03 neuroscience & behavior


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03 neuroscience & behavior

  2. 2. MODULE 7: Neurons: The BasicElements of Behavior Why do psychologists study the brain andnervous system? What are the basic elements of thenervous system? How does the nervous systemcommunicate electrical and chemicalmessages from one part to another?
  3. 3. The Structure of the Neuron Neurons (Nervecells)› Basic elements of thenervous system› As many as 1 trillion
  4. 4.  Nerve cells The building blocks of the nervoussystem A specialized cell that transmitneural impulses to other neurons,glands and muscles4
  5. 5. The Structure of the Neuron Dendrites› Clusters of fibers that receive messages fromother neurons Axon› Carries messages received by the dendritesto other neurons
  6. 6.  Dendrites - a cluster offibers at one end of aneuron› receive information fromother neurons and transmittowards the cell body. Cell body› keeps the neuron aliveand determines whether itwill fire.6
  7. 7. The Structure of the Neuron Terminal buttons› Sends messages to other neurons Myelin sheath› Protective coating of fat and protein thatwraps around the axon like links of sausage
  8. 8.  Myelin Sheath Fatty insulation that may surround the axon of a neuron.8
  9. 9.  Myelin sheath› A protective coat of fat and protein thatwraps around the axon› Serves to increase the velocity with whichelectrical impulses travel through axons› “if your hand touches a painfully hot stove,the information regarding the pain ispassed through axons in the hand andarm that have a relatively thick coating ofmyelin sheath, speeding the message ofpain so that you can react instantly.9
  10. 10.  Nerve› Bundle of axonsbelonging to manyneuronsNucleus› a group of cellbodies in the brainand spine Ganglion› A group of cellbodies outside thebrain and spine› Glial cells› Nonneuronal cellsthat hold theneurons in placeand removedead neuronsand wasteproducts 11
  11. 11. Identify parts of the neuron and synapse anddescribe how they communicate information.
  12. 12. Identify parts of the neuron and synapse anddescribe how they communicate information.
  13. 13. How Neurons Fire Transmit an electricalimpulse along theaxon› All-or-none law› Resting state› Action potential› Mirror neurons
  14. 14. Where Neurons Meet: Bridgingthe Gap Synapse› Space between twoneurons where theaxon of a sendingneuron communicateswith the dendrites of areceiving neuron byusing chemicalmessages
  15. 15. Where Neurons Meet: Bridgingthe Gap Neurotransmitters› Chemicals that carry messages across thesynapse to a dendrite of a receiving neuron Excitatory messages Increase likelihood that neuron will fire Inhibitory messages Decrease likelihood that neuron will fire Reuptake Reabsorption by the terminal button SSRIs
  16. 16. Neurotransmitters: MultitalentedChemical Couriers Acetylcholine (ACh) Glutamate Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) Dopamine (DA) Serotonin Endorphins
  17. 17.  i. Found at many synapses and is usuallyexcitatory ii. Prevalent in the hippocampus wherememories are formed› Has a role in Alzheimer’s diseaseiii. Released at every synapse where a neuronterminates at a skeletal muscle fiber Directed onto end plates located on themuscle cells which cause them to contract18
  18. 18.  Part of the monoamines and isproduced mainly in the brain stem› Cocaine and amphetamines prolong theaction of norepinephrine leading toelevated mood states› Lithium speeds up norepinephrinereuptake leading to depressed mood19
  19. 19. Similar to norepinephrine andrelated to feelings of pleasureToo much dopamine maycause schizophrenia and toolittle is associated withParkinson’s disease20
  20. 20. Plays an important role in theregulation of mood, sleep andappetiteAntidepressant drugs, calledserotonin reuptake inhibitors,increase serotonin levels21
  21. 21. An excitatory neurotransmitter ispresent in neurons of the centralnervous system› Believed to play a role inlearning and memory22
  22. 22. A major inhibitory transmitterused in the majority of synapsesin the brain› Used as anxiety reducingdrugs23
  23. 23. MODULE 8: The Nervous System andthe Endocrine System:Communicating Within the Body How are the structures of the nervoussystem linked together? How does the endocrine system affectbehavior?
  24. 24. The Nervous System: LinkingNeurons Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems› Central nervous system Spinal cord Reflex Sensory (afferent) neurons Motor (efferent) neurons Interneurons
  25. 25. The Nervous System: LinkingNeurons Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems› Peripheral Nervous System Somatic division Voluntary movements Autonomic division Controls organs that function automatically
  26. 26. Activating the Divisions of theAutonomic Nervous System Sympathetic Division› Acts to prepare the body for action instressful situations by engaging all of theorganism’s resources to run away or confrontthe threat “Fight or flight” Parasympathetic Division› Calms the body after emergency ends
  27. 27. The Evolutionary Foundationsof the Nervous System Evolutionary Psychology› Branch of psychology that seeks to identifyhow behavior is influenced and produced byour genetic inheritance from our ancestors
  28. 28. The Evolutionary Foundationsof the Nervous System Behavioral Genetics› Studies the effects of heredity on behavior Molecular genetics and psychologicaldisorders Genetic markers Behavioral genetics, gene therapy, andgenetic counseling
  29. 29. The Endocrine System: ofChemicals and Glands Chemicalcommunicationnetwork that sendsmessages throughoutthe body via thebloodstream› Hormones› Pituitary gland “Master gland”
  30. 30. MODULE 9: The Brain How do researchers identify the majorparts and functions of the brain? What are the major parts of the brain,and for what behaviors is each partresponsible?
  31. 31. MODULE 9: The Brain How do the two halves of the brainoperate interdependently? How can an understanding of thenervous system help us find ways toalleviate disease and pain?
  32. 32. Studying the Brain’s Structure andFunctions: Spying on the Brain Electroencephalogram (EEG) Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging(fMRI) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)
  33. 33. The Central Core: Our “OldBrain” Central Core› Hindbrain Medulla Breathing andheartbeat Pons Transmitter of motorinformation Cerebellum Balance
  34. 34. The Central Core: Our “OldBrain” Central Core› Reticular formation Passes through the midbrain and into theforebrain Activates other parts of the brain to producebodily arousal
  35. 35. The Central Core: Our “OldBrain” Central Core› Thalamus Relay station for information about the senses› Hypothalamus Homeostasis
  36. 36. The Central Core: Our “OldBrain” The Limbic System:Beyond the CentralCore› Amygdala› Hippocampus
  37. 37. The Cerebral Cortex: Our “NewBrain” Cerebral Cortex› Gives the ability tothink, evaluate, andmake complexjudgments Lobes Frontal Parietal Temporal Occipital
  38. 38. The Cerebral Cortex: Our “NewBrain” The Motor Area of the Cortex› Largely responsible for the body’s voluntarymovement The Sensory Area of the Cortex› Corresponds to body sensations Somatosensory area Touch Pressure
  39. 39. Somatosensory Area
  40. 40. The Cerebral Cortex: Our “NewBrain” The Association Areas of the Cortex› Executive functions Higher mental processes such as thinking,language, memory, and speech Broca’s aphasia Wernicke’s aphasia
  41. 41. Neuroplasticity and the Brain Neuroplasticity› The brain continually reorganizing itself Neurogenesis› New neurons created in certain areas of thebrain during adulthood
  42. 42. The Specialization of theHemispheres: Two Brains or One? Left and right symmetrical halves› Lateralized Left Verbal competence Processes information sequentially Right Spatial relationships Recognition of patterns and drawings Music Emotional expression Processes information globally
  43. 43. The Split Brain: Exploring theTwo Hemispheres Split-brain patients› Corpus callosumsurgically cut