‫ﮐﺎرﺑرﭘژوھﯽ‬ ‫ﻋﻠم‬
‫ﻣﺳﺗﻣر‬ ‫ﺑﮭﺑود‬ ‫ﺑرای‬
‫ﮐﺎرﺑری‬ ‫ﺗﺟرﺑﮫ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﮐﺎرﺑردﭘذﯾری‬
‫ﺑﺎزرﮔﺎن‬ ‫ﮐﺎوه‬ ‫دﮐﺗر‬
k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir
...
‫ﻣطﺎﻟب‬ ‫ﻓﮭرﺳت‬
•‫ﺗﻌرﯾف‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻘدﻣﮫ‬‫ﮐﺎرﺑرﭘژوھﯽ‬
•‫اﯾران‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﮐﺎرﺑرﭘژوھﯽ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﯾﮕﺎه‬‫ﺟﮭﺎن‬ ‫و‬:‫ﻣطﻠوب‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣوﺟود‬ ‫وﺿﻌﯾت‬...
4-3
k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir
(businessmodelgeneration.ir, 2013)
‫ﺟﺎﯾﮕﺎه‬‫ﻧظر‬ ‫از‬ ‫اﯾران‬،‫ﺑﺳﺗر‬‫و‬ ‫ﮐﺎرﺑرد‬ ،‫زﯾرﺳﺎﺧت‬
‫ﻓﻧﺎوری‬ ‫ﻋﻣﻠﮑرد‬‫ﺟﮭﺎن؟‬ ‫ﺳطﺢ‬ ‫در‬ ‫اطﻼﻋﺎت‬
1/42 k_bazargan@sbu....
k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir
‫ﺟﺎﯾﮕﺎه‬‫ﻧظر‬ ‫از‬ ‫اﯾران‬،‫ﺑﺳﺗر‬‫و‬ ‫ﮐﺎرﺑرد‬ ،‫زﯾرﺳﺎﺧت‬
‫ﻓﻧﺎوری‬ ‫ﻋﻣﻠﮑرد‬‫ﺟﮭﺎن؟‬ ‫ﺳطﺢ‬ ‫در‬ ‫اطﻼﻋﺎت‬...
kaveh.bazargan@pedagogy.ch
L01-6
k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir3/42 (WEF, 2013)
‫ﺟﺎﯾﮕﺎه‬‫ﻧظر‬ ‫از‬ ‫اﯾران‬،‫ﺑﺳﺗر‬‫و‬ ‫ﮐﺎرﺑرد‬ ،‫زﯾرﺳﺎﺧت‬
‫ﻓﻧﺎوری‬ ‫ﻋﻣﻠﮑرد‬‫ﺟﮭﺎن؟‬ ‫ﺳطﺢ‬ ‫در‬ ‫اطﻼﻋﺎت‬
k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir...
‫ﺗﻌرﯾف‬‫ﮐﺎرﺑرﭘژوھﯽ‬
User research is the systematic study of
the goals, needs, and capabilities of users
so as to specify ...
4-9
k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir6/42
(UXPA, 2013)
3-10
(GartnerCEOAgendaSurvey,2012)
k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir7/42
4-11
k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir8/42 (World Bank, 2013)
4-12
k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir9/42
4-13
k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir10/42
4-14
k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir11/42
4-15
k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir12/42
4-16
k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir13/42
(itc.ir, 2013)
4-17
k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir14/42
(itc.ir, 2013)
4-18
k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir15/42
(itc.ir, 2013)
4-19
k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir16/42
(itc.ir, 2013)
4-20
k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir17/42
(itc.ir, 2013)
4-21
k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir18/42
(itc.ir, 2013)
4-22
‫ﮐﺎرﺑرﭘژوھﯽ‬ ‫ﻧﺗﯾﺟﮫ‬:‫ﻣﻧﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﺗوﺳﻌﮫ‬ ‫ﺧدﻣت‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻧدﭘﮭن‬ ‫اﯾﻧﺗرﻧت‬
‫ﺑﺎز‬ ‫آﻣوزﺷﯽ‬(OER) Open Educational Resources
k...
k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir20/42
(ictkey.ir, 2013)
‫اطﻼﻋﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻧﺎوری‬ ‫ﺻﻧﻌت‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻊ‬ ‫راھﻧﻣﺎی‬:‫ﮐﺎرﺑرﭘژوھﯽ؟‬
(ictkey.ir, 2013)
k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir21/42 (festival.tehran.ir, 2013)
k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir21a/42 (festival.tehran.ir, 2013)
k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir22/42
‫ﮐﺎرﺑرﭘژوھﯽ‬:‫آﻣﯾﺧﺗﮫ‬ ‫ھﺎی‬ ‫روش‬ ‫از‬ ‫اﺳﺗﻔﺎده‬
• Expert review
• Depth interview
• Mobile devi...
