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03 neuroscience & behavior

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PRELIM (1st sem)

PRELIM (1st sem)

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  • 1. CHAPTER THREE:NEUROSCIENCE ANDBEHAVIOR
  • 2. MODULE 7: Neurons: The BasicElements of Behavior Why do psychologists study the brain andnervous system? What are the basic elements of thenervous system? How does the nervous systemcommunicate electrical and chemicalmessages from one part to another?
  • 3. The Structure of the Neuron Neurons (Nervecells)› Basic elements of thenervous system› As many as 1 trillion
  • 4.  Nerve cells The building blocks of the nervoussystem A specialized cell that transmitneural impulses to other neurons,glands and muscles4
  • 5. The Structure of the Neuron Dendrites› Clusters of fibers that receive messages fromother neurons Axon› Carries messages received by the dendritesto other neurons
  • 6.  Dendrites - a cluster offibers at one end of aneuron› receive information fromother neurons and transmittowards the cell body. Cell body› keeps the neuron aliveand determines whether itwill fire.6
  • 7. The Structure of the Neuron Terminal buttons› Sends messages to other neurons Myelin sheath› Protective coating of fat and protein thatwraps around the axon like links of sausage
  • 8.  Myelin Sheath Fatty insulation that may surround the axon of a neuron.8
  • 9.  Myelin sheath› A protective coat of fat and protein thatwraps around the axon› Serves to increase the velocity with whichelectrical impulses travel through axons› “if your hand touches a painfully hot stove,the information regarding the pain ispassed through axons in the hand andarm that have a relatively thick coating ofmyelin sheath, speeding the message ofpain so that you can react instantly.9
  • 10.  Nerve› Bundle of axonsbelonging to manyneuronsNucleus› a group of cellbodies in the brainand spine Ganglion› A group of cellbodies outside thebrain and spine› Glial cells› Nonneuronal cellsthat hold theneurons in placeand removedead neuronsand wasteproducts 11
  • 11. Identify parts of the neuron and synapse anddescribe how they communicate information.
  • 12. Identify parts of the neuron and synapse anddescribe how they communicate information.
  • 13. How Neurons Fire Transmit an electricalimpulse along theaxon› All-or-none law› Resting state› Action potential› Mirror neurons
  • 14. Where Neurons Meet: Bridgingthe Gap Synapse› Space between twoneurons where theaxon of a sendingneuron communicateswith the dendrites of areceiving neuron byusing chemicalmessages
  • 15. Where Neurons Meet: Bridgingthe Gap Neurotransmitters› Chemicals that carry messages across thesynapse to a dendrite of a receiving neuron Excitatory messages Increase likelihood that neuron will fire Inhibitory messages Decrease likelihood that neuron will fire Reuptake Reabsorption by the terminal button SSRIs
  • 16. Neurotransmitters: MultitalentedChemical Couriers Acetylcholine (ACh) Glutamate Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) Dopamine (DA) Serotonin Endorphins
  • 17.  i. Found at many synapses and is usuallyexcitatory ii. Prevalent in the hippocampus wherememories are formed› Has a role in Alzheimer’s diseaseiii. Released at every synapse where a neuronterminates at a skeletal muscle fiber Directed onto end plates located on themuscle cells which cause them to contract18
  • 18.  Part of the monoamines and isproduced mainly in the brain stem› Cocaine and amphetamines prolong theaction of norepinephrine leading toelevated mood states› Lithium speeds up norepinephrinereuptake leading to depressed mood19
  • 19. Similar to norepinephrine andrelated to feelings of pleasureToo much dopamine maycause schizophrenia and toolittle is associated withParkinson’s disease20
  • 20. Plays an important role in theregulation of mood, sleep andappetiteAntidepressant drugs, calledserotonin reuptake inhibitors,increase serotonin levels21
  • 21. An excitatory neurotransmitter ispresent in neurons of the centralnervous system› Believed to play a role inlearning and memory22
  • 22. A major inhibitory transmitterused in the majority of synapsesin the brain› Used as anxiety reducingdrugs23
  • 23. MODULE 8: The Nervous System andthe Endocrine System:Communicating Within the Body How are the structures of the nervoussystem linked together? How does the endocrine system affectbehavior?
  • 24. The Nervous System: LinkingNeurons Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems› Central nervous system Spinal cord Reflex Sensory (afferent) neurons Motor (efferent) neurons Interneurons
  • 25. The Nervous System: LinkingNeurons Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems› Peripheral Nervous System Somatic division Voluntary movements Autonomic division Controls organs that function automatically
  • 26. Activating the Divisions of theAutonomic Nervous System Sympathetic Division› Acts to prepare the body for action instressful situations by engaging all of theorganism’s resources to run away or confrontthe threat “Fight or flight” Parasympathetic Division› Calms the body after emergency ends
  • 27. The Evolutionary Foundationsof the Nervous System Evolutionary Psychology› Branch of psychology that seeks to identifyhow behavior is influenced and produced byour genetic inheritance from our ancestors
  • 28. The Evolutionary Foundationsof the Nervous System Behavioral Genetics› Studies the effects of heredity on behavior Molecular genetics and psychologicaldisorders Genetic markers Behavioral genetics, gene therapy, andgenetic counseling
  • 29. The Endocrine System: ofChemicals and Glands Chemicalcommunicationnetwork that sendsmessages throughoutthe body via thebloodstream› Hormones› Pituitary gland “Master gland”
  • 30. MODULE 9: The Brain How do researchers identify the majorparts and functions of the brain? What are the major parts of the brain,and for what behaviors is each partresponsible?
  • 31. MODULE 9: The Brain How do the two halves of the brainoperate interdependently? How can an understanding of thenervous system help us find ways toalleviate disease and pain?
  • 32. Studying the Brain’s Structure andFunctions: Spying on the Brain Electroencephalogram (EEG) Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging(fMRI) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)
  • 33. The Central Core: Our “OldBrain” Central Core› Hindbrain Medulla Breathing andheartbeat Pons Transmitter of motorinformation Cerebellum Balance
  • 34. The Central Core: Our “OldBrain” Central Core› Reticular formation Passes through the midbrain and into theforebrain Activates other parts of the brain to producebodily arousal
  • 35. The Central Core: Our “OldBrain” Central Core› Thalamus Relay station for information about the senses› Hypothalamus Homeostasis
  • 36. The Central Core: Our “OldBrain” The Limbic System:Beyond the CentralCore› Amygdala› Hippocampus
  • 37. The Cerebral Cortex: Our “NewBrain” Cerebral Cortex› Gives the ability tothink, evaluate, andmake complexjudgments Lobes Frontal Parietal Temporal Occipital
  • 38. The Cerebral Cortex: Our “NewBrain” The Motor Area of the Cortex› Largely responsible for the body’s voluntarymovement The Sensory Area of the Cortex› Corresponds to body sensations Somatosensory area Touch Pressure
  • 39. Somatosensory Area
  • 40. The Cerebral Cortex: Our “NewBrain” The Association Areas of the Cortex› Executive functions Higher mental processes such as thinking,language, memory, and speech Broca’s aphasia Wernicke’s aphasia
  • 41. Neuroplasticity and the Brain Neuroplasticity› The brain continually reorganizing itself Neurogenesis› New neurons created in certain areas of thebrain during adulthood
  • 42. The Specialization of theHemispheres: Two Brains or One? Left and right symmetrical halves› Lateralized Left Verbal competence Processes information sequentially Right Spatial relationships Recognition of patterns and drawings Music Emotional expression Processes information globally
  • 43. The Split Brain: Exploring theTwo Hemispheres Split-brain patients› Corpus callosumsurgically cut