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The Spanish CivilizationHi st or y, Li t er at ur e and Mi guelde Cer vant es
The History of Spain• Prehistoric times• The Celt- Iberian Spain• Phoenicians, Greeks, andCarthaginians• Romans and Goths• Moorish Epochs and Reconquista• The Catholic Monarchs• Habsburg and Bourbon Kings• 20th Century
The Spanish Literature• Spanish literature generally refers to literature(Spanish poetry, prose, and drama) written intheSpanish language within the territory thatpresently constitutes the state of Spain.• Its development coincides and frequentlyintersects with that of other literary traditionsfrom regions within the sameterritory, particularly Catalan literature, Galicianliterature, and more recently a formal Basqueliterature.
Castiliano/Castellano• Spanish (español) is a Romancelanguage named for its origins asthe native tongue of a largeproportion of the inhabitantsof Spain.• It is also named Castilian after theSpanish region of Castile where itoriginated.• Spanish is the second mostnatively spoken language in theworld, after Mandarin Chinese.
Catalan• is a Romancelanguage, the national andonly officiallanguage of Andorra and aco-official language inthe Spanish autonomouscommunities of Catalonia,the BalearicIslandsand ValencianCommunity, where it isknown as Valencian.
Galician• is a language of the WesternIbero-Romance branch, spokenin Galicia, an autonomouscommunity located innorthwestern Spain, where it isco-official with Castilian, as wellas in border zones of theneighboring territoriesof Asturias andCastile and León.
Basque• Is the ancestral language of the Basquepeople, who inhabit the Basque Country, aregion spanning an area innortheastern Spain and southwestern France.
Development of Spanish Literature• Pre-Historic– Actual written evidence has never been found.– As far back as the last Paleolithic era (30,000-15,000 BCE) engaged in a variety of oral lyrictraditions.– Originally, these lyrical songs would have beenclosely associated with fertility rites, the hunt, orother key life stages.
Development of Spanish Literature• Renaissance– During the 15th century the pre-Renaissance occurs.– The most important characteristics of theRenaissance:• The language in this age is dominated by naturalnessand simplicity.• The preferred themesare, fundamentally, love, nature, paganmythology, from which the histories of gods and thefemale beauty are reflected, following always the sameclassical ideal.
Development of Spanish Literature• Baroque– 17th Century– The Baroque style used exaggerated motion andclear, easily interpreted detail to producedrama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur insculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music.– The Baroque is characterized by the followingpoints:• Pessimism• Disillusionment
Development of Spanish Literature• Romanticism– 19th century– Characteristics:• Rejection of Neoclassicism• Subjectivism• Attraction to Nocturnal and Mysterious• Escape from the world that surrounds them
Development of Spanish Literature• Enlightenment– 18th century– “Arrival of Lights in Spain”– 3 phases:• Anti-baroquism• Neoclassicism• Pre-Romanticism
Development of Spanish Literature• Realism– Objective vision of reality– The narrators write their works approachingreality from their moral conception.– Themes that are familiar to the reader– The popular and colloquial language acquiresgreat importance.
Development of Spanish Literature• Modernism– Regenerationism– Modernism was rooted in the idea that"traditional" forms of art, literature, religiousfaith, social organization, and daily life hadbecome outdated; therefore it was essential tosweep them aside.
Miguel de Cervantes• Born in Alcala de Henares, a town20 miles from Madrid, onSeptember 29, 1547• He was named Miguel for SaintMichael• Son of a barber-surgeon• His family was large; he was onlythe fourth son out of what was tobecome seven children in total.• Studied under the Jesuits as achild; Did not go to a university
Miguel de Cervantes• In 1570, he left Spain for Italy, amove usually done by theSpaniards of his time to furthertheir careers.• This move made the confrontationbetween the Turks and the Spanishinfantries located in nearby Italyinevitable.• His ship was captured by piratesand he was taken as a slave toAlgiers, a country in northernAfrica. (1575)
Miguel de Cervantes• It is believed that his life as aslave from 1575 to 1580 becamethe source of inspiration forsome episodes in Don Quixote.• Spain had changed drasticallyduring Cervantess absence.• It was his return to Spain whichbegan his career as a majorliterary figure.• In 1585, he published his firstlong work, La Galatea, a prosepastoral romance.
Miguel de Cervantes• Became a dramatist.• First Part of Don Quixote came out in1605.• In 1615, a year before his death, theSecond Part came out and was just assuccessful.• Unfortunately, all of this successresulted in no profit forCervantes, who had sold thepublishing rights of his work.