4-27
k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir22a/42
k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir23/42
User
Research
‫داﻣﻧﮫ‬‫ﮐﺎرﺑرﭘژوھﯽ‬
User Interface / Device
k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir24/42
‫ﮐﺎرﺑرﭘژوھﯽ‬ ‫ﺑردار‬
(Jääskö and Mattelmäki, 2003)
(Norman, 2003)
‫ﺷﻧﺎﺧﺗﯽ‬ ‫ﭘردازﺷﮕر‬
25/42 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir
‫ﺷﻧﺎﺧﺗﯽ‬ ‫ﻋﻠوم‬:‫ﭘردازش‬ ‫ﻓراﯾﻧد‬ ‫ﭼﻧدﮔﺎﻧﮫ‬ ‫ﻣراﺣل‬
k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir26/42
(Norman, 2003)
‫اﺣﺷﺎﯾﯽ‬Visceral
27/42 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir
(Meriam-Webster, 2013)
Emotions ‫ﻋواطف‬
28/42 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir
(edu.pedagogy.ch, 2013)
29/42 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir
‫ﺗﺟرﺑﮫ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫راﺑطﮫ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ای‬ ‫ﻧظرﯾﮫ‬
(Forlizzi and Ford, 2000)
30/42 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir
‫ﮐﺎرﺑری‬ ‫ﺗﺟرﺑﮫ‬ ‫ﮔﺎﻧﮫ‬ ‫ﺳﮫ‬ ‫ﻓراﯾﻧدھﺎی‬ ‫ﭼرﺧﮫ‬:ICE
(Interaction / Construction / Evaluation)
(...
‫ﮐﺎرﺑری‬ ‫ﺗﺟرﺑﮫ‬ ‫ﺑر‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺛﯾرﮔذار‬ ‫ھﺎی‬ ‫ﻣﻼک‬
31/42 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir
(edu.pedagogy.ch, 2013)
‫راﯾﺎﻧﮫ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻧﺳﺎن‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻣل‬ ‫رﺳﺎﻟت‬
• Human Performance: measured by reducing
errors, improving quality, and reducing tim...
‫راﯾﺎﻧﮫ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻧﺳﺎن‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻣل‬ ‫ﺑﻧﯾﺎدﯾن‬ ‫ﭘﯾﭼﯾدﮔﯽ‬
• Complexity of HCI: the human resources
needed for interacting with the ...
Gulfs of Execution and
Evaluation
• Gulf of execution: the gap between the
user’s goal and its computerized
implementation...
Fit and Complexity
• The fit between the user’s mental model
of the system and the actual model of the
system affects comp...
4-41
36/42 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir
(edu.pedagogy.ch, 2013)
4-42
37/42 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir
(edu.pedagogy.ch, 2013)
4-43
38/42 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir
(edu.pedagogy.ch, 2013)
3-44
39/42 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir
(Shedroff, 2009)
‫ﭘﺎﯾدار‬ ‫طراﺣﯽ‬ ‫ﺗﻌرﯾف‬
Design and development that meets today’s
needs without preventing those needs from
being met by ...
4-46
k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir42/42
k_bazargan@sbu.ac.irk_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir
1391/9/1
5 kaveh.bazargan@unige.c 48
k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir
‫ﺷﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺗوﺟﮫ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﺗﺷﮑر‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬
(c)k_bazargan@usbu.ac.ir
http://ir...
