Kachemak Bay<br />Research Reserve<br />National Estuarine Research Reserve System<br />Marine Invasives of Concern for Ka...
Why Do Exotics Cause Problems?<br /><ul><li>Escape from co-evolved diseases, parasites, predators, and competitors.</li></...
 Generalist diet</li></ul>- Mature quickly<br />#2 cause of extinction in the U.S.<br />
GREEN CRAB<br />Mature very quickly<br />Female can lay 200,000 eggs.<br />Aggressive<br />Eat other crabs as large as the...
What is a tunicate?<br />Tunicates named for their tunic, a tough fleshy shield that surrounds the barrel-shaped body of t...
solitary or colonial<br />
Tunicates native to Alaska<br />
Invasive Tunicates<br />-Fouling organisms (tunicates) 		<br />	-many originate in Asia<br />        	-Cause problems for ...
Club Tunicates (Styelaclava)<br />
Club Tunicates (Styelaclava)<br />
Solitary Tunicates (Cionasavigney)<br />
Colonial Tunicates (Didemnum sp.)<br />
Colonial Tunicates (Didemnum sp.)<br />
How are invasives getting here: Vectors<br />Shipping has contributed<br />to  ~80% of over 300 non-native species of<br /...
What do tunicates and green crab have in common?<br />Planktonic stage in life history<br />-Free floating in the water co...
Ballast water discharge<br />-12 billion metric tons of ballast discharged annually<br />
Volumes of ballast water discharged from ships in Alaska by country or sea of origin of the ballast water and exchange sta...
Volumes of ballast water discharged by arrival port in Alaska (NBIC data, July 1999 to December 2003). Discharge for Valde...
But…<br />Heavy shipping only began in AK began w/ start-up of Valdez terminal.<br />
In Kachemak Bay…<br />E. Gray<br />G. Ashton<br />Caprella mutica (2000, 2007)<br />Botrylloides violaceus (2000)<br />
What can we do?<br />Top-down (prevention)<br />Regulation<br />-mid-ocean ballast exchange  (currently coastwise, and tan...
Regulation: mid-ocean exchange<br />Exchange coastal water with open ocean water 200 miles off shore<br />Coast wise traff...
Ballast water treatment<br />Ship-based treatment<br />					      Shore-based treatment<br />
Early Detection Rapid Response<br />
K-Bay Aquatic Invasive Monitoring<br />European <br />green crab<br />Tunicates/fouling organisms<br />
Green Crab Monitoring<br />
Tunicates/fouling organisms<br />Settling plates<br />PVC square, brick, line, tag<br />Deploy/retrieve/re-deploy quarterl...
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Marine Invasives of Kachemak Bay, Alaska

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Marine Invasives of Kachemak Bay, Alaska

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Marine Invasives of Kachemak Bay, Alaska

