If you are like most people you have probably never heard of telomeres. However, it they aresomething that you should definitely know about. This article will provide you with telomeresdefinition and information, the basics of a telomere. Telomeres A telomere is the end of the chromosome that protects it from deterioration. It is a region ofrepetitive DNA that was first recognized by Alexei Olovnikov in 1971. What Olovnikov noticed wasthat chromosomes could replicate right up to the tip, so what he suggested was DNA sequences werelost at each phase of replication. However, when they reached a critical level cell division stopped.Enzymes that duplicate the chromosome and its DNA during cell division were not able to continueduplicating to the end of the chromosome. If a cell divided without telomeres, that cell would lose theend of its chromosomes, including the necessary information of how to replicate. This is a phenomenoncalled the "end replication problem" discovered in 1972 by James Watson. Essentially, a telomere is adisposable buffer that blocks the end of a chromosome. During cell division these telomeres areconsumed and replenished by an enzyme known as telomerase reverse transcriptase. Between 1975 and1977 Joseph Gall was working at Yale University and discovered the unusual nature of telomeres. Whathe found was that a telomere was simply a repeated DNA sequence that was composed at the end of achromosome. Telomeres and Cancer He discovered that the shortening of telomeres limited cells to a fixed number of divisions. Withfurther animal studies Gall discovered that telomeres were responsible for aging on the cellular leveland that it sets a limit on lifespan. As soon as telomeres are consumed a cell is destroyed, except forwhen cancers are involved. Cancers create "immortal" cells that halt the normal phase of destruction.Telomeres and the nobel prize The most recent news of telomeres came in 2009 when Elizabeth Blackburn, Carol Greider, andJack Szostak won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. They discovered how chromosomes areprotected by telomeres and an enzyme called telomerase forms them. Telomeres have just recently beendiscovered and they are still being researched for us to further understand them. Research right now isgoing into finding how to lengthen telomeres because it is believed that can help extend life. The basic information of telomeres has been talked about in this article. It can be difficult tounderstand what they are if you have trouble understanding science. Just remember that telomeresdefinition is a DNA sequence at the end of a chromosome that is responsible for protecting thechromosome and is also involved with the lifespan of that cell. To learn more about telomeres and how the telomerase enzyme effect our life span please visitthe TA Sciences web site. Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Stacey_Zimmerman
Are You Trying To Discover If Telemores Really Stop Aging, You Absolutely HaveTo Click Through Now And See Why Nobel Prizes Are Now Being Won ForResearch On Telomeres.