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کاربرپژوهی برای بهبود مستمر کاربردپذیری و تجربه - دکتر کاوه بازرگان - همایش تجربه کاربری - تهران - مهر 1392

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کاربرپژوهی برای بهبود مستمر کاربردپذیری و تجربه کاربری
دکتر کاوه بازرگان
(از دانشگاه ژنو UNIGE و دانشگاه صنعتی لوزان EPFL)
گروه مدیریت فناوری اطلاعات / دانشکده مدیریت / دانشگاه شهید بهشتی
همایش تجربه کاربری تهران
http:/www.uxtehran.com
م 11مهر 1392، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

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کاربرپژوهی برای بهبود مستمر کاربردپذیری و تجربه - دکتر کاوه بازرگان - همایش تجربه کاربری - تهران - مهر 1392

  1. 1. ‫ﮐﺎرﺑرﭘژوھﯽ‬ ‫ﻋﻠم‬ ‫ﻣﺳﺗﻣر‬ ‫ﺑﮭﺑود‬ ‫ﺑرای‬ ‫ﮐﺎرﺑری‬ ‫ﺗﺟرﺑﮫ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﮐﺎرﺑردﭘذﯾری‬ ‫ﺑﺎزرﮔﺎن‬ ‫ﮐﺎوه‬ ‫دﮐﺗر‬ k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir )‫ژﻧو‬ ‫داﻧﺷﮕﺎه‬ ‫از‬UNIGE‫ﻟوزان‬ ‫ﺻﻧﻌﺗﯽ‬ ‫داﻧﺷﮕﺎه‬ ‫و‬EPFL( ‫ﻓﻧﺎوری‬ ‫ﻣدﯾرﯾت‬ ‫ﮔروه‬‫اطﻼﻋﺎت‬/‫ﻣدﯾرﯾت‬ ‫داﻧﺷﮑده‬/‫داﻧﺷﮕﺎه‬‫ﺷﮭﯾد‬‫ﺑﮭﺷﺗﯽ‬ ‫ﺗﮭران‬ ‫ﮐﺎرﺑری‬ ‫ﺗﺟرﺑﮫ‬ ‫ھﻣﺎﯾش‬ 11‫ﻣﮭر‬1392‫ﺑﮭﺷﺗﯽ‬ ‫ﺷﮭﯾد‬ ‫داﻧﺷﮕﺎه‬ ،
  2. 2. ‫ﻣطﺎﻟب‬ ‫ﻓﮭرﺳت‬ •‫ﺗﻌرﯾف‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻘدﻣﮫ‬‫ﮐﺎرﺑرﭘژوھﯽ‬ •‫اﯾران‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﮐﺎرﺑرﭘژوھﯽ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﯾﮕﺎه‬‫ﺟﮭﺎن‬ ‫و‬:‫ﻣطﻠوب‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣوﺟود‬ ‫وﺿﻌﯾت‬ •‫ﮐﺎرﺑرﭘژوھﯽ‬:‫آﻣﯾﺧﺗﮫ‬ ‫ھﺎی‬ ‫روش‬ ‫از‬ ‫اﺳﺗﻔﺎده‬ •‫ﮐﺎرﺑرﭘژوھﯽ‬ ‫ﺑردار‬ ‫و‬ ‫داﻣﻧﮫ‬ •‫ﭘردازش‬ ‫ﻓراﯾﻧد‬ ‫ﮔﺎﻧﮫ‬ ‫ﺳﮫ‬ ‫ﻣراﺣل‬ •‫ﮐﺎرﺑری‬ ‫ﺗﺟرﺑﮫ‬ ‫ﮔﺎﻧﮫ‬ ‫ﺳﮫ‬ ‫ﻓراﯾﻧدھﺎی‬ ‫ﭼرﺧﮫ‬ •‫ﻣﻼک‬‫ﮐﺎرﺑری‬ ‫ﺗﺟرﺑﮫ‬ ‫ﺑر‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺛﯾرﮔذار‬ ‫ھﺎی‬ •‫ﺑﻧﯾﺎدﯾن‬ ‫ﭘﯾﭼﯾدﮔﯽ‬‫ﺗﻌﺎﻣل‬ ‫ھدف‬ ‫و‬‫و‬ ‫اﻧﺳﺎن‬‫راﯾﺎﻧﮫ‬ •‫ﮐﺎرﺑرﭘژوھﯽ‬ ‫ﺑرای‬ ‫ﻣرﺟﻊ‬ ‫ﭘﯾﺷﻧﮭﺎدی‬ ‫اﻟﮕوی‬ •‫ﭘﺎﯾدار‬ ‫طراﺣﯽ‬ •‫ﮔﯾری‬ ‫ﻧﺗﯾﺟﮫ‬k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir
  3. 3. 4-3 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir (businessmodelgeneration.ir, 2013)
  4. 4. ‫ﺟﺎﯾﮕﺎه‬‫ﻧظر‬ ‫از‬ ‫اﯾران‬،‫ﺑﺳﺗر‬‫و‬ ‫ﮐﺎرﺑرد‬ ،‫زﯾرﺳﺎﺧت‬ ‫ﻓﻧﺎوری‬ ‫ﻋﻣﻠﮑرد‬‫ﺟﮭﺎن؟‬ ‫ﺳطﺢ‬ ‫در‬ ‫اطﻼﻋﺎت‬ 1/42 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir (WEF, 2013)
  5. 5. k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir ‫ﺟﺎﯾﮕﺎه‬‫ﻧظر‬ ‫از‬ ‫اﯾران‬،‫ﺑﺳﺗر‬‫و‬ ‫ﮐﺎرﺑرد‬ ،‫زﯾرﺳﺎﺧت‬ ‫ﻓﻧﺎوری‬ ‫ﻋﻣﻠﮑرد‬‫ﺟﮭﺎن؟‬ ‫ﺳطﺢ‬ ‫در‬ ‫اطﻼﻋﺎت‬ 2/42 (WEF, 2013)
  6. 6. kaveh.bazargan@pedagogy.ch L01-6 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir3/42 (WEF, 2013)
  7. 7. ‫ﺟﺎﯾﮕﺎه‬‫ﻧظر‬ ‫از‬ ‫اﯾران‬،‫ﺑﺳﺗر‬‫و‬ ‫ﮐﺎرﺑرد‬ ،‫زﯾرﺳﺎﺧت‬ ‫ﻓﻧﺎوری‬ ‫ﻋﻣﻠﮑرد‬‫ﺟﮭﺎن؟‬ ‫ﺳطﺢ‬ ‫در‬ ‫اطﻼﻋﺎت‬ k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir4/45 (WEF, 2013)
  8. 8. ‫ﺗﻌرﯾف‬‫ﮐﺎرﺑرﭘژوھﯽ‬ User research is the systematic study of the goals, needs, and capabilities of users so as to specify design, construction, or improvement of tools to benefit how users work and live. (Schumacher, 2010) k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir5/42
  9. 9. 4-9 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir6/42 (UXPA, 2013)
  10. 10. 3-10 (GartnerCEOAgendaSurvey,2012) k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir7/42
  11. 11. 4-11 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir8/42 (World Bank, 2013)