  1. 1. Kachemak Bay<br />Research Reserve<br />National Estuarine Research Reserve System<br />Marine Invasives of Concern for Kachemak Bay<br />KACHEMAK BAY RESEARCH RESERVEa unit of theNational Estuarine Research Reserve System<br />Fostering stewardship through integrated research & education<br />
  2. 2. Why Do Exotics Cause Problems?<br /><ul><li>Escape from co-evolved diseases, parasites, predators, and competitors.</li></ul>Characteristics of successful invaders:<br />- Aggressive<br /><ul><li> Broad ecological tolerances
  3. 3. Generalist diet</li></ul>- Mature quickly<br />#2 cause of extinction in the U.S.<br />
  4. 4.
  5. 5. GREEN CRAB<br />Mature very quickly<br />Female can lay 200,000 eggs.<br />Aggressive<br />Eat other crabs as large as themselves <br />Voracious<br />Eat young crab<br />Very good at opening mussels and clams<br />Can eat 40 ½” clams per day<br />Broad ecological tolerances<br />Wide range of salinities<br />Wide range of temperatures<br />
  6. 6.
  7. 7.
  8. 8.
  9. 9. What is a tunicate?<br />Tunicates named for their tunic, a tough fleshy shield that surrounds the barrel-shaped body of the animal. <br />Closely related to vertebrates. This is evidenced by their larvae bilateral tadpole-like larvae w/ simple nerve cord. Larvae is free swimming with several vertebrate characteristics including; notochord, gill slits, dorsal nerve cord post anal tail Phylum chordata, subphylum Urochordata. <br />Adult tunicates are sessile, larval tunicates float/swim in the water column. <br />
  10. 10. solitary or colonial<br />
  11. 11. Tunicates native to Alaska<br />
  12. 12. Invasive Tunicates<br />-Fouling organisms (tunicates) <br /> -many originate in Asia<br /> -Cause problems for marine infrastructure including boats and aquaculture<br /> -Out-compete native benthic organisms<br /> -Difficult to remove<br />Botryllid Tunicates<br />
  13. 13. Club Tunicates (Styelaclava)<br />
  14. 14. Club Tunicates (Styelaclava)<br />
  15. 15.
  16. 16. Solitary Tunicates (Cionasavigney)<br />
  17. 17. Colonial Tunicates (Didemnum sp.)<br />
  18. 18. Colonial Tunicates (Didemnum sp.)<br />
  19. 19.
  20. 20.
  21. 21.
  22. 22. How are invasives getting here: Vectors<br />Shipping has contributed<br />to ~80% of over 300 non-native species of<br />invertebrates and algae introduced to North America<br />
  23. 23.
  24. 24. What do tunicates and green crab have in common?<br />Planktonic stage in life history<br />-Free floating in the water column and at the mercy of tides and currents for at least part of their lives.<br />
  25. 25. Ballast water discharge<br />-12 billion metric tons of ballast discharged annually<br />
  26. 26.
  27. 27.
  28. 28. Volumes of ballast water discharged from ships in Alaska by country or sea of origin of the ballast water and exchange status of the ballast at discharge (NBIC data, July 1999 to December 2003).<br />
  29. 29. Volumes of ballast water discharged by arrival port in Alaska (NBIC data, July 1999 to December 2003). Discharge for Valdez is segregated ballast data from ADEC.<br />
  30. 30.
  31. 31.
  32. 32.
  33. 33. But…<br />Heavy shipping only began in AK began w/ start-up of Valdez terminal.<br />
  34. 34. In Kachemak Bay…<br />E. Gray<br />G. Ashton<br />Caprella mutica (2000, 2007)<br />Botrylloides violaceus (2000)<br />
  35. 35. What can we do?<br />Top-down (prevention)<br />Regulation<br />-mid-ocean ballast exchange (currently coastwise, and tanker traffic exempt)<br />-ballast treatment (engineering challenges)<br />Bottom-up (response)<br /> - Monitoring aimed at early detection/rapid response <br />
  36. 36. Regulation: mid-ocean exchange<br />Exchange coastal water with open ocean water 200 miles off shore<br />Coast wise traffic exempt<br />Oil tankers exempt<br />Safety exemption<br />
  37. 37. Ballast water treatment<br />Ship-based treatment<br /> Shore-based treatment<br />
  38. 38. Early Detection Rapid Response<br />
  39. 39. K-Bay Aquatic Invasive Monitoring<br />European <br />green crab<br />Tunicates/fouling organisms<br />
  40. 40.
  41. 41. Green Crab Monitoring<br />
  42. 42. Tunicates/fouling organisms<br />Settling plates<br />PVC square, brick, line, tag<br />Deploy/retrieve/re-deploy quarterly: 1m from surface<br />
  43. 43. Take Home Message:<br />1) Ballast water is a major vector for marine invasives, Alaska receives large quantities of untreated ballast water<br />2) Community monitoring aimed at early detection and rapid response is a the most immediate and valuable tool we have for combating marine invasives.<br />
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