from adult returns
      • Standard length and photos from angled fish
      • Otoliths, fin clips from angled fish
      Complete analysis of adult otoliths
      • Microstructure for age and size
      • Microchemistry for behavior and movement
      Complete analysis of genetic samples
      • Examine diversity and structure of markers
      Test predictions regarding estuaries and fish traits
    • The End…for now!