  12. 12. 4-12 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir9/42
  13. 13. 4-13 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir10/42
  14. 14. 4-14 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir11/42
  15. 15. 4-15 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir12/42
  16. 16. 4-16 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir13/42 (itc.ir, 2013)
  17. 17. 4-17 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir14/42 (itc.ir, 2013)
  18. 18. 4-18 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir15/42 (itc.ir, 2013)
  19. 19. 4-19 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir16/42 (itc.ir, 2013)
  20. 20. 4-20 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir17/42 (itc.ir, 2013)
  21. 21. 4-21 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir18/42 (itc.ir, 2013)
  22. 22. 4-22 ‫ﮐﺎرﺑرﭘژوھﯽ‬ ‫ﻧﺗﯾﺟﮫ‬:‫ﻣﻧﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﺗوﺳﻌﮫ‬ ‫ﺧدﻣت‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻧدﭘﮭن‬ ‫اﯾﻧﺗرﻧت‬ ‫ﺑﺎز‬ ‫آﻣوزﺷﯽ‬(OER) Open Educational Resources k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir19/42 (broadbandcommission.org, 2013)
  23. 23. k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir20/42 (ictkey.ir, 2013) ‫اطﻼﻋﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻧﺎوری‬ ‫ﺻﻧﻌت‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻊ‬ ‫راھﻧﻣﺎی‬:‫ﮐﺎرﺑرﭘژوھﯽ؟‬ (ictkey.ir, 2013)
  24. 24. k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir21/42 (festival.tehran.ir, 2013)
  25. 25. k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir21a/42 (festival.tehran.ir, 2013)
  26. 26. k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir22/42 ‫ﮐﺎرﺑرﭘژوھﯽ‬:‫آﻣﯾﺧﺗﮫ‬ ‫ھﺎی‬ ‫روش‬ ‫از‬ ‫اﺳﺗﻔﺎده‬ • Expert review • Depth interview • Mobile device testing • Eye tracking • Focus groups • Ethnography • Social research • Online surveys • Market insights • International research • Personas & scenarios • Experience design workshops • Ideal customer journey • Information architecture • Video games testing • Card sorting • Copywriting • Analytics and data • Multivariate testing (MVT) • Experience benchmarks • Accessibility • Research facilities • …
  27. 27. 4-27 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir22a/42
  28. 28. k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir23/42 User Research ‫داﻣﻧﮫ‬‫ﮐﺎرﺑرﭘژوھﯽ‬ User Interface / Device
  29. 29. k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir24/42 ‫ﮐﺎرﺑرﭘژوھﯽ‬ ‫ﺑردار‬ (Jääskö and Mattelmäki, 2003)
  30. 30. (Norman, 2003) ‫ﺷﻧﺎﺧﺗﯽ‬ ‫ﭘردازﺷﮕر‬ 25/42 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir
  31. 31. ‫ﺷﻧﺎﺧﺗﯽ‬ ‫ﻋﻠوم‬:‫ﭘردازش‬ ‫ﻓراﯾﻧد‬ ‫ﭼﻧدﮔﺎﻧﮫ‬ ‫ﻣراﺣل‬ k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir26/42 (Norman, 2003)
  32. 32. ‫اﺣﺷﺎﯾﯽ‬Visceral 27/42 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir (Meriam-Webster, 2013)
  33. 33. Emotions ‫ﻋواطف‬ 28/42 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir (edu.pedagogy.ch, 2013)
  34. 34. 29/42 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir ‫ﺗﺟرﺑﮫ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫راﺑطﮫ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ای‬ ‫ﻧظرﯾﮫ‬ (Forlizzi and Ford, 2000)
