2. a Japanese author and acourt lady who served theEmpress Teishi (Sadako)around the year 1000 duringthe middle Heian period. She is best known as theauthor of The Pillow Book
3. Shōnagon is also known for herrivalry with hercontemporary, writer and courtlady Murasaki Shikibu, author ofThe Tale of Genji who served theEmpress Shoshi.She was the daughter ofKiyohara no Motosuke, a scholarand well-known waka poet, who
5. it is mostly a personalwork, Shōnagons writing andpoetic skill makes it interesting asa work of literature, and it isvaluable as a historical document.Part of it was revealed to theCourt by accident duringShōnagons life.
6. CAPITAL : TOKYO LANGUAGE : NIHONNGO RELIGION : BUDDHISM The first novel, The Tale of Genji, waswritten in 1007 by a Japanese noblewoman, Murasaki Shikibu. Tsukiji market in Tokyo is the worlds largestfish market. The Japanese language has thousands offoreign loan words, known as gairaigo.
7. Japan is the largest automobile producer inthe world. Average life expectancy in Japan is one ofthe highest in the world. Japanese peoplelive an average of 4 years longer thanAmericans. Japan is the world’s largest consumer ofAmazon rain forest timber. Religion does not play a big role in the livesof most Japanese and many do notunderstand the difference betweenShintoism and Buddhism
8. Mt. Fuji, the tallest mountain in Japan, isan active volcano.
9. One is called, in Japanese, gogyō (), having its backgrounds in the Chinese fiveelements, and the other is called godai ( ).Godai is usually regarded as a Buddhism termin Japan, with certain influences from Hinduism The Buddhist philosophy godai, lit. "fivegreat", is perhaps best known in the West fortheir use in Miyamoto Musashis famous textGorin-no-sho (The Book of Five Rings), in whichhe explains different aspects of swordsmanshipby assigning each aspect to an element.
10. Chi (sometimes ji) or tsuchi, meaning"Earth", represents the hard, solid objectsof the world. The most basic example ofchi is in a stone Sui or mizu, meaning "Water", representsthe fluid, flowing, formless things in theworld. Outside of the obvious example ofrivers and the like, plants are alsocategorized under sui, as they adapt totheir environment
11. Ka or hi, meaning "Fire", represents theenergetic, forceful, moving things in theworld. Animals, capable of movement andfull of forceful energy, are primaryexamples of ka objects. Fū or kaze, meaning "Wind", representsthings that grow, expand, and enjoyfreedom of movement. Kū or sora, most often translated as"Void", but also meaning "sky" or"Heaven", represents those things beyondour everyday experience, particularlythose things composed of pure energy.
12. Kawabata was a Japanese short storywriter and novelist “ Masuji Ibuse. He was a Japanese writerwho became famous after World War II. Edogawa Rampo. Best known by hisliterary pseudonym
13. This god had afierce temperand was given tocruel acts.
14. 400,000warriors, called"samurai", whoseranks ranged innumerous gradesand degrees.The samurai wereaffiliated with seniorlords in a well-established chain ofcommand
15. During the Edoperiod,/Tokugawaperiod, the administrationof the country was sharedby over two hundreddaimyō in a federationgoverned by the Tokugawashogunate.
16. The Tokugawaclan, leader of thevictorious easternarmy in the Battleof Sekigahara, wasthe most powerfulof them and forfifteen generationsmonopolized thetitle of Sei-iTaishōgun (oftenshortened toshōgun).
17. Pit Dwelling Rice Storage “kura”
18. This period is named after Yayoi town, thesubsection of Bunkyō, Tokyo, wherearchaeological investigations uncovered itsfirst recognized traces . The Yayoi period brought Shamanismand divination by oracles to Shinto, inorder to guarantee good crops
19. Japan first appeared in written records in 57AD with the following mention in ChinasBook of the Later Han. The Yoshinogari site in Kyūshū is themost famous archaeological site of theYayoi period
20. The addition of two phoneticsyllabaries (katakana and hiragana)during the Heian era (794–1185)opened the classic age, in whichJapanese literature reached its firstpeak of development.Classical Chinese still predominated inintellectual literary circles and officialcourt communications, yet literature inthe native language, the only writtenmedium permitted to educatedwomen, gained increasing prestige.
21. Much Heian literature of note was written byaristocratic women, foremost among whomwas Murasaki Shikibu Sei Shonagon, another contemporary courtlady, wrote Makura no soshi [the pillowbook], a compilation of miscellaneous notesand reflections that provides an excellentportrait of Heian aristocratic life, with itsemphasis on elegance—always an importantelement of the Japanese aesthetic.
22. The Japanese have always esteemedpoetry as the highest of literaryarts, and poets regarded inclusion ina poetry anthology as a supremehonor.
23. Protagonist ) Okinamaro – who foolishlystartled and terrified a cat that lived in thepalace. (Antagonist ) Lady Myobu – The Emperor’sCat, treates with the greatest care Lady Uma – the nurse in charged to LadyMyobu Emperor / Empress / Majesty Ukon
24. The story was writtenduring the middleHeian Period. Andmost of the sceneswas taken in thePalace
25. The same evening a wretched-lookingdog walked in, his body was trembling andhe was swollen all over.The Empress sawthe dog but couldn’t believe that this wastheir dog okinamaro, because it doesn’treact or respond at all.”No it cannot be thesame one. And besides, wasn’t okinamarobeaten to death and his body thrownaway? How could any dog be alive afterbeing flogged by two strong men?” Themajesty was very unhappy after hearingthis.
26. It is Internal Conflict , Okinamarostruggle within himself, he makessome decisions and he overcomepain . Man vs Man – Okinamarostruggles with his physical strengthagainst other men, forces of nature oranimals.
27. The Pillow Book is a collection ofanecdotes, memories of court and religiousceremonies, character sketches, lists of thingsthe author enjoyed or loathed, places thatinterested her, diary entries, descriptions ofnature, pilgrimages, conversations, poetryexchanges–indeed, almost everything that madeup daily life for the upper classes in japan duringthe Heian period. Her style is so eloquent, herobservations so skillfully chosen, and her wit sosharp that even the smallest detail she recordscan attract and hold the attention of any modernreader
28. First Person – The story is told bythe protagonist or one of thecharacters who interacts closelywith the protagonist or othercharacters. The reader sees thestory through this person’s eyesas he/she experiences it andonly knows what he/she knowsor feels.