  35. 35. 30/42 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir ‫ﮐﺎرﺑری‬ ‫ﺗﺟرﺑﮫ‬ ‫ﮔﺎﻧﮫ‬ ‫ﺳﮫ‬ ‫ﻓراﯾﻧدھﺎی‬ ‫ﭼرﺧﮫ‬:ICE (Interaction / Construction / Evaluation) (edu.pedagogy.ch, 2013)
  36. 36. ‫ﮐﺎرﺑری‬ ‫ﺗﺟرﺑﮫ‬ ‫ﺑر‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺛﯾرﮔذار‬ ‫ھﺎی‬ ‫ﻣﻼک‬ 31/42 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir (edu.pedagogy.ch, 2013)
  37. 37. ‫راﯾﺎﻧﮫ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻧﺳﺎن‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻣل‬ ‫رﺳﺎﻟت‬ • Human Performance: measured by reducing errors, improving quality, and reducing time required to complete task. Human Task Computer Fit PerformanceEnvironment Work Work Space 32/42 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir (Engeström’s, 1999) (edu.pedagogy.ch, 2013)
  38. 38. ‫راﯾﺎﻧﮫ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻧﺳﺎن‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻣل‬ ‫ﺑﻧﯾﺎدﯾن‬ ‫ﭘﯾﭼﯾدﮔﯽ‬ • Complexity of HCI: the human resources needed for interacting with the computer to accomplish the task. 33/42 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir (edu.pedagogy.ch, 2013)
  39. 39. Gulfs of Execution and Evaluation • Gulf of execution: the gap between the user’s goal and its computerized implementation. • Gulf of evaluation: the gap between the computerized implementation of the user’s goal and its evaluation by the user. 34/42 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir (edu.pedagogy.ch, 2013)
  40. 40. Fit and Complexity • The fit between the user’s mental model of the system and the actual model of the system affects complexity, too. • The greater the fit, the easier it is to determine how to translate goals into action. • The greater the misfit, the more difficult and more erroneous is the process of bridging the execution and evaluation gulfs. 35/42 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir (edu.pedagogy.ch, 2013)
  41. 41. 4-41 36/42 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir (edu.pedagogy.ch, 2013)
  42. 42. 4-42 37/42 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir (edu.pedagogy.ch, 2013)
  43. 43. 4-43 38/42 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir (edu.pedagogy.ch, 2013)
  44. 44. 3-44 39/42 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir (Shedroff, 2009)
  45. 45. ‫ﭘﺎﯾدار‬ ‫طراﺣﯽ‬ ‫ﺗﻌرﯾف‬ Design and development that meets today’s needs without preventing those needs from being met by future generations. 4-45 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir (Shedroff, 2009)
  46. 46. 4-46 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir42/42
  47. 47. k_bazargan@sbu.ac.irk_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir
  48. 48. 1391/9/1 5 kaveh.bazargan@unige.c 48 k_bazargan@sbu.ac.ir ‫ﺷﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺗوﺟﮫ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﺗﺷﮑر‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ (c)k_bazargan@usbu.ac.ir http://ir.linkedin.com/in/kavehbazargan

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